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^XnittA SfUU» ^tnUmial d^omntiiSiSion. 



International Exhibition, 
4876. 



REPORTS AND AWARDS 



VOL. V. 



GROUPS viii-xiv: 




BDTTBD BY 

FRANCIS A. WALKER, 

CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF AWARDS. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1880. 



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GROUP VIII. 



COTTON, LINEN, AND OTHER FABRICS. 



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GIFT 

MAY 22 « 



li38ii8.M 



GROUP VIII. 



JUDGES. 



AMERICAN. 
Edward Atkinson, Boston, Mass. 
Hugh Waddell, Savannah, Ga. 
Ed. Richardson, Jackson, Miss. 
A. D. Lockwood, Providence, R. I. 
Chas. H. Wolff, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Samuel Webber, C.E., Manchester, N. H. 
Geo. O. Baker, Selma, Ala. 



FOREIGN. 

Isaac Watts, Great Britain. 

W. W. HULSE, C.E., Great Britain. 

Alvaro de LA Gandara, Spain. 

A. Goldy, Switzerland. 

Friedrich Gustav Herrmann, Ger- 
many. 

Giuseppe Dassi, Italy. 



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GROUP VI 1 1. 



COTTON, LINEN, AND OTHER FABRICS, INCLUDING THE 
MATERIALS AND THE MACHINERY. 

Class 228. — ^Wovcn fabrics of mineral origin. 

Wire cloths, sieve cloth, wire screens, bolting cloths. Asbestos fibre, spun and woven, 
with the clothing manufactured from it. Glass thread, floss and fabrics. 

Class 229.— Coarse fabrics, of grass, rattan, cocoanut, and bark. 
Mattings — Chinese, Japanese, palm-leaf, grass, and rushes. Floor cloths of rattan 
and cocoanut fibre, aloe fibre, etc. 

Class 665. — Cotton on the stem, in the boll, ginned, atxd baled. 

Class 666. — Hemp, flax, jute, ramie, etc., in primitive forms and in all stages of 
preparation for spinning. 

Class 230. — Cotton yams and fabrics, bleached and unbleached. 
Cotton sheeting and shirting, plain and twilled. 
Cotton canvas and duck. Awnings, tents. 

Class 231. — Dyed cotton fabrics, exclusive of prints and calicoes. 

Class 232. — Cotton prints and calicoes, including handkerchiefs, scarfs, etc. 

Class 233. — Linen and other vegetable fabrics, uncolored or dyed. 

Class 234. — Floor oil cloths, and other painted and enameled tissues, and imitations 
of leather with a woven base. 

Class 521. — Machines for the manufacture of cotton goods. 

Class 523. — Machines for the manufacture of linen goods. 

Class 524. — Machines for the manufacture of rope and twine, and other fibrous 
materials not elsewhere specified. 



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GENERAL REPORT 



OF THE 



JUDGES OF GROUP Vlll. 



Philadelphia, October, 1876. 
Prof. Francis A. Walker, Chief of Bureau of Awards : 

Sir. — The Judges constituting Group VIII., of which I was the 
President, having completed their labors, I have the honor to submit 
to you the following report. They were charged with the examina- 
tion of the exhibits in Classes 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 521, 
523, 524, 665, 666; and, for the more efficient performance of their 
onerous duties, the group was divided into sections, each consisting 
of three or more Judges, every section undertaking the examination 
of the exhibits in those classes with which its members were most 
familiar. 

I have the honor to be, sir, your faithful and obedient servant, 

ISAAC WATTS, Chairman. 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



GROUP VIII. 
COTTON, LINEN, AND OTHER FABRICS. 

BY ISAAC WATTS. 

CLASS 228. — Woven Fabrics of Mineral Origin. 

This class comprised woven fabrics of mineral origin. The exhbits 
were numerous and excellent, though in some of them there appeared 
room for much improvement as regards ornamentation. The wire- 
cloths, sieve-cloths, wire-screens, and bolting-cloths were, as a whole, 
highly creditable, and deserving of commendation, on account both 
of the taste and economy displayed in their production. The garden 
ornaments were graceful, and well adapted to different varieties of 
climate. The wire fabrics for manufacturing purposes comprised 
several novel improvements. Among these may be mentioned the 
wire fire-proof lath, serving as a base for ordinary mortar plastering, 
or for asbestos covering, meeting, to some extent, a much-felt want 
for the purpose of rendering buildings thoroughly fire-proof. The 
asbestos fibre and fabrics deserve special mention, as, both on ac- 
count of their variety and practical uses, they surpassed anything 
exhibited on previous occasions. For steam-packing, steam-joints, 
roofing, pipe-covering, and other purposes where excessive heat or 
fire has to be overcome, the material appeared to have been success- 
fully utilized. Wood covered with asbestos, moistened with water or 
other liquid, and hardened by exposure to the atmosphere, seems 
able to defy the action of fire; while, from its properties of toughness, 
elasticity, and non-conduction of heat, as well as on account of its 
cheapness, it appears likely to be of great utility. As a covering for 
pipes used for the transmission of water or steam, its practical value 
will attract increasing attention ; while, as a material for the produc- 
tion of non-combustible v/riting-paper, it may prove to be of consider- 
able advantage where the preservation of private or public documents 
is important. This remarkable mineral product is found extensively 
distributed over the world, and is obtained in quantities from Italy, 
Germany, Switzerland, Canada, California, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIIL 3 

Carolina, Vermont, Maine, Virginia, Texas, and others of the United 
States. 

CLASS 229. — Coarse Fabrics of Grass, Rattan, Cocoa-nut, 

AND Bark. 
The Exhibition was remarkably rich in these exhibits; and the 
display was in all respects most satisfactory. The various novel, 
economical, and useful articles of rattan deserve special notice, while 
the grasses apd barks, in fibre and fabrics, evince considerable prog- 
ress, and indicate the wonderful expansion in this direction which 
may yet be expected. In mattings, — Chinese, Japanese, palm-leaf, 
grass, and rushes; floor-cloths of rattan, cocoa-nut fibre, aloe, etc., — 
it was satisfactory to observe the thorough blending of the artistic 
and the useful. There is, however, a vast field yet to be explored in 
the collection of the different varieties of these fibres, and in the em- 
ployment of more of them in each fabric, as well as in the invention 
of machinery suitable for the purpose. This may be encouraged by 
the increased demand likely to arise for floor-cloth, mattings, etc., 
on sanitary grounds, — especially in the heated miasmatic regions of 
America and elsewhere. 

CLASS 665. — Raw Cotton, Ginned, etc. 

In this class there was scarcely any foreign competition, the cottons 
exhibited being almost entirely of American growth. Brazil, indeed, 
furnished, in small bales, some excellent specimens of tiie various 
descriptions produced in that empire, known as Pernambuco, Paraiba. 
Santos, Bahia, Maranham, and Maccio cotton. From India, two bales, 
of the usual size, of Dhollera, Hingunghijt, Oomrawuttee, Broach. 
Dhawar, Bengal, and Madras cottons were exhibited, not for compe- 
tition, but as an illustration of the mode in which the raw material 
is prepared and sent to market. From Egypt, and some other minor 
cotton-growing countries, small samples were furnished, which served 
to show their progress and capabilities; but nearly all the large com- 
mercial bales were from the Southern States of the Union. Some 
remarkably fine specimens of Sea Island cotton, grown in America, 
the Fiji Islands, Queensland, and elsewhere, excited much admiration. 
A quantity of cotton was drawn from the separate bales by expert 
samplers; and each lot, having a number attached to it, was examined, 
without the possibility of any one's knowing in what district or by 
what planter it had been grown, in order to secure a perfectly impar- 
tial decision. When the names of the successful competitors were 
disclosed, it was discovered that one of them was a colored planter. 



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4 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

This to myself was a source of special gratification, from the fact 
that I had for many years been engaged, in connection with the 
Cotton Supply Association of England, in promoting the cultiva- 
tion of cotton in the colonies and dependencies of Great Britain and 
throughout the world, by free labor, at the time when the manufac- 
turers of every country were almost entirely dependent upon slavery 
for the raw material which they required. I may also, perhaps, be 
permitted to state that I had the privilege of receiving, during the 
cotton famine in England, the first cotton (consisting of four balesi 
grown near Vicksburg by free colored labor in the then slave-holding 
States of the Union, and I could not but rejoice to meet the colored 
planter by the side of his white competitor, in amicable rivalry, and 
able to establish a claim to pre-eminence in this great branch of 
American industry. 

CLASS 666. — Hemp, Flax, Jute, Ramie, etc. 

Both in their primitive forms, and in the stages of preparation for 
spinning, the assortments were very complete, and the cultivated 
portions showed that considerable progress had been made in their 
improvement. This was especially observable in the different kinds 
of jute exhibited, of which there were several new varieties. The 
entire collection of these fibres was extremely interesting, and the 
careful examination of them justifies the conclusion that they are 
capable of much further application, and that they are likely to prove 
of great value and come into extensive use. Whether considered 
botanically or commercially they are deserving of attention, and may 
be made to answer a variety of important practical purposes. The 
rhea fibre, or China-grass, known by its Malay name of ramie, — 
the Bcehmeria mica of the botanist, — claims special attention, as 
likely to become a most valuable material for manufacturing pur- 
poses when the difficulties hitherto experienced in its preparation 
shall have been overcome. The information and samples obtained 
from China to aid the investigations of Dr. Falconer enabled him, 
and afterwards Sir William Hooker, to determine that rhea is the 
same plant as that from which Chinese grass-cloth is manufactured ; 
and, in the London Exhibition of 185 1, several specimens, in various 
stages of preparation, attracted attention and gave rise to subsequent 
experiments for utilizing the fibre. These experiments have served 
to demonstrate that its inherent qualities entitle it to take a high 
position among fibres, and that it is pre-eminent for its strength and 
lustre in comparison with others. It has been shown to be consider- 
ably stronger than either flax or hemp, and, while the fibres are as 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIII, 5 

fine as those of flax, if not finer, it has also the additional advantage 
of possessing, in a remarkable degree, a silky lustre. Jute, the only 
other fibre which can compete with it in this respect, is far inferior to 
it in strength and durability, as well as in its capability for bleaching 
and dyeing. It has been tried as a substitute for cotton, hemp, flax, 
wool, and silk. During the scarcity of cotton in England, cottonized 
rhea was spun, and the yarn woven into different fabrics, and dyed 
and printed. In some cases it was mixed with Egyptian, and in 
others with India cotton. The fabrics acquired a gloss which gave 
them the appearance of linen. Though the experiment was to a 
certain extent successful, the cost and other considerations precluded 
the possibility of its use as a substitute for cotton. It may, however, 
become a formidable rival to flax, in the finer varieties. It has also 
been successfully used as a substitute for longer-stapled wools ; and, 
since the Exhibition of 1851, many attempts have been made, both 
in England and France, to test its suitability as a substitute for silk, 
or as an admixture with it, but in this respect it has a formidable 
rival in jute, on account of its greater cheapness. The superiority of 
rhea to hemp as regards strength and resistance to water may make 
it an advantageous substitute, and it may be possible to replace 
hempen cordage by lighter rhea ones. Should the prices of the raw 
material become reduced, and the means of its preparation be im- 
proved, rhea can scarcely fail to take a high place among fibres and 
to come into more extensive use. Indeed, there hardly exists a fibre 
which, on account of its own inherent properties, can be applied to 
so many different purposes. It is capable of entering largely into 
textile manufactures, and, as compared with flax, — which possesses 
the most extended range of applications, from the roughest canvas 
and cordage to the finest lace, — rhea has a range even greater still, 
owing partly to the superlative degree in which it is endowed with 
the qualities of fineness, strength, and lustre, seldom found in the 
same perfection in any single fibre, and partly to the singular position 
which it holds between the usual vegetable and the animal fibres. 
Although a vegetable fibre, its hairiness assimilates it to wool, and its 
gloss and finejness to silk. Thus it appears that rhea is capable of 
as wide a range of applications as hemp, to which it is superior in 
almost every respect, and as flax also, with the exception perhaps of 
its use for body linen, while it is capable of certain other uses for 
which only the animal fibres, wool and silk, have hitherto been em- 
ployed. The cost of the raw material alone may be said to prevent 
its extensive introduction into manufactures. Any slight technical 
difficulties experienced in spinning and weaving which may remain 

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6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITTON, 1876 

would speedily be overcome if the price were reduced so as to make 
its use remunerative. The cultivation of the rhea plant on a large 
scale has been encouraged by the British Government in India ; and 
prizes of £$000 and ;^2000 each were offered for the production of 
machinery to facilitate its preparation for the market, in order to pro- 
mote its more extensive use for manufacturing purposes. An ex- 
tended cultivation of this valuable fibre in America will probably 
effect an increasing demand for its employment in manufactures. 

CLASSES 230, 231, 232. — Cotton Yarns and Fabrics. 

These classes comprise exhibits which show in a striking manner 
the wonderful progress made by the cotton industry- in the United 
States, and the remarkable degree of perfection which has already 
been attained, but they afford only scanty opportunities for compar- 
ison with the manufactures of other countries. The comparatively 
meagre collections sent by England and other European nations is 
chiefly attributable to the excessive protective tariffs which still find 
favor in America, and exclude foreign manufactures from her markets. 
Those who were thus precluded from the possibilities of trade found 
but little inducement to incur the trouble and expense of sending 
their goods to Philadelphia, and they therefore became conspicuous 
chiefly by their absence. On this account it was a subject of great 
regret, in which almost every European representative shared, that 
no complete comparison could be made, and that one of the most 
valuable purposes of an International Exhibition was thereby frus- 
trated. But while American textile manufacturers had the field 
almost entirely to themselves, the small collections supplied by their 
foreign competitors were sufficient to show that they have nothing 
to fear whenever they can meet on equal terms, with a fair field and 
no favor. The general excellence and, in some cases, the supe- 
riority of the display made by England and her colonies was fully 
admitted, and the fabrics sent by the various manufacturing coun- 
tries of the Continent of Europe were generally distinguished by 
qualities which placed them upon a par with the best productions of 
America. Indeed, the praises bestowed upon the few goods exhibited 
by foreign manufacturers made it a matter of regret that the number 
had not been largely increased. Canada made a remarkable display, 
— one which excited universal admiration, and which, as regards 
articles of clothing and textile fabrics of all kinds, was fully equal to 
any in the Exhibition. The American display of textile manufactures 
was extensive, varied, and important in every respect. The collection 
of fabrics produced in the numerous mills of the New England States, 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIII. 7 

New York^ New Jersey, and other parts of the Union was as com- 
plete as it well could be, and afforded a striking proof of their capa- 
bility to compete with the manufacturers of other countries, if it 
were not for the policy which, to a great extent, excludes them from 
the general markets of the world. The goods exhibited were, for 
the most part, pure, even, firm, and well manufactured. The dyed 
cotton fabrics were pre-eminent for brightness, coloring, and dura- 
bility. The bleaching, dyeing, and finishing of the various grades 
and styles of cotton cloth evinced much superiority, which is prob- 
ably, in some degree, attributable to the abundance of excellent water 
which exists throughout the States. The cotton prints and calicoes, 
and the colored and fancy goods exhibited both by American manu- 
facturers and their foreign competitors were so nearly upon an equality 
that no one could lay claim to any marked degree of superiority. 
Some bleached shirtings from England attracted attention on account 
of their special fineness and even texture, combined with softness and 
purity, while the collective exhibits from the Gladbach district, Wiir- 
temberg. and Elberfeld, in Germany, were of pre-eminent excellence. 
The striking effects produced by the Jacquard loom are deserving of 
high commendation. The beauty of the designs and the embroidery 
in handkerchiefs, scarfs, etc., were deservedly much admired. The 
whole of these classes were conspicuous for exquisite workmanship, 
elegance of design, and harmonious blending of colors. On the part 
of every country much versatility of taste and skill was displayed. 
There was nothing gaudy, or that could offend the most fastidious or 
critical observer. The spirited and amicable contest for supremacy 
into which all nations more or less entered in the Centennial Exhi- 
bition, proves the remarkable progress which has been made in the 
course of the past century, and affords a powerful stimulus to further 
enterprise and exertion. 

CLASS 233. — Linen and other Vegetable Fabrics. 

The linen fabrics constituting this class were varied and extensive, 
and were remarkable for their superior fineness and quality. The 
Irish manufacturers may justly be said to have taken the lead ; those 
of Scotland were but little behind, while Dresden, Wiirtemberg, Bel- 
gium, the Netherlands. Austria, Italy, Sweden, and Norway all pre- 
sented a very creditable display. The American exhibitors in this 
class were not numerous, nor did they offer so great a variety as their 
foreign competitors. These fabrics were of general excellence and 
utility, and some were remarkable for the superior taste manifested in 
the coloring. Some of the printed lawns, brocades, and embroidered 

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8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

linens displayed much novelty and elegance of design. The damasks 
of Dresden and the embroidered linens in the collective exhibit of 
Wiirtemberg were deserving of special mention. If pre-eminence 
may be claimed by the manufacturers of Ireland, it is only in such a 
degree as to extinguish envy and excite emulation. All the com- 
peting countries in this class are entitled to commendation, and may 
be congratulated on the progress already made, and the promise thus 
afforded of still further excellence. 

CLASSES 234, 521, 523, 524. 

On these classes the following statement has been furnished by 
Mr. William W. Hulse, a member of the group: 

"The Chairman of Group VIII. has desired me to send a compar- 
ative report on the machinery, as an addendum to his own report. 
But, really, it is not practicable to form a judgment based on com- 
parison, for lack of means, there being in no instance a complete set 
of textile machinery exhibited from any nation. The only exhibit 
which approached completeness was in the United States department, 
and it was not worked, but kept idle. If I might venture on giving 
some opinions which I formed, of an abstract character, I would say 
that, as regards extent of invention and ingenuity of (Retail, the United 
States were far ahead, for there was scarcely an exhibitor who had not 
some novel features to claim. For consummate invention and arrange- 
ment of mechanism — based, no doubt, on an older experience — the 
palm was, in my judgment, earned for Great Britain. I attributed the 
extent of ingenuity and invention manifested everywhere in the ma- 
chinery department of the United States to the fostering, stimulating, 
and admirable patent-law system. As regards quality of construction, 
utility, and fitness for the purpose intended, I formed the opinion that 
the cotton-gin and the calico-printing machinery, and the machinery 
and tie-in warps from Yorkshire, were the most solid and best ex- 
amples. The cotton-spool machinery of Conant; the calico dyeing 
machinery by Butterworth ; spinning and weaving machinery by 
Draper, Lord, & Co., Kitson, Lyall, Thomas, Crompton, Knowles, and 
others ; and the tentering machinery by Palmer, — all of the United 
States, — followed very closely upon the best examples from Great 
Britain. 

"The other class upon which I had to form a judgment, in con- 
nection with my co-Judges in textile machinery, was that of oil- 
cloths. In this class I had no hesitation in assigning the first place 
to the United States, for great variety, beauty of design, richness of 
colors, and quality of texture in oil floor-cloths, table-cloths, car- 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIIL g 

riage-cloths, and fancy cloths for upholstery; the best exhibit, in my 
opinion, being that of Messrs. Potter, Sons, & Co. For design and 
finish, durability of fabric and colors, and flexibility of oil floor-cloths 
of extraordinary size and area, the best example in the Exhibition 
(being fifteen yards long by eight yards wide, in one web) was exhibited 
by Messrs. Nairne & Co., of Scotland, Great Britain. In other floor- 
cloths, the Boulinikon, from England, and the American Linoleum 
floor-cloth were both excellent in quality, design, colors, durability, 
and strength, and for warmth to the feet were unsurpassed. It has 
been my misfortune, in making this report, not to have the assistance 
at hand of my excellent co-Judges, Messrs. Webber and Lockwood 
and Professor Hermann, of Germany, on machinery, and Messrs. 
Waddell and Baker on floor-cloths, etc. I should be very sorry if 
my opinion, thus expressed, should in any way differ from theirs; 
but, so far as I could gather at the time, I am inclined to think it does 
not.** 

AMERICAN COTTON AND COTTON MANUFACTURES. 

BY EDWARD ATKINSON. 

The report of the Chairman of Group VIII. gives a sufficient state- 
ment of the details of the results reached by the Judges of that group; 
but it may, perhaps, be well for the Secretary to make a more general 
report upon one of the principal subjects of which the Judges were 
called upon to take cognizance, to wit, the cotton production and 
cotton manufacture of the United States. 

The commanding position of the United States in respect to the 
production of cotton has long been admitted; but it seems probable 
that even few of the manufacturers themselves have been fully aware 
of the strong position in which the cotton manufacture of the United 
States now stands in relation to other countries. 

The subject of the production of cotton opens so wide a field that 
it is hard to know where to begin or end. There is no other product 
which has had so potent an influence upon the history and institutions 
of the land, and perhaps no other on which its future material welfare 
may more depend. When the Spaniards first entered Mexico, the 
natives were found to be clothed in cotton, and the art of weaving 
and dyeing had been carried to a high state of perfection for that time 
among them. Then, as now, the best and most prolific varieties of 
the cotton-plant existed there, and the plant is doubtless indigenous 
to Mexico. 

In the United States, a century ago, it was scarcely known as an 

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10 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

important production, and not until the invention of the saw-gin by 
Eli Whitney, in 1792, did it become so. To-day the United States 
furnish nearly three-fourths the quantity consumed in their own limits, 
in Canada, and in Europe combined. There are no data by which 
the quantity produced and consumed elsewhere can be accurately de- 
termined. It may therefore be a matter of interest to state and record, 
in this report, the work that we have accomplished, and to forecast the 
work we may yet have to do. 

Among the three fibres — wool, flax, and cotton — which constitute 
the principal materials for clothing, cotton is the most important; 
because it is ready for treatment by machinery as soon as it is 
gathered, because its conversion into cloth is least costly, and be- 
cause its use for clothing is most conducive to health, in respect to 
the largest portion of the population of the world. 

In the cotton-factories of Europe and the United States there are 
a little over sixty-eight million spindles, worked by about one million 
men, women, and children. In the operation of these spindles a little 
more than six million bales of cotton, of the average weight of Amer- 
ican bales, are annually converted into ten thousand million yards of 
cloth, averaging one yard wide and four yards to the pound, or ten 
pounds to a piece of forty yards, or into the equivalent of such cloth 
in other fabrics. This quantity of cloth would furnish five hundred 
million persons twenty yards each, annually. Of the six million bales 
of cotton, the United States now furnish about four and a half millions 
in each year ; and our proportion is, year by year, increasing. The 
last eight crops raised by the labor of freemen exceed the last eight 
crops raised, before our civil war, mainly by the labor of slaves, in the 
number of more than fifteen hundred thousand bales. If. then, it be a 
service to men to provide for them the largest quantity of the material 
that best serves their need for clothing, in this one respect our rank is 
assured. Then let us mark the extent to which we have yet trenched 
upon our resources. In this production less than two percent, of the 
area of the cotton States is yet used. What we may yet accomplish 
may be better realized by considering the condition of a single State. 
We will select Texas, as being the State now making the most rapid 
progress in population, production, and wealth. Few persons can 
realize the facts in regard to this great State, except by comparison. 
In area it exceeds the German Empire by about sixty thousand square 
miles. It has the capacity to produce almost all the products of the 
temperate zone. It is underlaid with coal. But, in respect to cotton, 
on less than one-half of one per cent, of its area it last year produced 
one-half of all the cotton consumed in the United States ; and four 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIIL n 

per cent of its area would be capable of producing all the cotton now 
consumed in Europe and the United States — over six million bales. 

Under what conditions is this work now accomplished, or yet to 
be done ? No longer by the forced labor of the slave upon the plan- 
tation, but by the labor of freemen, and mostly of freeholders on the 
farm. In most of the States where it is now grown cotton consti- 
tutes the salable or money crop of the farmer, who, in other respects, 
is becoming entirely independent as to his subsistence, raising food 
and meat to a greater extent than ever before. The Southern farmer 
still finds in cotton the means wherewith to furnish himself with 
money for other purchases. Cotton, therefore, being more and more 
the surplus crop or profit of the farmer, as distinguished from the 
planter, it becomes more difficult to determine its cost, its annual 
quantity until each year's crop has been delivered, or the prices at 
which its production will be checked. In answer to a very extended 
inquiry lately made by the writer, he has received estimates of the 
cost of production, ranging from six to fifteen cents per pound ; the 
latter cost, however, having been given by one who, on twelve hun- 
dred acres of land, made only four bales of cotton the previous year. 
The general range of the estimates of cost were from six to ten cents. 
One answer to the question of cost was most significant. One said, 
" I have a nephew, twenty years of age, who, without the least detri- 
ment to his" schooling, and working Saturdays, produced four bales of 
cotton." It may be asked. What did this lad's cotton cost to produce? 

According to these returns, this Centennial year is also marked by 
greater improvements than ever before in the selection of seed, in the 
improvement of tools, in the use of fertilizers, and in the average 
crop per acre ; positive evidence having been given of the production 
of two thousand five hundred pounds of lint or clean cotton on a 
single measured acre in Georgia. It was not claimed that this had 
been, or could be, profitable ; but it is significant of the experiments 
that are being tried in many places. The average estimates of profit- 
able work range from four hundred to one thousand pounds of lint, 
or clean cotton, per acre, according to the quality of the soil and the 
kind of work done. 

The last ten years have also witnessed the conversion of the seed 
of the cotton-plant into many useful articles but little known before. 

The future production of cotton in the United States, and the time 
within which our staple will take the place of all inferior grades is. 
therefore, only a question of numbers and intelligence. In respect to 
intelligence, it is not to be questioned that the planter of old time had 
far more skill than many of the farmers of the present time ; but the 



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12 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONy 1876. 

system of labor to which that skill was applied imposed conditions 
that could not be surmounted, and enforced the use of tools and 
methods unfit for the purpose. These methods may have assured 
prosperity to the few at the cost of the many ; but it was the high 
price, and not the low price, of cotton, that limited the extension of 
the crop. Twenty years since, every bale that could be made by the 
force then upon the cotton-field was needed ; and, under the steadily 
advancing price, the cost of opening new fields as steadily increased, 
until, in i860, it cost fifty per cent, more to buy and stock a cotton 
plantation to raise the cotton for a given factory than it did to build 
the mill and fill it with machinery. All this has changed ; and, in the 
five years last passed, more than a million persons have migrated to 
the fertile lands of Texas; and the independent freeholder will only 
be prevented from making more and more cotton each year by the 
low price, and not by the high price, it may bring. That no such 
check is very near may presently be made apparent. 

In regard to the exhibit of raw cotton, the Exhibition was marked 
by a collection of commercial bales of every variety of cotton cus- 
tomarily sold in Europe, collected by Messrs. Claghorn, Herring, & 
Co., of Philadelphia, and said to have been the best collection ever 
made. It has been sold to the Dutch authorities, and is to constitute 
a part of an international exhibition of the products of the soil about 
to be opened in Amsterdam. • 

The exhibit of American cotton was limited in quantity, but was 
of the finest quality. Every bale was of the highest grade ; but, as 
it appeared to be the desire of the contributors that the selection 
should be a very rigid one, it was made by rejecting one bale after 
another, until there remained but three, among which the Judges 
could make no discrimination, and for which they made three awards. 
When the key was opened that disclosed the name and status of the 
contributors, it was found, to the equal satisfaction of all the Judges, 
whether from the North or South or from abroad, that one of the 
diplomas had been gained by a freedman, — one whose farm, formerly 
known as the Joe Davis Plantation, in Mississippi, now proves that 
the production of cotton no longer depends on slavery for its abun- 
dance or its quality; while another was gained by a Vermont farmer 
who moved to Louisiana since the war ended. 

In one respect, great improvement is needed where little has yet 
been made. The separation of the lint from the seed is the process 
that should be most fitly accomplished, but which is now most rudely 
done. The best saw-gin, of the usual construction, unless most care- 
fully attended, tears, breaks, doubles, and otherwise injures the staple, 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIII. 



13 



and but a small proportion of the cotton now made is delivered to the 
spinner in the best condition. Two new cotton-gins were exhibited 
at Philadelphia, which promise excellent results, — the roller-gin, made 
by Messrs. Piatt Bros. & Co., of England, and the needle-point-gin made 
by the Messrs. Remington, of Ilion, New York. If these machines can 
be made to produce quantity in ratio to the quality of the staple which 
they deliver, their wide introduction cannot be long delayed. 

The method of packing, covering, and handling cotton in the 
United States is now unfit in the extreme ; and, as the competition 
becomes greater with declining prices, it is to be hoped and expected 
that better methods will be adopted. At present, it is alleged that it 
is not profitable to attempt better methods ; but the time cannot be 
far distant \yhen the bale of cotton will be as carefully prepared and 
protected as the bale of cotton fabrics. 

In respect to the supply of cotton fabrics, this pountry fills as yet 
but a subordinate position, except as to its own inhabitants. Its rela- 
tion to other countries will appear from the following table, taken 
mainly from the annual statement of 1875-76 of Messrs. Ellison & Co., 
of Liverpool : 



Spindles 

PER 1000 OP 
Popt'l^TION. 



318 
1180 
133 
108 
3X 
675 

40 
148 



:i 



Countries. 



United States 

Great Britain 

France , 

Germany , 

Ru<isia and Poland... 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Austria 

Belgium 

Italy , 

Norway and Sweden 
Holland 



Spindles. 



,600,000 
,000,000 
,000,000 
,650,000 
,500,000 
,850,000 
,750,000 
,580,000 
800,000 
800,000 
300,000 
330,000 



68,060,000 



Cotton per 
Spindle. 



63 lbs. 
33H" 

43 

55 " 

60 " 

25 " 

46 - 

67 " 

50 " 

65 " 
60 " 



Estimated 
Amount op Con- 
sumption. 



600,000,000 
1,297,000,000 



1,009,000,000 



3,906,000,000 



Spindles, 68,060,000 ; pounds, 2,906,000,000: equal to a little more 
than six million bales of cotton of the average weight of American 
bales. 

From this table it appears that the United States have a little more 
than fourteen per cent, of the spindles, and consume a little more than 
twenty per cent, of the cotton. About ninety-three per cent, of the 
production of the spindles of the United States is used at home, and 
about seven per cent, is now exported. On the other hand, only 
fifteen per cent, of the production of cotton fabrics of Great Britain is 
used at home, and eighty-five per cent, is exported. As to the other 

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14 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

countries named, it is probable that only two — Switzerland and Bel- 
gium — produce more cotton fabrics than they consume; the rest 
import more than they export. 

It thus appears that the world is served to a far greater extent by 
Great Britain than by the United States in the matter of cotton manu- 
factures. Yet, without trenching upon her proportion, the open field 
is yet vast. If we deduct the consumption of cotton fabrics of the 
people of the United States, the quantity of cotton consumed by the 
nations named in the table would furnish four hundred millions of 
people with twenty yards each of an average fabric thirty-six inches 
wide and four yards to the pound, or five pounds of the equivalent of 
such fabric in other varieties. It should be remembered that the cloth- 
ing of the nations outside of Europe itself, which are thus supplied 
with five pounds, or twenty yards per head, mainly consists of cotton. 
How small this quantity is will appear by comparison with the use of 
cotton in the United States, where clothing mainly consists of other 
fabrics. Our consumption is of heavier fabrics, on the average ; but, 
for the purpose of comparison, may be stated at twelve to thirteen 
pounds per head. 

A further analysis will make it very clear that the demand for 
cotton fabrics may be almost indefinitely extended. For the purpose 
of this analysis, the case will be stated in round numbers, omitting 
small fractions. 

The manufacture of cotton in the United States is equal to a little 
over thirteen pounds per head of the population, of which a little less 
than one pound is exported, leaving for home consumption twelve 
pounds per capita. 

The cotton manufactures of Great Britain retained for home con- 
sumption, according to the annual statement compiled from the tables 
of the Board of Trade, are equal to only six pounds 'of cotton per 
head ; but all the goods exported are much more loaded with sizing 
than those retained for home use. It is probable that a larger propor- 
tion of pure cotton is retained than is indicated by the tables. 

The consumption of cotton in the countries on the Continent of 
Europe named in the preceding table is equal to about three and a 
quarter pounds per head, including the population of Russia, or four 
and one-third pounds per head, excluding Russia. But the Continent 
of Europe takes from Great Britain one-fourth part of all her exports, 
equal to one pound per head additional ; making a consumption of 
about four and a quarter pounds per head, including Russia, or five 
and one-fourth pounds per head, excluding Russia. 

The other three-fourths of the exports from Great Britain form, or 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VI IL 15 

are substantially equal to, the whole supply of cotton goods, made by 
European machinery, now consumed in Asia, Africa, South America, 
Mexico, Central America, and Australia, — continents and countries 
said to contain from eight hundred millions to one billion population. 
We have seen that the United States consume twelve pounds per 
head ; Great Britain, six pounds per head, and probably more ; Europe, 
exclusive of Russia, about five and one-fourth pounds per head ; and 
these countries use cotton only as subsidiary to other fabrics, while 
the continents yet remaining to be considered use cotton more than 
any other fabric. What is their supply ? 

The consumption of cotton on the spindles of Great Britain is, in 

pounds 1,297,000,000 

Less for home use 197,000,000) 

Less export to Continent of Europe, about . . 300,000,000 j 497»ooo,ooo 

Exported to other countries from Great Britain .... 800,000,000 
Exported to other countries from United States .... 40,000,000 

At the rate of five pounds per head, or twenty yards of light sheet- 
ing thirty-six inches wide, or fifteen yards of drilling at thirty inches 
wide, for the full dress of each person, supplied for one year, this 
quantity of cotton would furnish only one hundred and sixty-eight 
million people, or only seventeen per cent, of the population of the 
continents and countries named. On the average, the export of 
cotton fabrics from Europe and the United States to Asia, Africa, 
South and Central America, Mexico, and Australia is less than one 
pound of cotton per head of population. It follows that only one-fifth 
part of the population of these continents or countries is yet supplied 
with an average quantity of machine-made cotton fabrics required for 
a moderate annual consumption. 

Cotton fabrics constitute the largest single item of the exports of 
Great Britain, and the increase of this export is no longer a question 
of the first cost of making the cloth. The fabric made upon modern 
machinery will inevitably displace the hand-spun and hand-woven 
fabric of Asia and Africa, if it can be placed alongside at a low cost 
for transportation. In this may we not find one of the lessons yet to 
be learned by us ? May it not be our policy to promote the carry- 
ing of our goods to distant lands, by the repeal of all acts restrict- 
ing navigation and the exemption of ships from local and national 
taxation ? 

Tbe paramount advantage of Great Britain over the United States 
i*^ the export of cotton hhncs may not be in the cost of manufacture, 
^"^ rate of interest, /n su^tnor skill, or other advantage affecting the 
^''^t cost. Our 'advantage in proximity to the cotton-field of the 

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1 6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 2876. 

South, the wheat-field of the West, and the pastures of the South- 
west, may more than* counterbalance any disparity, if any exists, in 
these respects; but, in her vast merchant marine, unrestricted by 
statute, exempted from taxation, and promoted only by fair payments 
for service rendered in carrying mails, and in her thoroughly organ- 
ized and permanent consular service. Great Britain possesses advan- 
tages over us which can never be surmounted except by adopting the 
same course which has given her this present supremacy. 

Leaving to our competitors the share in the supply of the world's 
need of cotton goods which they have already secured, there yet re- 
main, outside of Europe and the United States, — in Asia, Africa, and 
South America, — from four to eight hundred million people whose 
clothing consists mainly of cotton cloth. It must be spun and woven 
by the slow process of hand-work. Can we obtain our share in this 
unworked field ? Four hundred million persons, at five pounds per 
head, would require from our Southern States four million additional 
bales of cotton, and would call for forty millions more cotton spindles 
in Europe or America to work them up. Who will raise this cotton, 
and where shall these spindles be constructed ? 

The empire of China is said to contain about four hundred million 
people, who are mainly clothed in cotton. The entire export of cotton 
cloth from England and the United States would supply only twenty- 
five to thirty millions with five pounds, or twenty yards each, if the 
whole supply was used for clothing. A large part of the American 
goods are used for the boat-sails and awnings of the immense river 
population, and not for clothing. 

It thus appears that the cotton fabrics made upon the spindles of 
Europe and the United States have as yet been substituted for only a 
small portion of the hand-made goods of Asia and Africa, and have 
as yet served but a small proportion of the probable demand of South 
and Central America, the West Indies, and Australia. 

That this demand will vastly increase with the low prices of cotton 
and the constantly decreasing cost of manufacturing, cannot be 
doubted. Hence the South has little need to fear the want of a 
market for all the cotton she can produce for many years to come, — 
nor can it be doubted that the North will contest with England the 
privilege of serving the increasing need of other nations. It may, 
therefore, be permitted the Secretary of Group VIII. to consider, 
from the American stand-point, the conditions under which we enter 
into friendly rivalry with Great Britain in this branch of industry. It 
is assumed that the principal seat of cotton-spinning in the United 
States will, for many years, remain in New England, because her 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIII. 17 

more dense population and the training of .the people in the necessaiy 
arts assure it. 

In respect to cotton, we are nearer the cotton-field, and therefore 
have an advantage over Great Britain. In regard to power, our water- 
power has doubtless been an advantage, but with the improvements 
in the use of steam that advantage may be disappearing. But in 
regard to the use of steam, the cost of* fuel is steadily advancing in 
Europe and declining here. In the food of the operatives, we have 
the advantage. In the cost of iron, steel, and copper, we are at least 
even. In leather, lumber, oil, and starch, we have an advantage. On 
the whole, our advantages are such that, so far as the rates of wages 
affect the cost of production, we can afford to pay higher wages, 
and yet produce cotton cloth at a lower cost. The quality of our 
goods may not here be treated in comparison with those of other 
nations, but reference may be had to the report of the Chairman of 
Group VIII., Mr. Isaac Watts, of Manchester, England, upon that 
point. In only one respect has our principal competitor, England, a 
great advantage over us, and that is in her better system of raising the 
municipal revenues and in the absence of restrictions upon commerce, — 
machinery and ships being exempt from taxation. 

Thus far we have treated the question in its larger elements. Let 
' us now consider it in its least terms, and witness what marks the 
progress of the century just ended. 

I have assumed a yard-wide fabric, of rather poor quality, as the 
unit of manufacture. It would not represent the average . quality 
called for in our own land, but would be a fair example of the average 
fabric exported from Europe. If made honestly, and not loaded with 
other substances than cotton, its cost in this country or in Great 
Britain, with cotton at its present price of twelve and a half cents a 
pound, would be not far from six cents a square yard ; and the margin 
between the good mill and the poor one, or between one country and 
another, would not exceed half a cent per square yard. Commerce 
now depends on the smallest fractions. 

Cotton fabrics are gauged by the number of the yarn of which 

they are made, and the number means the number of skeins of eight 

hundred and forty yards each contained in one pound avoirdupois. 

We may omit all consideration of numbers of yarn coarser than No- 

13, or finer than No. 40, as the greater part of the cotton manufacture 

of Europe and America lies within these limits. A yard of No. 13 

yarn weighs six hundred and forty-one thousandths of a grain ; of No. 

40, two hundred and eight thousandths of a grain. The question of 

supremacy in the variety and cost of fabrics between Europe and 
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1 8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

* 

America, therefore, lies within the limit of less than half a grain on 
the yard of the yarn that must first be spun and then woven. As 
to the cost, the competition is chiefly confined to plain or twilled 
fabrics and printed goods. In the cost of manufacture, the competi- 
tion on coarse goods is within the limit of half a cent a yard, and on 
fine goods within a cent or a cent and a quarter a yard ; in printing 
common calicoes, within the limit of half a cent a yard. These small 
fractions represent the maximum of difference in the cost of labor and 
supplies in a well- or ill-managed mill, or between this country and 
Great Britain. It is not intended to admit that there is even so great, 
or any difference, only that these figures represent the greatest differ- 
ence ever alleged. On the other hand, as we have said, a part, or the 
whole even, of the difference in cost of labor and supplies, if it exists, 
would.be offset by our proximity to the cotton-field. 

A marked feature in this branch of industry is in the few persons 
employed. In the United States the whole number of operatives in 
all the cotton-factories, bleacheries, and print-works does not exceed 
one hundred and fifty to two hundred thousand. A hundred years 
ago the slow and arduous labor of almost every woman was needed, 
in order to clothe her family, to be applied to the single spindle, now 
only seen upon the spinning-wheel that forms one of the curious 
ornaments of the parlors of those who are fond of old relics. This 
single spindle gave scanty material for the hand-loom, as slowly oper- 
ated by some other member of the family or by a neighbor. Now, 
one woman clothes more than a thousand others, and in many ways 
lives herself more fitly and comfortably. 



TEXTILE MACHINERY. 

BY SAMUEL WEBBER. 

It is somewhat difficult to make any report on the textile machinery 
of the Exhibition, applicable to flax and cotton, which shall attempt 
any international comparison, from the fact that Great Britain was the 
only country, except the United States, which made any attempt at 
an exhibition of such machinery, and her collection was so small and 
so different in character from the American exhibit that no comparison 
can be drawn. 

Commencing with the British division, the first object of note was 
the roller-gin, for long-stapled cotton, as modified from the McCarthy 
patent by Messrs. Piatt, of Oldham, and now adapted to the green- 
seed cotton, our common variety, which was a very well-built and 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIIL iq 

smoothly-working machine, doing a moderate amount of work, with- 
out injury to the staple. 

The card, drawing-frame, and intermediate roving-frame of Messrs. 
Howard & Bullough, of Accrington, contained the only really new 
principle in this department, in the application of electricity to the 
" stof>-motion,'* rendering it almost instantaneous, and of great value 
on the roving-frame, from the fact that " singles," technically so called, 
caused by the breaking of one of the rovings at the rollers, are almost 
entirely obviated. 

The calico-printing machine and engravers* milling-machine, from 
Gadd, of Manchester, were beautiful specimens of strong, simple 
workmanship, well adapted to their intended purpose. 

The warp-tying machine of Messrs. Greenwood & Batley, of York- 
shire, was very ingenious, but at the same time necessarily compli- 
cated ; and it remains to be proved whether its economical advantages 
or practical utility are equal to the ingenuity displayed. 

The exhibits of flax and jute machinery, from Messrs. Fairbairn & 
Co. and Lawson & Sons., of Leeds, were fair samples of staple English 
machinery, massive and strong, well adapted to their purpose, but 
possessing no particular novelty of invention. 

The American department was more particularly niarked by various 
novelties than the British, though sadly deficient as a whole in com- 
pleteness, there being no complete set of cotton machinery exhibited, 
although many of the separate machines were there from different 
makers. 

There were several gins for short-staple cotton, exhibited among 
the agricultural implements, all seeming to be well made, and capable 
of performing a large amount of work, and doing it well. 

The cotton-opener of Kitson, of Lowell, Massachusetts, was a de- 
parture from the standard practice of late years, in the addition of a 
spiked cylinder or " rake," to tear open the hard mats of cotton from 
the bale before subjecting them to the blows of the beater, thus ren- 
dering the beater more effective in removing the seeds and dirt, and 
at the same time saving power, and preventing injury to the staple. 

The underflat card of Messrs. Foss & Pevey, of Lowell, was another 
decided novelty, aiming to do the work of double carding on a single 
machine, thus saving half the floor space in the room, and one-third 
of the power used by the double system. The machine promises 
well, and is being thoroughly tried, practically, in some of the mills 
in Lowell and other places. 

The system of cotton machinery (unfortunately not in operation) 
shown by the Saco (Maine) Water- Power Machine-Shop approached 

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20 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

more nearly to completeness than any other exhibit of the kind, — con- 
taining drawing-frame, slubber, intermediate, and fine roving- frames, 
and a self-acting mule of the ** Parr-Curtis" pattern. For accuracy of 
workmanship, proportion of parts, excellence of finish, and practical 
utility it left nothing to be desired, and contained also various in- 
genious improvements. It may be considered, as a whole, the best 
exhibit of textile machinery from a mechanical point of view. 

A set of roving- frames, slubber, intermediate, and fine, was also 
exhibited, in operation, by the Providence (Rhode Island) Machine 
Company, and fully maintained the reputation of its makers for ease 
and accuracy of operation, and economy of power at a high speed. 

The combined " fly-frame'* and " speeder'* of Messrs. Mayer & Chat- 
terton, built by Fales, Jenks, & Co., of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, was 
another noticeable exhibit, showing great ingenuity of combination, 
and possessing the most valuable points of the original machines 
from which it was derived. 

Light and ingenious steel " speeder-flyers" of a new form, possess- 
ing great strength, as well as lightness, were exhibited by I. V. Smith, 
of Manchester, New Hampshire. These have given great satisfaction 
in mills where they have been tested. 

Messrs. Eaton & Ayer, of Nashua, New Hampshire, exhibited a 
large variety of spools, bobbins, and shuttles, with several ingenious 
and useful improvements. 

Messrs. George Draper & Sons, of Hopedale, Massachusetts, contrib- 
uted their double-adjustable spinning-rings and loom-temples, from the 
Dutcher Temple Company ; a ring spinning-frame, with the Sawyer 
spindle ; a twister, with a spindle on the same principle ; a spooler, 
with the " Wade" bobbin-holder ; and a warper, with a combination 
of stop-motions. Their rings and temples are well known in the 
American cotton-mills, the Messrs. Draper having supplied nearly if 
not quite all the temples used in the United States for many years ; 
and the Sawyer spindle, which recent trials have shown to be capable 
of producing more yarn in the same time than the ordinary form of 
ring-spindle, with a saving in addition of the power consumed, may 
be safely classed as an invention of great merit and utility. The 
Wade bobbin-holder is also coming rapidly into use, and giving entire 
satisfaction wherever introduced. The warper is being practically 
tested in various places. As a whole, the exhibit of the Messrs. Draper 
shows a great number of novelties of invention. 

The Lewiston Machine-Shop, of Lewiston, Maine, exhibited a 
warper of excellent construction, thorough finish, and skillful arrange- 
ment, which is in use, and highly commended, in a large number of 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIIL 2 1 

the best mills in the United States. They also showed several looms 
of the Thomas patent, weaving a variety of fabrics, and a very superior 
loom making seamless bags. These machines may all be highly com- 
mended for adaptability to purpose and excellence of construction. 

The looms of Crompton, Knowles, and Wood were all worthy of 
notice. The original and well-known Crompton loom has been modi- 
fied and improved from time to time by successive inventions until it 
covers a wide range of figured or fancy-woven fabrics, and is a thor- 
oughly well-built, trustworthy, and adaptable machine. 

The Lyall Positive-Motion Loom is a comparatively new and de- 
cidedly valuable invention, of great scope and usefulness, as was shown 
by the two looms, side by side, one weaving wide-jute canvas for floor 
oil-cloths, and the other, with the application of the Jacquard harness 
motion, producing eight corsets at once, from as many continuous 
warps. Besides these, other looms of the same principle were weaving 
sheetings and seamless bags. Taken as a whole this collection was 
one of the remarkable features of the Exhibition. 

Messrs. Butter worth, of Philadelphia, exhibited well-made and 
ingenious drying machinery for bleached, dyed, or printed fabrics. 

Messrs. Palmer & Kendall, of Middletown, Connecticut, showed a 
drying and tentering machine for such fabrics as ginghams, muslins, 
mosquito-nettings, etc., which require to have the weft threads held 
firmly and squarely at right angles to the warp while being finished. 
This machine was very ingenious and well made, and is deserving of 
notice. 

The twine- and thread-twisting-machines exhibited by Avery, of 
Worcester, Massachusetts, are also worthy of notice ; the invention is 
an English one. 

A very high rank in the scale of mechanical ingenuity must be 
accorded to the spool-winding and ticketing machines, both automatic, 
exhibited by the Willimantic Company. While the original concep- 
tion of these machines is undoubtedly due to Hezekiah Conant, who 
does not appear as an exhibitor, the experiments were made and the 
machines perfected in the shops and at the expense of the Willimantic 
Company, who hold the patents, and they were properly exhibited by 
them. Duplicates of the same machines were shown in the British 
section, in the exhibit of Messrs. J. & P. Coats ; but as it was clearly 
shown to the Judges that the machines were built in America, and 
had never been out of the country, they were precluded from taking 
any notice of them, although Mr. Conant, the originator of them, 
formerly in the employment of the Willimantic Company, is now con- 
nected with the Messrs. Coats, in the management of the Conant 

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22 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Thread Company, at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, from which place the 
machines were sent. The Willimantic Company also exhibited a ring 
spinning-frame in operation on No. 160 yarn, at a speed of seven 
thousand five hundred revolutions of the spindle per minute. This 
frame was built by the Lowell Machine-Shop, and was fillfed, on one 
side, by spindles of the Sawyer patent, and on the other by a spindle 
which was a combination of the Sawyer and the Pearl. It has not 
been deemed practicable heretofore to spin such fine numbers on any 
machine but the mule. Specimens of their product in all its stages 
were exhibited; and the excellence of their thread is a sufficient 
comment on the perfection of their processes and machinery. 

Another automatic spool-winding machine, which attracted much 
attention, was exhibited by the Clark Thread Company, of Newark. 
New Jersey, but it was an English invention, dating back some ten 
years. 

The Messrs. Hope, of Providence, Rhode Island, exhibited panto- 
graph engraving machines for calico-printers, of excellent construc- 
tion. These machines are well known and in general use in the 
print-works in the United States. 

This completes the list of the more noticeable machines exhibited. 
The rapid growth and great extension of the cotton manufacture in 
the United States, now employing nearly ten million spindles, com- 
bined with the high cost of manual labor, has caused a vast amount 
of ingenuity to be devoted to the construction of labor-saving machi- 
nery, and we regret that a more full exhibit of our cotton machinery 
was not made, and one or more complete systems shown in operation. 

The same causes, combined with the former high prices of the 
metals used in construction, to a great extent, have led to the adoption 
of lighter forms of machines than are generally used in England, and 
the English Judges were at first disposed to find a want of strength 
in machines which the Americans have found to be amply sufficient 
for their purpose. 

The improvements made in cotton-spinning in the United States 
were well illustrated by a comparison of the old water-twist frame, 
built by Samuel Slater, after Ark Wright's original model, and exhib- 
ited by the Providence Machine Company, with the ** Sawyer-spindle" 
ring frame, shown by the Messrs. Draper, or the Lowell Machine- 
Shop frame of the Willimantic Company. 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIIL 23 

LINENS. 

BY SAMUEL WEBBER. 

The cultivation and fabrication of flax are among the oldest indus- 
tries of which we have any record; and the mummy-cloths of Eg}'pt, 
and the various references to fine linen in the Hebrew Scriptures, bear 
evidence to the very great antiquity of this manufacture. 

Nearly all the countries of Europe sent linens, in some form or 
another, to the Centennial Exhibition, while, owing to the national 
interest in and extensive use of cotton, the United States made but 
a very meagre display, and that partially manufactured from im- 
ported flax. 

By far the largest and best proportion of the flax fabrics came from 
Great Britain, and the collection shown by Messrs. John S. Brown & 
Sons, of Belfast, Ireland, may be considered as, on the whole, the lead- 
ing exhibit, consisting of table-linen, diapers, sheetings, shirtings, 
handkerchiefs, lawns, and yarns of great fineness and evenness, and 
of especial beauty of design and skill in weaving in the damask table- 
linen. 

With a less full assortment, but of almost the same class, Messrs. 
Richardson, Sons, & Owden. of Belfast, presented equally beautiful 
table damask and fronting- linen, and handkerchiefs of great beauty 
and smoothness, as well as lawns and holland. In quality there was 
little choice between the two. 

Messrs. Henry Matier & Co., of Belfast, exhibited embroidered 
handkerchiefs and cuffs and collars, which were greatly admired for 
the fineness of the fabric and the exquisite beauty of the embroidery, 
together with bleached and printed linens. 

Robert McBride & Co., of Belfast, showed bleached and printed 
linen lawns and linen and cotton fabrics of great excellence. It would 
occupy too much space to call attention to the merits of every exhib- 
itor in the British department. We can simply say that all were 
excellent. Messrs. Fenton, Connor, & Co.. of Belfast; Dicksons^ 
Ferguson, & Co., and the York Street Flax-Spinning Company, of the 
same place ; and the Greenmount Spinning Company, all made large 
and superior exhibits. 

Messrs. Dunbar, McMaster, & Co., of Gilford, Ireland ; Marshall 
& Co., of Leeds ; and Thomas Ainsworth, of Cleator, Cumberland, 
exhibited linen threads of well-known quality, among which the linen 
floss of Messrs. Dunbar, McMaster, & Co. was especially noticeable. 

The Scotch manufacturers contributed a different class of goods, — 

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24 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

heavy and substantial fabrics, made of linen or jute, or both in com- 
bination, and suited to all the ordinary purposes of life, such as table- 
and bed-linens, crash, huckabacks, and other toweling; butcher's 
linen, floor- and stair-cloths, paddings, shoe-linings, drills, osnaburgs, 
ducks, buckram, horse-cloths, grain- and salt-sacks, burlaps, bagging, 
carpet yarns, etc. Among the exhibitors deserving mention were 
Messrs. James Normand & Co., of Dysart, Fifeshire ; William Laird 
& Co., of Forfar; and the Cox Brothers and Frank Stewart Sande- 
man, of Dundee. 

Crossing the British Channel to Belgium, we find the exhibit of 
Jacques de Brandt, of Alost, especially noticeable for the beauty of 
design and accuracy of execution in damask table-linen. Messrs. 
Van Damme Brothers, of Roulers, showed indigo-blue linen of excel- 
lent quality, for blouses and pantaloon stuffs for the working-classes. 
Rey, senior, of Brussels, contributed a very large and excellent variety 
of table-, bed-, and household-linen, of medium fineness, but superior 
quality. William Wilford, of Tamise, exhibited very superior canvas, 
and the Govaert Brothers, of Alost, also showed good canvas, and bags 
remarkable for quality and cheapness. 

France was represented, in table-linen, by the house of Meunier & 
Co., of Paris, whose damasks were exquisite in design and workman- 
ship; and in linen thread by Vrau & Co., of Lille, and Hassebroucq 
Brothers, of Comines, both exhibits being excellent for strength and 
evenness of fabric. 

Holland sent a variety of substantial fabrics of flax for domestic 
use, all serviceable, but none especially noted for fineness or beauty of 
design. The exhibits of J. Eilas, of Strijp; Nieuwenhuizen and Van 
Stratum, of Geldrop; J. H. Terhorst, of Ryssen ; and L. Planteijdt, 
of Krommenie, were all noticed as useful and serviceable fabrics. 

Sweden was represented by G. Stenburg's Widow, of Jonkoping, 
who exhibited damask table-linen of good quality and beauty of 
design. 

Germany sent a fine collection in the combined exhibit of the flax- 
manufacturers of Wiirtemberg, of great variety and excellent quality; 
and Joseph Meyer, of Dresden, displayed damask table-linen of good 
design and fine finish. 

Austria was admirably represented by the combined exhibit of 
Messrs. Regenhart, Raymann, and Kufferle, of Vienna, whose damask 
table-linen, with colored borders, showed surpassing excellence in 
design, combination of colors, and workmanship in the execution. 
Carl Siegl, of Vienna, exhibited a variety of staple linen goods of 
great evenness and beauty. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VJIL 25 

Norway sent excellent canvas and twines from the Christiania Sail- 
Cloth Manufactory. 

Italy was represented by the table-damasks and other fabrics of the 
Remaggi Brothers, of Navacchio, Pisa. 

Portugal sent a number of exhibits of flax fabrics of various kinds, 
among which I have noted the linen drills of Bahia & Genro, of 
Oporto ; the bed- and table-linen of Antonio da Costa Guimaraes, of 
Guimaraes ; and Manuel M. R. Guimaraes, and the National Sail-Cloth 
Company, of Lisbon. 

Spain contributed table-damasks of excellent quality, manufactured 
by Jaime Sado, of Barcelona; hand-spun bed-linen, by the Sons of 
Salvador Landa, Calatayud, Province of Saragossa; and a variety of 
flax fabrics from other exhibitors ; also hemp shoe-thread, of good 
quality, from Marques, Caralt, & Co., of Barcelona. 

Russia, as might be expected, excelled in this branch. Her most 
noticeable exhibit was that of Messrs. Hille & Dietrich, of Girardovo, 
in the Province of Warsaw, consisting of a great variety of fabrics, — 
colored damask table-linen of superior excellence in design and com- 
bination, fringed duck dessert- and library- cloths, bed- and fronting- 
linens, Turkish towels, ducks, and drills, etc., all of excellent and 
serviceable quality. 

Baron Stieglitz, of Narva, exhibited very superior sail-cloth. 

James Gribanoff 's Sons, of Oostioog, Province of Vologda, showed 
a very fine display of linen yarns and cloths, table damask, fronting- 
linen, and handkerchiefs, all of great excellence and beauty. 

Lange & Co., of Moscow, had excellent samples of woven hose for 
fire purposes, and very good yarns and cloths were sent by Alexan- 
droff & Alofoozoff", of Kazan. 

Compared with the foreign contributions, the display from the 
United States was but small, and is noted as follows. The Barbour 
Flax-Spinning Company, of Paterson, New Jersey, exhibited linen 
threads, which in strength, color, finish, and evenness compared favor- 
ably with the best English threads of Marshall. The American Linen 
Thread Company, of Mechanicsville, Saratoga County, New York, 
also made a fine display of threads and twines. The exhibit of woven 
goods was confined to the crash towelings of the Webster Linen-Mills, 
of Webster, Massachusetts, and the stair-drills, by the same company 
and by the Stark Mills, of Manchester, New Hampshire, who also 
exhibited coarse diaper with flax warp and cotton filling. All these 
articles were useful and excellent in their way, but bore no com- 
parison, as evidence of skill and progress, with the linen fabrics of 
Europe. 

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26 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The United States possess every variety of soil necessary for the 
growth of flax, and half a century since, before the enormous develop- 
ment of the cotton manufacture, it was a common article of cultivation 
in many parts of the country, and was spun and woven by hand into 
domestic fabrics in many households. Acres of flax are now culti- 
vated for the seed in many of the States of the Union, but the ripened 
fibre which is thus obtained is too coarse and harsh for manufacturing 
purposes. Good flax-fibre was, however, shown at the Exhibition, 
from Canada, and we believe its cultivation for the purpose of manu- 
facture, and its conversion into yarn and cloth, to be one of the possi- 
bilities of the future, and one which will amply repay attention and 
examination by thoughtful men. It does not seem that the amount 
of hand-labor required to fit the fibre for the machines, now so largely 
employed for spinning, need be so great as to form an insuperable 
obstacle. 

FIBRES. 

BY SAMUEL WEBBER. 

The best-known and commonly-used fibres of vegetable origin, 
other than cotton, are those of flax and hemp, of which the propor- 
tion shown by the United States was very small. Fair specimens 
were exhibited from West Virginia, Oregon, and Kentucky ; but, as 
was remarked in relation to flax fabrics, the growth of the cotton 
manufacture seems to have entirely overshadowed this industry. 
Canada, also, sent two exhibits of flax of fair quality. 

Nearly all the exhibits of these fibres of any consequence were 
from Europe. 

Austria sent flax from Moravia, of excellent quality, and hemp from 
Hungary. 

Italy contributed the finest specimens of hemp, from Bologna. 

Holland showed three very fine collections of flax. Portugal was 
represented by forty-nine exhibitors of flax and four of hemp ; some 
of the flax was short in fibre, but of very fine quality. 

Spain had twenty-five exhibitors of flax and twenty-two of hemp, 
covering a wide range of length and quality of staple. 

Russia contributed thirteen collections of flax and three of hemp, 
all of excellent quality; and Belgium sent two very fine exhibits of 
flax, of exceeding fineness and beauty. 

A feature of great interest, however, was the display, from various 
tropical and semi-tropical countries, of fibres little known to us, ex- 
cept by their products, but which seem capable, by the application of 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP VIIL 27 

suitable machinery, of becoming of immense value in the future, as 
subjects of manufacture. 

The most noticeable of these was the Manila hemp, Musa textilis, 
from the Philippine Islands, which we usually see in the form of cord- 
age, but which has a fibre capable, like those of flax and hemp, of 
extreme subdivision by proper treatment, being composed of a col- 
lection of finer fibres united by a glutinous matter, which is soluble in 
water, and admits of the reduction of the apparently coarse, long fibre 
exhibited (in some cases reaching twelve or thirteen feet in length) 
into a fibre sufficiently fine for delicate fabrics. 

Samples of these fabrics were exhibited in the collection from the 
Philippine Islands, and were well worthy of attention. 

In the same collection were also to be found numerous specimens 
of the ** pina" cloth, and the fibres from which they were woven, as 
well as those of the banana, and other plants of the same genus. The 
fibres of the agave or yucca, from Mexico, were also very suggestive. 
Hammocks, nets, ** grass-cloth" (eo called), and paper of astonishing 
strength were exhibited by the local governments of Yucatan and 
Hidalgo, manufactured from this material; and its abundance in 
Mexico and Central America seems to make it a subject worthy the 
notice of manufacturers, if some ready means can be discovered of 
cleaning the fibre from the fleshy part of the leaf. 

Besides these there were a vast number of less-known fibres exhib- 
ited, the " Phormium," or New Zealand flax, being the most familiar. 

All the British colonies sent a greater or less variety of this and 
other fibres, the Fourcroya gigantcaa, the ramie, the pita, the plan- 
tain, the banana, the pineapple, the wild fig, the aloe, the silk-grass, 
and the mahoe or hibiscus being among their contributions, forty- 
nine different varieties, including the above, being contributed from 
the Mauritius alone, and twenty-six from Queensland. Twenty dif- 
ferent varieties were sent by Robert Prestoe, Esq., the Government 
botanist of Trinidad ; eight from the Bahamas ; and five from British 
Guiana. 

Brazil also contributed several valuable fibres, the asclepias, urenas, 
palms (of different species), bilbergia, and fourcroya being the prin- 
cipal ones. 

From Spain came a great variety of samples of the esparto grass, 
showing how largely it can be improved in quality by cultivation. 
This material is at present almost exclusively used for paper-stock, 
but was shown to be available for a great variety of purposes. Hats, 
baskets, and other articles were exhibited, which had been made of 
it, and if, as reported, it will grow in the sand where nothing else will, 

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28 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

it is Worthy of attention. The Spanish-Portuguese Indian colonies, 
China, Japan, and Portuguese Africa also sent a variety of fibres, the 
ramie or China-grass being exhibited in fabrics in the Chinese and 
Japanese departments. Mats and matting from reeds, rushes, and 
other similar plants were shown by China, Japan, Spain, Portugal, 
and their colonies ; and were deserving of praise for workmanship 
and ingenuity. 

Those of us who can readily recall the whole history of the alpaca 
manufacture in Great Britain, and the adaptation of existing ma- 
chinery, with slight modifications, to the purpose, by Sir Titus Salt, 
and who have also noted the enormous growth of the manufacture 
of jute in Scotland, in and about Dundee especially, can easily imagine 
that there is destined to be a great industry developed out of the 
manufacture of the Manila hemp, the sisal-grass, the ramie, and the 
American aloe ; and, with this opinion, we can but think the display of 
the great variety of fibres at the Centennial Exhibition has been of 
great value in bringing them to the notice of practical men. There 
seems to be no more difficulty in applying existing machinery to these 
fibres than to alpaca or jute, if the fibres can be first freed from their 
woody or fleshy coverings ; and that question does not seem to present 
any insuperable difficulty, though it may require time and patience to 
develop the most economical method. 



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REPORTS ON AWARDS. 



GROUP VIII. 

I. Boott Cotton Mills, Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence and even weaving of their cords and extra 
inlls. 

2. Wamsutta Mills, New Bedford, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the uniformity, excellence, and purity of their well-known 
fabrics. 



3. Chicopee Manufacturing Co., Chicopee Falls, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for extra fine and for extra heavy cotton flannel of very superior 
quality ; also for the firm and uniform quality of their heavy y sheeting, even and well 
made in every respect. 

4. Berkley Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for the superior quality of lawns and nainsooks, and esi>ecially for 
fine sateens, No. 100 warp, 150 filling, 350 picks filling to the inch; the sateen being one 
of the finest, and supposed to be the very finest, fabric made in the United States. It 
deserves special mention for the great skill required in its production. 



5. Monadnock Mills, Claremont, N. H., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellent quality of the Marseilles quilts, and their adapta- 
tion to popular wants. 

6. Slater Cotton Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the very even quality of their bleached shirtings known as 
Ih^ " Pride of the West." 

7. Boston Manufacturing Co., Waltham, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Firm, strong, and thoroughly well manufactured medium fabrics, of special 
erccUence. 

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30 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

8. Great Falls Manufacturing Co., Great Falls, N. H., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — A very full assortment of thoroughly well manufactured goods ; well prepared 
and finished for service, both bleached and unbleached. 



9. L3rman Mills, Holyoke, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in the manufacture of Victoria lawns, twilled 
cambric, and cords. 

10. The James Y. Smith Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for evenness, purity, and good finish. 



II. Tremont and Suffolk Mills, Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended especially for the flexibility and uniformity of their medium cotton 
flannel, and for serviceable sateen jeans. 



12. Massachusetts Cotton Mill, Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRIC. 

Report. — Plain, serviceable standard and medium sheeting; round and well-spun yam, 
evenly woven, especially fitted for common wear, at low cost. 



13. Continental Mills, Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for unusually firm, pure, and well-manufactured medium fabrics 



14 Alabama and Georgia Manufacturing Co., West Point, Ga., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the great excellence and durable quality of their heavy standard 
sheetings. 

15. Evansville Cotton Manufacturing Co., Crescent City Mills, EvansviUe, 

Ind., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Heavy sheetings made from good stock, even, well carded, and excellent in all 
resi>ects. 

16. Barker Mills, Auburn, Me., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the special evenness of yam and excellence of weaving in their 
brown and bleached fabrics. 

17. Hill Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

COTTON FABRIC. 

Report. — Commended for uniformity in the quality of their fabric. 

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GROUP VIII. 31 

18. B. B. & R. Knight, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the full line of bleached cottons, excellent in all respects, in 
their several styles. 

19. Langdon Manufacturing Co., Manchester, N. H., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for the very superior quality and for the purity of finish of their 
fine and extra fine shirting. 

20. Dwight Manufacturing Co., Chicopee, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — A full exhibit of fine fabrics, bleached and unbleached, of special excellence 
in all respects. 

21. Androscoggin Mills, Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence of their seamless bags, the even, smooth texture 
of their wide sheetings of the higher grade, and for the general uniformity of their fabrics. 



22. Cabot Manufacturing Co., Brunswick, Me., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — A uniform quality of bleached goods, well made for service and durability. 



23. Bates Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the general excellence in the style and design of their Mar- 
seilles and crochet quilts, and of their fancy woven white goods. 



24. Stark Mills, Manchester, N. H., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for very even spinning and weaving in their heavy standard sheet- 
ings, and for the very superior quality of their seamless bags. 



25. Ponemah Mills, Tafkville, Conn., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence of their extra fine printing cloths. 



26. Pocahontas Manufacturing Co., Putnam, Conn., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Brown and bleached cottons, of medium grade, made and finished for dura- 
bility. 

27. Naumkeag Steam Cotton Co., Salem, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and uniform quality of their plain and twilled wide 
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32 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

28. Nashua Co., Nashua, N. H., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for bleached and unbleached cotton fabrics, of medium g)ade& 
and excellent quality in all resi>ects. 



29. Davol Mills, Fall River, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the superior quality of their serge twilled lining fabric, fine 
honeycomb cloaking, sateens, and striped piqu6. 



30. Walcott & Campbell, New York Mills, Oneida Co., N. Y., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Fine bleached cottons, finn, uniform, well bleached and finished; of very 

superior quality. 

31. Millville Manufacturing Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SPECIAL COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellent Tillott cloth ; also for tracing muslin, superior in 
quality and water-proof, to be used with ink or pencil. 



32. Hassan Ali, Yiemen, Arabia Petrea. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence in fabric and color, and adaptability to purpose, 
of the striped tent curtains. 

33. Batllo Brothers, Barcelona, Spain. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — A large and excellent display of bleached cotton fabrics, adapted to ordinary 
use, and of economical manufacture. 



34. The Government of Turkey, Constantinople, Turkey. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the large and varied collection of cotton fabrics, illustrative of 
the costumes of the country, and displaying ^ill in coloring and ingenuity in weaving, as 
well as adaptability to the wants of the people. 



35. Oglou Ohanes Mourouk, Brousse, Turkey. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellent quality and economical production of the Turkish 
bath towels. 

36. T. & D. Wilson & Co., Glasgow, Scotland. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for the great variety and excellent quality of the cotton fabrics, 
notably the Swiss mulls, Victoria lawns, and other goods of that class, as well as for the 
beauty and excellence of the curtain stuffs. 

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GROUP VIJI. j3 

37. Anjos Cunha Ferreira & Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for very excellent display and variety of colored cotton goods, 
suitable for the laboring classes, especially their cotton handkerchiefs. 



38. Augusto Frederico Etur, Lisbon, Portugal. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for economy and adaptability to purpose in their cotton handker- 
chief and prints. 

39. Zimin Brothers, Zooieva, Moscow, Russia. 

COTTON FABRICS, 

Report. — Commended for excellence in quality, and economy in price, of dyed Turkey red 
cottons, used by the common people. 



40. Mariano Regordosa & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for the evenness of fabric and excellence of color of the Adrianople 
red yams. 

41. Oliver & Fonrodona, Mataro, Barcelona, Spain. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for the excellence and adaptability to purpose of the cotton sail 
duck. 

42. La Obrera Mataronense, Mataro, Barcelona, Spain. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for economy and adaptation to purpose of the heavy cotton fabrics 
exhibited, as well as excellence in quality. 



43. Jos6 Puig & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellent quality and great variety of the bleached cotton 
fabrics exhibited, with the trade-mark " La Fortuna." 



44. Qeronimo Roiz de la Parra, La Cavada, Province of Santander, Spain. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report, — Bleached cotton fabrics of even, pure, and very substantial quality, well spun 
and woven. 



45. John Garelin, Ivanovo- Vosnesensk, Wladimir, Russia. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for economy in cost and adaptability to popular wants of the plain 
and printed cottons. 

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34 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

46. John Koushin, Serpookhov, Moscow, Russia. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for especial excellence in the exhibit of cotton, in every state of 
progress, from the bale, to cloth of great evenness, firmness, and beauty. 



47. Cotton Spinning Mill of Balsa, Vallongo, Portugal. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the general good quality of the fabrics. 



48. Lisbon Spinning and Weaving Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for great variety, general excellence, and adaptability to the wants 
of the people. 

49. Xabregas Cotton Manufacturing Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in colored cambrics and bleached and brown cotton 



50. C. M. Raffin*s Widow & Son, Paris, Prance. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for the excellent quality, both in fabric and color, of the tarlatans 
and muslins exhibited. 

51. Gujer Brunner, Uster, Zurich, Switzerland. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and economy in their exhibit of white and colored 
cotton bed and table furniture. 

52. Nydalens Company, Christiania, Norway. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — A large and excellent display of plain and colored cotton fabrics. 



53. Wauregan Mills, Wauregan, Conn., U. S. 

COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for the special merit of their fabrics, known as the *' Wauregan 



54. Jos6 TolrA & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

MADAPOLLAM AND OTHER FINE COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for fineness of texture, good quality, and good finish. 



55. Manuel Alvares Montes, Oporto, Portugal. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for variety, durability, and excellence of cotton fabrics. 



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GROUP VIIL 35 

56. Qovemment Cotton Factory, Sakai, Setzu, Japan. 

COTTON AND COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for the completeness and excellence of the exhibit of cotton, raw 
ind in various states of progress of manufacture. 



57. J. T. Berg, Ntttts, Floda, Sweden. 

COTTON YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for the evenness of the cotton yams and the excellence of the 
samples of cotton in its various states of preparation for yam, and also for the excellence 
and variety of the colors in which the yam is dyed. 



58. Morse, Kaley, & Co., Milford, N. H., U. S. 

KNITTING COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence and adaptability to purpose of their white and 
colored knitting cotton. 

59. Doila Juana Reyes, Province of Batangas, Philippine Islands. 

COTTON YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence and adaptability of the cotton yam. 



60. Shaffner & Stringfellow, Philadelphia, Pa., U; S. 

KNITTING COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for remarkably fine qualities in all respects. Very full assortment 
of colors. In all respects an admirable exhibit. 



61. Hadley Company, Holyoke, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON YARNS AND TWINES. 

Report. — ^An excellent display of warp yams, shoe threads, and seine and harness twines ; 
all of great evenness and perfection. 



62. J. U. Schlsepfer, Waldstadt, Switzerland. 

MULLS AND NAINSOOKS. 

Report, — Commended for the very even weaving of their hand-made and power-loom 
goods, especially in the fine yams, varying from No. 80 to No. 240, and from 75 to 160 
inches wide. Power-looms are used for goods as fine as No. 160 yarn. Mulls and nain- 
sooks are most excellent in quality. 



63. Whittenton Manufacturing Co., Taunton, Mass., U. S. 

COTTONADES AND DRESS GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for superior excellence in quality and design; good combination 
of colors in great variety. Twilled mixed cottonades, especially well colored and harmo- 
nized. Fancy cotton cassimercs, patterns choice in design, fabric of great strength and gen- 
eral good quality. Dress goods, colors and styles well designed. 



64. Wortendyke Manufacturing Co., Wortendyke, N. J., U. S. 

COTTON LAMP WICKING. 

Report, — Commended for the good quality and softness of their products. 

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REPORTS ON AWARDS. 



65. Manville Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

BLEACHED COTTON FABRICS AND COLORED JACONETS. 

Report. — Commended for the peculiar excellence of their 6ne bleached shirtings, and 
for the superior smoothness of fabric, strength and fineness of texture, and excellence and 
variety of their jaconets. 

66. Wm. Wood & Co., PhUadelphU, Pa., U. S. 

COTTONADES AND COTrON CASSIMERES. 
Report, — Commended for excellence in styles, comprising a very large assortment; 
imitation of fine woolen cassimeres, very good ; superior fabric, durability, and economy. 



67. Lowell Bleachery, Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON GOODS, AS EXAMPLES OF BLEACHING AND DYEING. 

Report, — Commended for purity and whiteness, especially of the long cloth finish. 



68. Crestuma Spinning Co., Peira, Aveiro, Portugal. 

COTTON YARNS. 

Report, — Even, smooth, good spinning thread. 



69. Whitfield Manufacturing Co., Corinth, Miss., U. S. 

COTTON YARNS. 
Report, — Cotton yarn of excellent quality, produced directly from the seed cotton without 
the use of the ordinary gin, by an equivalent apparatus attached to the card. 



70. Thomar Royal Spinning Co., Thomar, Portugal. 

COTTON PRODUCT. 
Report. — Brown, bleached, and dyed cotton yarns of good quality and at reasonable 
price. 

71. Neilson, Storer, & Sons, Johnstone, near Paisley, Scotland. 

KNITTING AND EMBROIDERY COTTON YARN. 

Report, — Commended for the peculiar softness, flexibility, evenness, fitness for their in- 
tended purposes. 



72. John Hawkins & Sons, Manchester, England. 

BLEACHED SHIRTINGS. 

Report, — Commended for the especial fineness, even texture, and excellent bleach of 
their highest grades of goods, combined with softness and purity. 



73. Salvador, Pages, & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

BLEACHED COTTON GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for the very substantial quality, pure finish, and very even yam 
from which they are woven. 

74. Assetto di Qraziani Brothers, Chieri, Turin, Italy. 

COTTON QUILTS AND BLANKETS. 

Report. — Commended for even quality in the weaving and for excellent taste in the 
designing. 



36 

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GROUP VIII. 37 

75. Mechanical Weaving Co., Linden, near Hanover, Germany. 

COTTON VELVETS AND VELVETEENS. 
Report. — ^This is one of the most artistic exhibits in the Exposition; texture and finish 
superb; variety and blending of colors excellent; elegant, durable, exquisitely tasteful. 
The colors and fabric blend so harmoniously, and are so exceedingly well done, as to give 
the appearance and finish of silk velvet. The new black in various shades is full of Hght 
and lustre. A complete triumph, in both finish and color. 



76. Volarte Brothers & Conill, Barcelona, Spain. 

PIQUE CLOTHS, TUFTED. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and variety of designs and patterns; superior work 
manship and tufting; general excellence. 



77. Josef Parma, Tichau, Moravia, Austria. 

MARSEILLES TUFTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in material; manufacture of choice patterns; re 
markably good work in tufting; great variety of patterns. 



78. Emile Idiers, Anderghem,^ near Brussels, Belgium. 

DYED COTTON YARNS. 
Report. — Commended for depth, durability, variety, and delicacy in coloring, with the 
best quality of material in all respects. 



79. Ferguson Brothers, Holme Head Works, near Carlisle, England. 

DYED SILESIAS, SATEENS. 

Report. — Commended for fineness of texture, superior colors, superb dyeing, with a finish' 
of remarkable excellence. The harmony and blending of colors are exceedingly fine, also 
in great variety. 

80. Anjos & Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

DYED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for general excellence of indigo-blue dyed cotton fabrics, with 
peculiar adaptability to the wants of the masses. 



81. A. Baertsoen & Buysse, Ghent, Belgium. 

DYED VELVETEEN OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for durability and general excellence, richness in finish, and har- 
mony of colors. 

82. W. Swinkels, Helmond, Netherlands. 

DYED COTTON YARNS. 

Report. — ^A very fine assortment of high colors; the dyeing of wonderful brilliancy and 
evident durability. 

83. Azmoos Weaving Mills, Azmoos, St. Gallen, Swiuerland. 

WOVEN COLORED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for novelty in design, with great and harmonious variety of colors, 
excellence in smoothness of texture and durability. 

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38 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

84. Jaumandren ft Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for excellent quality and great variety of samples of printed cali- 
coes, adapted to ordinary use, showing great skill and ample resources for production. 



85. A. Chiffray, Narbonne, near Rouen, France. 

FURNITURE HANGINGS. 
Report, — Commended for the beauty of design, excellence of combination of colors, and 
adaptability to purpose, of the cotton and linen hangings and curtains. 



86. Nicholas Polooshin, Ivanovo-Vosnesensk, Wladimir, Russia. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence in coloring, and neatness of design and 
execution, in madder and steam colors, on cambrics and fancy woven cotton goods. 



87. W. Menshikoff ft Sons, Ivanovo-Vosnesensk, Wladimir, Russia. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for economy and adaptability of printed cotton fabrics, for popular 



88. A. Gros ft Co., Bnichsal, Germany. 

COLORFJ) COTTON VELVETS. 

Report. — ^These goods are low-priced, and for the lower grades exhibit good workman- 
ship and remarkable variety in bright colors. 



89. Carl Kauffmann, Reutlingen, Germany. 

COLORED WOVEN QUILTS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in design, weaving, colors, economy. 



90. Paul Lopatin, Ivanovo-Vosnesensk, Wladimir, Russia. 

PRINTED COTTONS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in design and execution of printed calicoes in light 
colors and combinations, and also beauty of design and skill in coloring of furniture prints. 



91. Catherine Koovajef, Dimir, Russia. 

PRINTED COTTONS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in madder pink " frock plates." 



92. Lisbon Cotton Dyeing and Printing Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

PRINTED COrrON FABRICS. 

Report. — A large and well-executed assortment of printed calicoes and furniture chintzes. 



93. Alexis Possylin, Ivanovo-Vosnesensk, Wladimir, Russia. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report, — Commended for the excellence in design, colors, and printing, as well as the 
economy of production, of the printed cotton handkerchiefs for the use of the peasants. 

38 



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GROUP VIII, 39 

94. Millville Manufacturing Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SIL£SL\S, WINDOW HOLLANDS, AND UMBRELLA CLOTHS. 

Report. — Specialty : fine colors, fabrics of good finish. 



95. Social Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

SILESIAS. 

Report. — Commended for the variety of colors as being very remarkable; also for the 
evenness of the fabrics ; admirable in both respects. 



96. Bass, Abrate, & Co., Turin, Italy. 

COTTON COUNTERPANES AND BLANKETS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in design and fabrics, and adaptability to purpose. 



97. Malmo Cotton Manufacturing Co., Malmb, Sweden. 

COLORED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Strong fabrics for common uses ; durable anc} economical ; excellent coloring 
for common goods. 

98. Alessio Brothers, Milan, Italy. 

COLORED COTTON YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for evenness and excellence in color and smoothness of thread in 
the Turkey red cotton yams. 

99. Bernardo Meda, Monxa, Milan, Italy. 

COLORED COTTON YARNS. 

Report, — Commended for the excellence in color of the Turkey red yams. 



100. I. V. Gentiluomi & Co., Pisa, Italy. 

COLORED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and adaptability, in fabric, design, color, and variety, 
of colored cotton fabrics. 

loi. Collective Exhibit of the Circuit of M. Gladbacb, Germany. 

COTTON AND MIXED GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety of fabrics, excellence of design; well made 
throughout; durable, economical; altogether a thoroughly well assorted exhibit. 



102. George Stratford, Jersey City, N. J., U. S. 

OAKUM. 

Report. — Commended for excellent quality and softness of texture. 



103. BalhSo Cotton Printing Factory, Oporto, Portugal. 

PRINTED COTTONS. 

Report. — Commended for general adaptability to purpose, at a reasonable price, of the 
iodigo-blue fabrics. 



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40 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

104. Ricart & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety and excellence in design, color, and execution, 
in printed cambrics and calicoes, fitted for general use. 



105. Jos6 Ferrer & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for great variety and excellence in design and color, and economy 
of production in printed calicoes. 

106. Juan Achon, Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for beauty of design, excellence in color and execution in printed 
cotton fabrics for furniture covers and curtains. 



107. Joaquin Casas & Jover, Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in cloth and printing, neatness in design, and su- 
periority in color, in black and indigo-blue printed calicoes. 



108. C. T. Stork & Co., Hengeloo, Netherlands. 

MADRAS GINGHAMS AND MADRAS HANDKERCHIEFS. 

Report. — Especially well made for general use ; good material throughout, in fabric and 
coloring matter ; economically made, and will be economical in service. 



109. Eduardo Borras, Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended from consideration of economy in the low price, great variety, and 
general adaptability of the printed cotton handkerchiefs. 



no. Henri Fierz, Zurich, Switzerland. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for beauty of design, and excellence in coloring and execution, of 
Adrianople red printing in cambrics, handkerchiefs, shawls, and chintzes. 



III. WallensUdt Fancy Cotton Goods Mills, Wallenstadt, Switzerland. 

WOVEN COLORED GINGHAMS AND HANDKERCHIEFS. 

Report. — Commended for peculiar and excellent combination of colors, strong but fine 
fabric, great variety, durability of colors and fabric, novelty in method of dyeing, and ex- 
cellence of colors and dyeing. 

112. Salis Schwabe & Co., Manchester, England. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for variety and elegance in design, coloring, and engraving in 
printed cotton fabrics for dresses and furniture chintzes, and madder colors of great excel- 
lence and beauty. 

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GROUP VJIL 41 

113. Roeffs ft Co., Siegfeld, Germany. 

PRINTED COTTON HANDKERCHIEFS. 
Rupert. — Commended for great variety and good execution, taste in design, and brilliancy 
tn colors, as well as for novelty in style, in printed handkerchiefs. 



1 14. N. Garelin ft Sons, Ivanovo- Vosnesensk, Wladimir, Russia. 

PLAIN AND PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report, — An admirable exhibit of cotton in all forms, from the staple as grown in the 
Caucasus, through all its various processes of manufacture, into remarkably level yams, 
smooth and firm cloth, and dyed and printed fabrics of great excellence in color, design, 
and execution. 

115. Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Mass., U. S. 

PRINTED CALICOES, LAWNS, AND PERCALES. 

Report. — Commended for taste and variety in design, clear colors, and sharp printing; 
especial excellence in lawns and percales. 



116. David S. Brown ft Co., for the Gloucester Manufacturing Co. and the An- 
cona Printing Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report, — To the Gloucester Manufacturing Co. for excellence in design, colors, and ex- 
ecution in mourning prints, shepherds' plaids, and shirtings. To the Ancona Printing Co. 
for variety and excellence, especially in light chintzes, striped percales in high colors, 
handkerchiefs, flags, oil black and lavender prints and aniline black calicoes, with figures 
in steam colors, and also for polonaise suitings. 



117. McCrossan & Farr, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

COTTON HANDKERCHIEFS. 
Report, — Commended for style, finish, color, and quality. 



118. Merrimac Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for especial and superior excellence^ and novelty in "cardinal 
rcdg," for beauty and excellence in design and coloring in printed furniture cretonnes, and 
for excellence in madder purples and shirting stripes. 



119. Wood ft Haslam, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

DYED COTTON YARNS AND FABRICS. 

Report. — Conunended for excellence in color and design in Turkey red yams and table 
cloths. 

120. American Print Works, Fall River, Mass., U. S. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety and excellence in design and execution in wide 
percales in light styles, imitation seersuckers, ginghams, and shirting stripes, as well as in 
regular madder styles. 

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-2 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

X2I. Hamilton Woolen Co., Southbridge, Mass., U. S. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for novelties in design and neatness of execution, good coloring, 
good printing of their *' Knickerbocker' ' percales and cambrics. 



122. Andreas Kartell & Co., Pennypack Print Works, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PRINTED CAUCOES AND SHIRTINGS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in " imitation oil colors" in reds and greens, and 
prints in imitation of German ginghams and dress goods. 



123. Manchester Mills, Manchester, N. H., U. S. 

PRINTED CALICOES. 

Report. — Commended for variety and excellence in design and execution of madder 
prints, variety of styles, clearness of white and especial excellence in aniline black grounds, 
in imitation of woven effects, with bright figures in madder colors in pink and orange. 



124. Richmond Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for excellence in pink frockings, garancine pinks, and standard 
gray styles in calicoes. 



125. Hamilton Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

PRINTED CALICOES. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in design, coloring, and execution, in chintz styles 
on wide cloth and in robes, and for aniline combinations with madder colors. 



126. Pretty, Grime, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PRINTED AND DYED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in dyed "solid blacks," in logwood and aniline, 
and neatness in design and clearness of execution in half-mourning prints. 



127. S. H. Greene & Sons, Clyde Bleachery and Print Works, River Point, R. I., 

U. S. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence of their ** Washington prints," in imitation oil 
colors, in ruby and green; excellent imitation of woven dress goods; delicate coloring in 
robes, and steam colors in flags, stripes, and handkerchiefs. 



128. William Simpson & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PRINTED AND DY^ COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety, novelty, and excellence in design and execution 
m mourning and half-mourning prints, ultramarine blue, garancine chocolates and dyed 
calicoes, in solid black alpaca finish, and for regularity and evenness in fabrics. 

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GROUP VIIL ^3 

129. Palmer ft Kendall, Middletown, Conn., U. S. 

COLORED MOSQUITO NETTINGS. 
Report. — G^mmended for excellence of color and material, equality and proper size of 
meshes, straight edges, smooth finish, and flexibility. 



130. Mississippi Mills, Wesson, Miss., U. S. 

COTTONADES, OSNABURG PLAIDS. 

Report. — The material is excellent; coloring thoroughly well done; durability remarkable. 



131. Lewiston Mills, Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

COLORED DUCK COTTONADES, TICKINGS, AND CHEVIOTS. 

Report. — The colored ducks are excellent in styles and fabrics. The cotton cassimeres 
very flexible and durable. The four-quarter tickings are, heavy, smooth, and of the best 
material. The cheviots are peculiar in delicate shadings, and well made. 



132. Shetucket Manufacturing Co., Norwich, Conn., U. S. 

SHIRTING STRIPES. 
Report. — Undressed, well made throughout, and of good color. 



133. Conestogo Steam Mills, F. Shroder & Co., Lancaster, Pa., U. S. 

DYED CANTON FLANNELS AND GENUINE NANKEENS. 

Report. — Commended for variety and beauiy of colors, smooth, strong, and fine fabric, 
siiecialty in silky finish ; durability. 
Genuine nankeens, excellent in quality of cotton and fabric. 



134. Washington Mills, Lawrence, Mass., U. S. 

COLORED CAMBRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence, delicacy, variety of color, and smoothness of finish. 



135. I. Pal, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

DYED AND PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for excellence in design, combination, and colorings in light chintz 
cambrics, furniture prints, and handkerchiefs, and also in dyed plain cambrics and cotton 
pantaloon stuffs. 

136. Stephen Borissof & Sons, Ivanovo-Vosnesensk, Wladimir, Russia. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for great excellence in design and combination of colors, and 
neatness of execution in chintz furniture and calicoes. 



137. Saladrigas & Brothers, Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED CCtTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for variety in design and excellence in finish, combined with 
ec momy of production, in printed cottons for general use. 

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44 REPORTS. ON AWARDS, 

138. La Espafia Industrial, Barcelona, Spain. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for excellence in design, colors, and fabric, in printed cretonnes 
for furniture purposes; variety and excellence in colors, in dyed cambrics and percales; good 
quality and variety, in common prints. 



139. Schlieper & Baum, Elberfeld, Germany. 

PRINTED COrrON FABRICS. 

Report. — Conmiended for great variety and beauty in design, excellence in colors and exe- 
cution, not only in madder styles, but in a great variety of combination with aniline, catechu, 
artificial alizarine, ultramarine blue, and steam colors. 



140. I. Hanhart, Solivo Dietikon, Zurich, Switzerland. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence in Adrianople red, black, and orange 
chintzes. 

141. Jabez Johnson & Fildes, Manchester, England. 

COLORED QUILTS AND MARSEILLES VESTINGS; TURKISH TOWELS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in coloring, exceedingly well defined, good designs ; 
Marseilles vestings, thoroughly well woven and colored, fine material ; Turkish towels and 
toweling excellent in every way. In all respects these three varieties are very superior. 



142. Simpson & King, Manchester, England. 

PRINTED COTTON FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for very superior excellence in design and combinations of colors 
on cotton fabrics for household decoration, printed in imitation of needlework as shown 
by the Kensington School of Design ; remarkable and novel in all respects. 



143. Renfrew Manufacturing Co., South Adams, Mass., U. S. 

GINGHAMS AND SKIRTINGS. 

Report. — Commended for assortment having harmony and fastness of colors, good styles 
and delicate shadings ; chdn6 style especially good ; ginghams of soft, smooth fabric, well 
colored and harmonized ; fine ginghams, 80 X 72» well woven and smooth ; twills, soft 
finish, fine assortment, of good colors and durable, black and white peculiarly, good in all 
respects. 

144. Bates Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

SATEENS, GINGHAMS, AND HONEYCOMB QUILTS. 

Report. — Sateens ; admirable assortment of colors and excellence of finish in all respects. 
Corded, fancy woven, and high colored fabrics. Commended for novelty and excellence 
in quality and fabric. 

145. Lancaster Mills, Clinton, Mass., U. S. 

FANCY GINGHAMS. 
Report. — Commended for superior excellence in quality ; colors thoroughly harmonized 
and in great variety of very superior patterns. 

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GROUP VIIL 45 

X46. Gloucester Qinghaxn Mills, Gloucester City, N. J., U. S. 

GINGHAM DRESS GOODS. 
Report, — Commended for good quality and designs. 



147. Union Wadding Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

COLORED COTTON WADDING AND BATTING. 

Report. — Commended for excellent quality of material, well prepared, soft, and thoroughly 
glazed ; large variety and evenness, with general adaptability to use. 



148. Silver Spring Dyeing and Bleaching Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

PROCESS OF DYEING COTTON FABRICS. 

R^>ort, — Commended for dyeing and finishing ; great variety of plain and varied color- 
ings, silesias, jaconets, curtain hollands, beetled and silk imitations : the exhibit altogether 
is a triumph in its way ; also for the excellence in bleaching and finishing white goods. 



149. Saratoga Victory Manufacturing Co., Victory Mills, N. Y., U. S. 

BLACK AND COLORED SILESIAS. 

Report, — Commended for evenness of fabric, smooth weaving and finish, good colors^ 
delicacy in coloring ; admirable throughout. 



150. Lonsdale Company, Lonsdale, R. I., U. S. 

COLORED SATEENS. 

Report, — Commended for remarkably fine quality, beauty of the silk finish, and superi- 
ority of coloring ; the cloth being very superior and the fabric excellent in all respects. 



151. S. Thornton & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

COLORED COTTON GOODS. 

Report. — Farmers* and miners' cotton checks. Commended for excellence of color and 
fabric; well designed in styles, and very durable. 



152. Putnam Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

COLORED COTTON GOODS. 

Report, — Colored curtain hollands a specialty; great variety and novelty of designs; 
colors remarkably good ; blue mottled, new and admirable, fabric excellent. 



153. S. Meyer ft Co., Bielefeld, Germany. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for great excellence and variety in the collection of linen shirt 
fronts, collars, and cufi& ; and for adaptability and economy of fabrics. 



154. James Gribanof ft Sons, Vologda, Russia. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for the high excellence of quality of the linen yams, cloths, hand- 
kerchiefs, fronting linens, and damasks. 

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^fy REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

155. Alezandrof ft Alafoosof; Kasan, Russia. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the superior firmness and evenness of the flax tow yams and 
cloths, and tfieir economy and adaptation to popular use. 



156. Charlotte Zinserling, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

COTTON AND LINEN FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for excellence, variety, economy, and adaptability to purpose of 
the braids, webbings, and tapes. 

157. Weiss & Grohmann, Vienna, Austria. 

COTTON AND UNEN THREAD. 

Report. — Conunended for excellence i;i colors and quality of the threads. 



158. Lange ft Co., Moscow, Russia. 

FLAX FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the superior quality of the samples of linen, fire hose, and 
twines. 



159. Torres Novas Spinning and Weaving Co., Torres Novas, Portugal. 

LINEN FABRICS. 
Report. — Conmiended for good qualities of linen ducks, drills, and fancy pantaloon 
ttuf&. 

160. Bahia & Genro, Oporto, Portugal. 

COTTON- AND- UNEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for colored domestic vestings and excellent brown linen drills. 



161. Hille ft Dietrich, Giradov, Warsaw, Russia. 

LINEN FABRICS. 
Report, — Commended for the very great general excellence and variety of the linen 
fabrics, comprising duck, bed and table linen, bleached ; also colored damasks of great 
beauty in design and combinations of colors, fringed and colored duck table cloths, bath 
towels, brown and bleached, and frontings. 



162. Rodrigo Antonio Ferreira Dias, Oporto, Portugal. 

COTTON AND LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — A large and substantial variety of cottonades, cotton blankets, shawls, vestings, 
ginghams, and brown linens. 

163. Jose Cameiro Mello, Oporto, Portugal. 

COTTON AND LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — A large display of cottonades, cotton blankets, cotton yams, and linen drill; all 
of good quality and durability. 

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GROUP VIII. 47 

164. Esteban Ribot & Brothers, Granada, Spain. 

FABRICS OF HEMP. 

Report. — Commended for great variety of bags, shawls, and other articles made from 
these fibres, of good quality, useful, and at low cost. 



165. Antonio da Costa Quimaraes, Quimaraes, Portugal. 

UNEN FABRICS. 
Report. — G>mmended for excellent quality of bed and table linen and embroideries. 



166. Manuel Mendes Ribeiro Guimaraes, Guimaraes, Portugal. 

LINEN DAMASK. 

Report. — Commended for good serviceable quality of table linen, and very reasonable 
prices. 

167. Collective Exhibit of Wurtemberg Linen Manufacturers, Germany. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

* 

Report. — Commended for the great variety and general excellence of the fabrics. 



168. Society of the Lys, Ghent, Belgium. 

LINEN AND JUTE YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for general excellence in quality of yams, great softness and even- 
ness, strength and desirable color of yams. 



169. Frank S. Sandeman, Manhattan Works, Dundee, Scotland. 

LINEN AND JUTE YARNS AND CANVAS PADDINGS. 

Report. — Conmiended for general good quality in yams and canvas; novelty in imitation 
of human hair and pads. 

170. Greenmount Spinning Co., Dublin, Ireland. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for great variety and excellent quality, and adaptability to purpose, 
of brown and striped linen drills, awning stripes, sheetings, diapers, stair drills, towels, 
toweling, and horse covers. 

171. Henry Matier ft Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence and fineness of fabric, beauty of design 
and embroidery in linen handkerchiefs, cuffs, and collars; and also in printed linen hand- 
kerchiefs, excellence in design and printing. 



172. John S. Brown & Sons, Belfast, Ireland. 

LINEN FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for superior excellence and beauty, in design and execution, in 
damask table linen, extraordinary fineness in diapers, handkerchiefs, and yam, and great 
excellence in linen frontings and sheetings, and for general perfection of fabrics. 

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48 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

173. Fenton, Connor, & Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for general excellence and variety of exhibit and superior quality 
of fronting linens, linen dress goods, and printed lawns. 



174. J. N. Richardson, Sons, ft Owden, Belfast, Ireland. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence and beauty, in design and execution, in 
damask table linen; superior fineness and quality of linen frontings and handkerchiefs. 



175. Dicksons, Purguson, ft Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for superior quality of huckabacks and handkerchiefs, and general 
excellence and variety of articles. 



176. Sons of Salvador Landa, Calatayud, Zaragoza, Spain. 

FLAX FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellent quality and adaptability to purpose, as well as econ- 
omy, of the "hand-spun" linen sheetings. 



177. Robert McBride ft Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

COTTON AND MIXED COTTON AND LINEN GOODS. 
Report. — Commended for neatness of design and clearness of printing on linen lawns; 
superior fineness and excellence of Swiss mulls and other cotton fabrics. 



178. York Street Flax Spinning Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence of linen sheetings and fronting linens; 
novelty in linen brocades; skill in printed linens, and general variety and excellence of 
fabrics. 

179. Van den Nieuwenhuizen and Van Stratum, Qeldrop, Netherlands. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and adaptability to purpose in loom dies and huck- 
abacks. 

180. Regenhart, Rasrmann, ft Kiifferle, Vienna, Austria. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for great beauty of design and excellence of execution in colored- 
bordered damask table linen, as well as superior taste in coloring; also for novelty in linen 
shawls and scarfs. 

181. Carl Siegel, Senior, Vienna, Austria. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence and adaptability of the sheetings and napkins. 

48 



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GROUP VIII. 49 

182. William Laird & Co. (Canmore Linen Works), Forfar, Scotland. 

LINEN FABRICS AND JUTE GOODS. 

Rgp&ri. — Commended for general excellence and utility and great variety of fabrics in 
damask loom dice sheetings, ducks, towelings, osnaburgs, buckram, paddings, stair cover- 
ings, seamless bags, hessians, and horse cloths. 



183. Remaggi Brothers, Navacchio, Pisa, Italy. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and adaptability to purpose of damasks and panta- 
looning. 

184. Joseph Meyer, Dresden, Germany. 

LINEN DAMASK TABLE COVERS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence and beauty in bleached, half-bleached, and 
bordered table linen. 



185. Meunier & Co., Paris, France. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the exquisite beauty in design and execution of the damask 
table linen, and the superior quality of their other fabrics. 



186. Jaime Sado, Barcelona, Spain. 

LINEN FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for beauty and excellence in design and finish of damask table 
linen and towels. 

187. William Wilford, Tamise, East Flanders, Belgium. 

LINEN CANVAS AND SAMPLES OF FLAX. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence and adaptability of the sail cloth and the su- 
perior evenness of fabric. 

188. Camille Devos & Brother, Courtrai, Belgium. 

LINEN AND COTTON PANTALOONING AND COUTII-S. 

Report. — Commended for general excellence and adaptability of the linen and cotton 
pantalooning, good taste in design and skill in weaving; and also for excellence in coloring 
and fabric of coutils. 



189. Jacques de Brandt, Alost, Belgium. 

LINEN DAMASK AND DIAPERS. 

Report. — Commended for the very great beauty in design and superior excellence of 
fabric and execution of the damask table linens. 



190. Rey, Senior, Brussels, Belgium. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety and excellent quality of the articles exhibiteiK 
viz., household linen in all forms, damask, loom dice, sheetings, and huckabacks. 
4 49 



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JO REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

191. Van Damme Brothers, Roulers, Belgium. 

LINEN FABRICS. 

Report, — Commended for the great excellence, and adaptability for clothing for the labor- 
ing classes, of the indigo-blue linen ; and also for the superior excellence of the coloring. 



192. Q. Stenberg's Widow, Jonkoping, Sweden. 

UNEN FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for beauty and excellence in design and fabric of damask table 
linen. 

193. Stevens Linen Works, Webster, Mass., U. S. 

BLEACHED AND BROWN LINEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence, in quality and utility, of their plain and 
twilled crash toweling, diapers, and huckabacks. 



194. Ph. Vrau & Co., Lille, France. 

LINEN THREADS AND TWINES. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and variety of the linen threads and twines. 



195. Green & Daniels, Pawtucket, R. I., U. S. 

SEWING COTTON. 
Report. — Commended for economy, adaptability, and good finish of the three-cord 
sewing cotton. 

196. John Clark, Jr., & Co., Glasgow, Scotland. 

SEWING COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in color, quality, and finish of the six-cord sewing 
cotton. 



197. Jonas Brook & Brothers, Meltham Mills, Huddersfield, England. 

SEWING COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for variety and general excellence of crochet,* embroidery, and 
sewing cotton. 

198. John Dewhurst & Sons, Belle Vue Mills, Skipton, England. 

SEWING COTTON. 
Report. — Commended for economy, adaptability, and excellent finish of the glace three- 
cord sewing cotton. 

199. Hassebroucq Brothers, Comines, France. 

LINEN THREADS. 

^<*^r/.-^Commended for the excellence in quality, variety in color, and the very neat 
manner of putting up for use of the linen sewing threads. 



200. Cox Brothers, Dundee, Scotland. . 

JUTE CORDS. 

Report. — Dressed cords, jute yam, carpet twist, and dyed twist. Commended fo" superior 
evenness and smoothness and excellent color in the dyed goods. 

50 



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GROUP VJII. 51 

201. Van de Wynckete Brothers Alsberge, Ghent, Belgium. 

BLEACHED YARNS AND THREADS IN EVERY STAGE. 

Report. — Commended for general good quality of products; fine white of bleached yams; 
strength of yams and threads. 

202. Ullathome & Co., Durham, England. 

SHOE THREADS. 

Report, — Commended for superior quality and evenness of yams, great variety and bril- 
liancy of colors, great utility of the articles manufactured. 



203. Dunbar, McMaster, & Co., QUford, Ireland. 

UNEN THREADS, GRAY, BLEACHED, AND DYED. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence in quality and colors, general variety of 
products, novelty and specialty in flosses, splendid collection of goods in every respect. 



204. Bbaert Cools, Alost, Belgium. 

LINEN YARNS AND SEWING THREAD. 

Report. — Conunended for general good quality of yams and threads ; also for variety of 
fine colors. 

205. Marques Caralt & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

HEMP THREADS. 

Report, — Commended for economy and adaptability to purpose of the hemp shoe threads. 



206. Cartier-Bresson, Paris, France. 

SEWING COTTON. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in quality and color of the sewing cotton. 



207. C. G. Billeter, Zurich, Switzerland. 

SINGED COTTON THREAD AND OTHER THREADS. 

Report. — Commended for the peculiar softness, evenness, and strength, and special adap- 
tation to the use for which they are intended. 



208. Hilversum Steam Spinning and Weaving Manufactory, Amsterdam, Neth« 

erlands. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Honest, strong, durable, and well-made drills and sheetings. 



209. Barbour Flax Spinning Co., Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

FLAX YARNS AND THREADS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in quality and color of threads; general utility of 
product. 

210. American Linen Thread Co., Mechanicville, N. Y.» U. S. 

LINEN THREAD AND YARN. 

Report. — Commended for smoothness, evenness, and excellence in all respects, of their 
flax products of American manufacture. 

51 



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52 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

211. Neptune Twine Mills, Emery Johnson, Proprietor, East Haddam, Conn., 

U.S. 

TWINE AND CORD. 

Report. — Peculiar even and strong seine twine and other cords. 



212. J. & P. Coats, Paisley, Scotland. 

SEWING COTTON. 

Report, — Commended for the superior strength and excellent quality of spool cotton. 



213. Marshall & Co., Leeds, England. 

LINEN SEWING AND OTHER THREADS. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence in quality and color of threads; specialities 
and general variety of goods ; a very superior collection of goods in every respect. 



214. Baron Stieglitz, near Narva, Russia. 

CANVAS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in all respects of the sail duck, of various grades 
of fineness. 

215. Druid Mills, Baltimore, Md., U. S. 

COTTON SAIL DUCK. 

Report. — Commended as clean, well manufactured, even, and 'veil adapted for its pur- 
pose. 

216. Thomas Hall, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

HAND-PAINTED CLOTHS, IN IMITATION OF TAPESTRY, FOR WALL DECORATION. 

Report. — The novel application of scene decorations for domestic purposes, carried out 
by two very effective landscape paintings, size nine feet by six feet, painted in water-colors 
on jute canvas, adapted for inside walls and panels. 



217. Michael Nairn & Co., Kirkcaldy, Scotland. 

FLOOR OIL CLOTHS. 
Report. — Commended for excellent workmanship and material; for tasteful designs and 
beautiful colors; extraordinary and unequaled size; flexibility and superior quality. 



218. H. Loewenberg, Charlottenburg, near Berlin, Germany. 

IMITATION OF LE,\THER RELIEF ORNAMENTS FOR HATS, BOOTS, AND SHOES. 

Report. — Commended for novelty of material, variety of objects, and fitness to the purposes 
intended. 



219. Boulinikon Floor Cloth Manufacturing Co. (Limited), Manchester, England. 

FLOOR CLOTH. 
Report. — Commended for originality in material, adaptation to public wants, and fitness 
to the purposes intended ; also for good quality, fair designs, flexibility, apparently great 
durability, and moderate prices. 

52 



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GROUP VJIL 53 

220. Joseph Sak-Volders, Turahout, Belgium. 

FLAX TICKINGS AND AWNING STRIPES. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in color and quality of the tickings and awning 
stripes. 

221. Commission-General for the National Exhibitions, Brazil. 

COTTON CLOTHS AND HAMMOCKS. 

Report, — Commended for the variety of their exhibition, and the adaptability of the arti- 
cles exhibited to popular wants, including hammocks of different materials from different 
provinces ; . cotton fabrics, plain, colored ; quilts, towels. 



222. Mayall Manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

PATENT ANTI-MOTH CARPET LINING. 

Report. — ^The cotton is pressed with an anti-moth preparation, and dried thoroughly on 
hot cylinders ; full thirty-six inches wide ; perforation of the lining, one-ply cloth and 
twenty per cent, paper, besides the cotton. The perforation is made to allow the dust to 
settle on the floor. Especially adapted to hotels and public buildings. Commended for 
excellence. 

223. National Rope Yard, Lisbon, Portugal. 

CANVAS. 

Report, — Commended for the fair and serviceable quality of canvas, well suited to use. 



224. The Mount Vernon Co., Baltimore, Md., U. S. 

COTTON DUCK AND TWINE. 
Report, — Commended for the strength and utility of their wide duck, for car roofs and 
other purposes, and for the even, good quality of their twine. 



225. Local Government of Ni-i-gata-ken, Japan. 

RAMIE CLOTH. 

Report. — Commended for the variety and adaptability of the ramie fabrics, as well as the 
ingenuity shown in the use of printed or dyed yams, producing figures when the cloth is 
woven. 

226. Local Government of Nara-ken, Japan. 

BLEACHED HEMP CLOTH. 

Report. — Commended for the fineness of the fabric produced from hemp, and its adap- 
tability to the purposes of clothing for which it is intended. 



227. Municipality of Osaka, Japan. 

COTTON RUGS. 

Report. — Commended for utility and adaptability to intended purpose. 



228. Association for Women's Work, Kiyoto, Japan. 

COTTON RUGS — DANTSUORI. 

Report, — Commended for the peculiar method of working cotton into a useful rug of 
peculiarly attractive style. 

53 



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54 liEPORTS ON AWARDS, 

229. Imperial Board of Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry, Toldo, Japan. 

COTTON RUGS. 

Report. — Commended for utility and adaptability to purpose of the collection of plain 
and colored mattings. 

230. W. Walcker, Paris, France. 

MILITARY AND GARDEN TENTS. 
Report, — Commended for the very great variety of military, picnic, and garden tents, com- 
bining excellence of material with convenience of form, extreme strength, and simplicity 
of adjustment, in a remarkable degree. 



231. Josi Feced, Manila, Philippine IsUnds. 

CLOTH FROM THE MANILA HEMP. 
Report. — Commended for the fineness and delicacy of the cloth made from the fibre of 
the " Musa textilis," or Manila hemp. 



232. Mechanical Net Manufacturing and Weaving Stock Co., Itzehoe, Holstein, 

Germany. 

NETS AND SAIL CLOTH. 

Report. — Commended for very good quality of cotton and linen nets; first-rate workman 
ship; goods made of the best yam with great care. 



233. George W. Chipman & Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

CARPET LININGS AND STAIR PADS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in all the following properties : elasticity, softness, 
overcomes unevenness in the floor, warmth in winter, coolness in summer, water-proof, 
preventing water from leaking through floors and ceilings; made with such excellence in 
seaming, lapping both in the ordinary selvage of sewing and a tape strip, as to prevent 
the inner material from working or raveling out. 

Cedrinated carpet lining is anti-moth and anti-insect in its medicated properties, free 
from oil or oily substance attracting mice or vermin of any kind. A solution of sugar of 
lead also prevents mildew. The entire exhibit very full and satisfactory. 



234. Methuen Mill, Webster Mill, and Nevens Bag Mill (Nevens & Co.), Boston, 

Mass., U. S. 

HEAVY BAGGJNG MADE FROM JUTE. 

Report. — Commended for even texture and adaptation to use, good manufacture, and 
closeness in the web. 

235. Rosenlund Cotton Manufacturing Co., Goteborg, Sweden. 

COTTON DUCK, TWINE, AND YARN. 

Report. — Commended for evenness, strength, and thorough honesty in the fabrics. 



236. Rebello & Co., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

COARSE COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the even spinning, good color, and excellent combination ol 
their striped osnaburgs. 

54 



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GROUP VI JI. 55 

237. Barlow & Jones (Limited), Manchester, England. 

VKSTINGS, MARSEILLES QUILTS, AND CRETONNES. 

Report, — Commended for the general excellence and variety of the goods exhibited, and 
for the special beauty and quality of the Marseilles quilts, which appear to us to be un- 
equaled in style and quality. 

238. Christiania Sail Cloth Manufactory, Christiania, Norway. 

SAIL CLOTH, YARNS, AND TWINES. 
Report, — Commended for excellence and adaptability to purpose. 



239. Lawrence Waterbury & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

JUTE BAGGING. 

Report, — Commended for its very excellent manufacture and its adaptability to baling 
cotton. 

240. Thomas Potter, Sons, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

OIL CLOTH. 
Report, — Conmiended for their very great variety, excellent quality, numerous, onginal, 
and artistic designs, rich finish and colors ; admirable in every way. 



241. American Linoleum Manufacturing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

LINOLEUM FLOOR CLOTH. 
Report, — Commended for the beauty and finish of their designs and colors, and excellent 
qualities of the cloth. 

242. Hamilton Webbing Co., Wickford, R. I., U. S. 

WEBBING FOR BOOT AND SHOE STRAPS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence, strength, good color, and fitness for service. 



243. James Riddle, Son, & Co., Wilmington, Del., U. S. 

TICKINGS. 
Report, — ^Variegated colors and plain blue striped. Conmiended for excellence in twill 
and colors; double warp, 104 picks; pure cotton; peculiarly novel fabric. 



244. Falls Co., Norwich, Conn., U. S. 

COTTON AWNINGS AND TICKINGS. 

Report. — Awning stripes, wide striped tickings. Conmiended for excellent fabric and 
color of awning stripes, clear white and blue in tickings, and great smoothness in stripe 
and texture. 



245. John Famum ft Co., Conestoga Steam Mills, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

TICKINGS. 

Report, — Sixty-inch wide specially noteworthy. Commended for excellence of materials, 
color, weaving, and good variety. 

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56 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

246. Gale & Co., Bostbn, Mass., U. S. 

TENTS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in the employment of an expanding and folding 
frame for distending the upper part of a tent; very novel and adapted to all out-door 
purposes, where lawn, beach, hunters' and camp tents are used ; quick folding against 
sudden storms, or strongly fortifying all sides, enabling them to stand against wind or rain; 
economy and adaptation. 

247. David Trainer & Sons, Omega Manufacturing Co., Linwood, Pa., U. S. 

TICKINGS. 

Report, — These tickings are strictly first-class, and excel in herring-bone twill. Com- 
mended for fineness of yarn and peculiarly good colors. 



248. Ignaz Richter & Sons, Niedergrund, Bohemia, Austria. 

COTTON VELVETS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety of distinctly shaded colors, fully one hundred 
and twenty different colorings; entirely odorless; evenness of fabric, silky finish, and 
durability. 

249. Juan Conti, Barcelona, Spain. 

COTTON TURKISH GARMENTS AND COTTON FABRICS. 

Report. — Remarkable for novelty of design in Turkish garments for ladies ; colors deli- 
cately and exquisitely done ; towels, table covers, material for garments ; exceedingly well 
done. The entire exhibit is admirable. 



250. Weigert & Co., Berlin, Germany. 

COTTON CHENILLE SHAWLS. 
Report. — Commended for the novelly of fabric and excellent quality of this especial 
specimen of cotton goods, beauty of coloring, and economy in cost. 



251. Parellada, Flaquer, & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

CORDUROY COTTON COLORED FABRICS. 
Report. — Commended for variety and excellence of colors, strength of fabric, economy, 
and durability. 

252. M. R. Oetiker, Mannedorf, Zurich, Switzerland. 

WHITE AND COLORED QUILTS AND TAIILE CLOTHS. 

Report. — Commended for unusual excellence in style and weaving. 



253. Dundas Cotton Mills, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

HEAVY BROWN SHEETINGS AND SEAMLF-SS BAGS. 

Report. — The sheetings are very even, firm, and very clean, and the bags are of a verj' 
superior quality. 

254. Garsed Brothers, Frankford, Pa., U. S. 

TICKINGS. 

Report. — Commended for superior quality, brilliancy in colors, and strength of cloth. 

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GROUP VIII, 



57 



255. York Manufacturing Co., Saco, Me., U. S. 

TICKINGS, NANKEENS, DENIMS, AND FANCY WOVEN FABRICS. 

Report. — Nankin plaids and stripes, excellent; denims, plaids, and stripes, very novel; 
tickings, peculiarly adapted for good service. In iheir goods the designs are excellent and 
novel, the weaving very even, and the quality is unsurpassed. 



256. Everett Mills, Lawrence, Mass., U. S. 

FANCY COTTONS, COTTONADES, AND CHEVIOTS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in subdued coloring, smoothness of fabncs, general 
good taste in design, of cheviot shirtings ; cottonades of very good quality. 



257. Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., Manchester, N. H., U. S. 

TICKINGS, DENIMS, AND DOMESTIC GINGHAMS. 

Report, — Ginghams, excellent in red, orange, and black combination, heretofore almost 
confined to foreign goods ; pink clear and well colored ; green in all shades remarkably 
line. 

Plaids and tickings, known as A C A, very superior. 

Awnings in blue and red stripes, and denims in blue and brown, excellent. 

Cheviot shirtings of excellent fabric and peculiarly good combination of colors. 



258. Gervasio Amat, Gracia, Barcelona, Spain. 

ESPARTO MATS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence in quality, and economy of production, of the 
mattings of esparto grass. 

259. Imperial Maritime Customs of China. 

MATTINGS, GRASS CLOTH, COTTON, AND COTTON CLOTH. 

Report. — Commended for the great variety and excellence of the exhibit, comprising 
rattan mats, grass cloth in great variety of quality, bamboo, cloth mats from Takon, pine- 
apple cloth, hemp cloth from Formosa, and mats, woven by the aborigines, from the same 
place, cotton, white and yellow, and cotton cloths, bleached and unbleached, dyed and 
printed, nankeens, hemp, fine and coarse, from various provinces, and hemp cloth, hemp 
skins (so called), or fibre of the Bohmeria, China grass, pineapple fibre, and coir or cocoa- 
nut fibre ; being a very large, instructive, and valuable collection. 



260. Fergusson & Co., Chefoo, China. 

STRAW BRAID. 

Report, — Commended for the variety and excellence of the straw braids of various qual- 



261. Russell & Co., Canton, China. 

MATS. 

Report. — Commended for the superior excellence of the straw mattings of various grades. 



262. J. Forbes Watson, Director Indian Museum, British India. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the large and valuable collection of samples of cotton, flax, 
rheea, hemp, aloe, musa, and other vegetable fibres, embracing over forty species of great 
value, exhibited by the Museum under his care. 

57 



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jg REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

263. PaoU Vincenxi, Carpi, Modena, Italy. 

WOVEN BRAIDS AND TRIMMINGS OF WOOD. 

Report. — Commended for the ingenuity and evenness of fabric of the woven braids and 
trimmings made of wooden fibres, representing an important branch of industry. 



264. Qovaert Brothers, Alost, East Flanders, Belgium. 

JUTE FABRICS. 

Report, — G>mmended for the economy of fabrication, excellence of quality, and adapta- 
bility to purpose of the jute bagging and bags for salt, grain, etc., and also for the evenness 
of the sail cloth. 

265. Severino Leite, Minas Qeraes, Brazil.* 

VEGETABLE HAIR. 

Report, — Commended for good quality and great variety of the fibre, in all its processes, 
novelties in manufactured goods thereof, and variety in specialities. 



266. E. W. Rudder, Kempsey, New South Wales, Australia. 

FIBRE OF GIGANTIC NETTLE-TREE. 

Report, — Fibre of gigantic nettle-tree and bark of sycamore-tree. Commended for dis- 
covery of fibre and adaptation for trade purposes, utility thereof, comparative smoothness. 



267. Thomas Longmire, Kooroocheang, Smeaton, Victoria, Australia. 

FLAX STALKS, SEEDS, AND JUTE. 

Report. — Very fair specimens, of good quality. 



268. Thomas McPherson & Co., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

JUTE. 
Report. — Long and soft jute, strong in fibre and of very good quality. 



269. Government of the Loo-Choo Islands, Japan. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the value of the collection of vegetable fibres, China g^rass. 



270. Government of Venezuela, Venezuela. 

COCUIZA FIBRES, COTTON, AND MANUFACTURES OF VEGETABLE FIBRES. 
Report. — Commended for the excellent quality of the cotton, white and yellow; the value 
of the samples of the fibre of the "Fourcroya gigantea," called cocuiza, raw and colored; 
and the excellence and adaptability of the hammocks, halters, girths, and cruppers made 
of palm and other fibres. 

271. T. Asaya, Tokio, Japan. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the value of the collection of vegetable fibres, viz., hemp, 
ramie, and jute. 



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GROUP VIJL 59 

272. Qovemor of the Jail of Santona, Province of Santander, Spain. 

STRAW FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the great beauty and ingenuity of the different products made 
from wheat straw by convict labor. 



273. Robert Thompson, Superintendent Government Botanical Gardens, Gordon 

Town, Jamaica. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the large and important collection of vegetable fibres, destined 
to be of great importance to manufactures. 



274. J. C. Read, Governor of the Darlinghurst Jail, Sydney, New South Wales, 

Australia. 

MATTING, MADE BY THE ABORIGINES. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in quality and variety of product. 



275. Dr. James Hector, Wellington, New Zealand. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES AND FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the large and valuable collection of fibres of vegetable origin, 
with samples of the fabrics produced therefrom, especially of the **phormium tenax" or 
New Zealand flax, indicating the direction of a new and important industry. 



276. Corps of Mountain Engineers, Madrid, Spain. 

FABRICS OF ESPARTO GRASS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in quality and design, well suited to their respective 
purposes, and of peculiar merit for their cheapness. 



277. Local Government of the Loo-Choo Islands, Japan. 

FABRICS OF COTTON, HEMP, AND PLANTAIN FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended for the variety of articles exhibited, showing the ordinary fabrics 
of the country and the adaptability of the hemp and plantain fibre cloths for use in hot 
climates. 

278. Commissioners for Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the very large and valuable collection of vegetable fibres ex- 
hibited; destined to be of great importance in the future development of manufacturing in- 
dustry. 

279. Provincial Board of Batangas, Philippine Islands. 

FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended for the great variety of fabrics of pineapple and other fibres, of 
great beauty and delicacy, collected and exhibited by them, as well as for the collection of 
the fibres themselves. 

280. Tiburcio Villamarzo, Tayabas, Philippine Islands. 

VEGETABLE HAIR FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended as well adapted for submarine purposes, impervious to water rot, 
very flexible, adapted to weaving and rope-making. 

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6o REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

281. Qoverament of Portugal, Province of Angola. 

WOODED FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended as well prepared, very fibrous, strong, flexible, adapted to many 
manufacturing purposes. 

282. Provincial Board of Antique, Philippine Islands. 

FABRICS OF VEGETABLE FIBRE. 

Report, — Commended for the great variety of fabrics of pineapple and other fibres, of 
great beauty and delicacy, collected and exhibited by them, as well as for the collection of 
the fibres themselves. 

283. Provincial Government of Camarines (North), Philippine Islands. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the excellence in length and strength of the fibres of the col- 
lection of Manila hemp, " Musa textilis." 



284. Provincial Government of Camarines (South), Philippine Islands. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the excellent quality in length and strength of the fibres of 
Manila hemp, " Musa textihs." 



285. Enrique Bushell, Hellin, Murcia, Spain. 

ESPARTO GRASS. 

Report, — Commended for the remarkable length and excellence of the esparto grass, 
showing the effect of careful cultivation. 



286. Dr. Agostinho Emelindo de LeSo, Parana, Brazil. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the value of the fibres of Bilbergia tinctoria for purposes of 
cordage. 

287. J. Home, Director Botanic Garden, Mauritius. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — A large and valuable collection of vegetable fibres, destined to be of great future 
value as subjects of manufacture. 

288. Severino Lourenfo da Costa Leite, Brazil. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the value and beauty of the fibres of the asclepias, and also 
or the four different specimens of "vegetable wool," so called from different species of 
palm-tree and the fibre of the malpighiosa. 



289. Commissioners for Queensland, Australia. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — A large and interesting collection of fibres of vegetable origin, destined to be 
of great future importance in manufactures. 



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GROUP VIII, 
290. Jos6 Rodriguez Vigan, Yloco Sur, Philippine Islands. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the vahie of the fibre of the Agave vivipara. 



61 



291. Henry Prestoe, Government Botanist, Trinidad. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the interesting and varied collection of fibres of vegetable 
origin collected and exhibited by him, and for their prospective value as subjects for manu- 
facture. 



292. Fray Nicolas Zugadi, Bulacan, Philippine Islands. 

VEGETABLE FIBRE. 

Report, — Commended for the excellence and adaptability for hats and mats of the fibres 
of the sygodium or climbing fern, called Nito limpis. 



293. Commissioners of New Zealand. 

PHORMIUM. 

Report, — A general collection of the fibre, illustrating all manner of preparation and ap- 
plications for the manufacture of rope, cordage, yam, cloth, and paper. Commended for 
great labor and pains, and for economy and quality of the different products. 



294. Botanical Gardens, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

FIBRES OF DIFFERENT TREES AND PLANTS. 

Report, — Commended for discovery, adaptation for trade purposes, perseverance in prep- 
aration thereof, general utility, of following fibres : flume-tree, bottle-tree, lantern-flower, 
Chinese grass, cloth-plant, tree-nettle : large assortment, of great variety ; good-colored 
jute. 

295. Robert Thompson, Superintendent Botanical Gardens, Gordon Town, 

Jamaica. 

SISAL HEMP AND CHINA GRASS. 
Report, — Commended for the great utility of all the^e fibres in the collection, especially 
sisal hemp, China grass, pineapple, bamboo, lace bark, especially adapted for ornamental 
purposes; of novelties and good quality; utility of bamboo for paper manufacturing 
especially noted. 

296. National Museum, Cairo, Egypt. 

FLAX, SILK IMITATIONS, AND BARKS. 

Report. — Commended for good quality and color and great variety of flax, and for fine 
silk imitations ; also for great variety of barks. 



297. Province of Bahia, Brazil. 

VFX3ETABLE HAIR AND JUTE, 

Report. — Conmiended for fair quality of jute, good length, and fair color. 

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^2 REPOR TS ON A IVARDS, 

298. Government of the State of Hidalgo, Pachuca City, Mexico. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES AND FABRICS. 

Report. — An admirable collection of fibres and textile fabrics of the Agave Americana, 
coarse, fine, and colored, with a representation of the plant in wax. 



299. Government of the State of Yucatan, Mexico. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES AND FABRICS. 

Report. — Commended for the very fine collection of hammocks, mats, and bagging, and 
small cordage made of the fibres of the maguey plant or agave, with the exhibit of fibres 
of the same, of great length and strength. 



300. R. S. Dabney, Fayal, Azores Islands. 

MANUFACTURES OF GRASS AND STRAW. 

Report. — Commended for excellence, economy, and adaptability of fibres and fabrics 



301. Manuel Machado, Fasral, Azores Islands. 

MATTINGS AND BRUSHES. 

Report. — Commended for excellence, economy, and adaptability of the mattress and 
pillow mats, brushes, and other articles, made of pine shavings. 



302. Almeida & Silva, Oporto, Portugal. 

MATTINGS. 

Report. — Commended for adaptability and economy of the rush matting. 



303. Joaquim d'Oliveira Melindre, Oporto, Portugal. 

MATTINGS. 

Report. — Commended for the design and execution of the colored rush mattings. 



304. Manoel Dias da Silva, Oporto, Portugal. 

MATTINGS. 
Report. — Commended for excellence, economy, and adaptability. 



305. Manoel d'Oliveira, Margarido, Oporto, Portugal. 

FABRICS OF VEGETABLE MATERIALS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence and ingenuity of the mats, fiask-covers, and other 
articles made of rushes. 

306. Juana de Foneira, Fayal, Azores Islands. 

MATS AND HATS. 

Report. — Commended for ingenuity and excellence of the mats and hats made of pine 
shavings. 

307. Colonial Government of Cape Verde, Portuguese Colonies. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES AND FABRICS. 

Report. — A valuable collection of fibres, of great industrial promise, and also of mats 
and baskets produced from the same. 

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GROUP VIIL 63 

508. Provincial Committee of Amazonas, Brazil. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES FROM TREES. 

Report, — Commended for excellence and interest, and adaptability for various purposes. 



309. Francisco Garcia Calatrava, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain. 

ESPARTO GRASS. 

Report, — Commended for the superior length and strength of the fibre of cultivated 
esparto grass. 

310. Botanical Museum, Buitenzorg, Java. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — A large and varied collection of fibres of vegetable origin, destined to be of 
great future importance to manufacturers. 



311. Municipal Chamber of Santarem, Bahia, Brazil. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the value of the fibres of Urena lobaia and Astrocarium 
Tucuman, suitable for cordage, fish lines, and hammocks. 



312. Bruno da Silva, Lisbon, Portugal. 

MATTINGS. 

Report. — Commended for adaptability and excellence of quality. 



313. Francisco Prast Banon, Hellin, Albacete, Spain. 

ESPARTO GRASS. 

^^^^r/.— Commended for the improvement made by cultivation on the fibres of esparto 
grass. 

314. Colonial Government of Mozambique, Portuguese Colonies. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the valuable collection of fibres of great industrial promise, 
and the baskets, mats, and other fabrics produced from the same. 



315. Mufioz Brothers, Albay, Philippine Islands. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence in quality of the fibres of the Manila hemp and 
** Cabo negro" palm. 

316. Portuguese Government, Lisbon, Portugal. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report.-^K large and varied assortment of fibres of vegetable origin, from Portugal and 
her colonial possessions. 

317. Colonial Government of Angola, Portuguese Colonies. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report, — ^A valuable collection of fibres of great industrial promise, and articles of native 
workmanship produced from the same. 

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64 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

318. Tomas Gallegos, Albay, Philippine Islands. 

BANANA FIBRE. 

Report, — Commended for the beauty and adaptability to manufacture of the banana fibre. 



319. Colonial Oovemment of Macao and Timor, Portuguese Colonies* 

VEGETABLE HBRES. 

Report, — A valuable collection of fibres of great industrial promise, and of mats and other 
fabrics produced from the same. 

320. Dr. Eduardo Ordufla, Batangas, Philippine Islands. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — A large collection of valuable vegetable fibres from " Musa textilis'^ and other 
plants. 

321. Province of Bahia, Brazil. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the value, for purposes of cordage, of the fibre of ** Fourcroya 
gigantea.^^ 

322. Colonial Government of Portuguese India, Portuguese Colonies. 

VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — A valuable collection of fibres of great industrial promise, and also the fabrics 
produced from the same. 

323. Charles Chinnery, Addington, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

PHOR\nUM FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended for excellent quality of fibre for roping purposes, great strength, 
careful preparation. 

324. Brotons Brothers, Orihuela, Alicante, Spain. 

FLAX AND JUTE FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended for smoothness, length, and strength of fibre : the flax of silky 
finish. • 



325. Segunda Flores, Manila, Philippine Islands. 

MANUFACTURE OF FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for the great beauty and exquisite delicacy of the silk and pine- 
npple fibre dresses and handkerchiefs. 



326. Placido Yuson, Yloilo, Philippine Islands. 

MANUFACTURES OF VEGETABLE FIBRES. 

Report. — Commended for fineness and beauty of the fabric of "yusi" and aUk. 



327. Joseph Wild & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

COCOANUT FIBRE CARPETS. 

Report. — Striped and plain caqict of unusual evenness and general excellence 

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GROUP VIIL 65 

328. Wakefield Rattan Co., Wakefield, Mass., U. S. 

RATTAN GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for variety, novelty, utility, and unsurpassed excellence. 



329. Asbestos Patent Fibre Co., Chatham Mills, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

ASBESTOS FIBRE AND FABRICS. 

Report. — Very superior fibre for steam packing, especially adapted to meet a present 
want in steam joints; excellent non-combustible paper, the first real success of the kind, as 
far as is now known ; water and steam pipes, either for outside covering of iron pipes or 
for use in themselves for the transmission of water or steam. Commended for superiority 
in manufacture, non-expansion, non-contraction, very little friction, economy in prices and 
uses. 

330. H. W. Johns, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

ASBESTOS FIBRE AND FABRIC. 

Report. — Variety of fibre, domestic and foreign. Roofing, excellent, durable, econom. 
ical, especially resisting outside heat and fire. Asbestos covering on wood, put on in the 
liquid state and solidified by the action of the air. Greatest success in fire-proof outer and 
inner coating, covering felt, and rough hair fabrics. 



331. J. H. Ter Horst, Rijssen, Netherlands. 

JUTE AND FLAX GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for general excellence, good quality, and strength of burlaps and 
bags. 

332. Count Augusto Polidori, Anghiari, Arezzo, Italy. 

GRASSES, PREPARED GINESTRO. 
Report. — Commended as well prepared in all respects for commercial purposes, fineness 
and tenacity of fibre; well adapted to the manufacture of grass goods. 



333. Manuel Mas Bl Son, Alicante, Spain. 

FABRICS OF ESPARTO GRASS. 

Report. — Mattings and other fabrics of esparto grass, of excellent quality, well adapted 
to use, at low cost, and showing the great improvement made in the fibre by careful culti- 
ration. 



334 Cesare Vecchietti, Florence, Italy. 

GINESTRO GRASSES. 

Report. — Commended for remarkable flexibility; well adapted to the various uses to 
which such gras.ses can be put. 

335. Eduardo Orduna, Batangas, Philippine Islands. 

COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for the good quality of the cotton. 



336. Ryder Brothers, Mango Island, Fiji. 

SEA-ISLAND COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for extraordinary length of staple, fineness and strength, and 
good handling. 

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66 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

337- Agricultural Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

COTTON. 
Report » — Commended for the variety of samples of cotton, viz., sea-island, short staple, 
and nankin, grown in Turkestan. 



338. Provincial Government of Batangas, Philippine Islands. 

COTTON. 
Report. — Commended for the excellence of the samples of cotton and the yams spun 
from the same. 

{39. Procesa Dimajruga, Batangas, Philippine Islands. 

COTTON. 
Report. — Commended for the good quality of the cotton, being the best shown from the 
East Indies, and for the evenness of the yam spun from the same. 



340. Khedive of Egypt, Cairo, Eg3^t. 

SAMPLES OF RAW COTTON. 

Report. — A large and varied exhibit of Egyptian cotton samples, of excellent staple. 



341. Government of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

RAW COTTON. 

Repprt, — The best display of cotton in quantity and variety from any foreign country. 



342. Government of Queensland, Australia. 

RAW COTTON. 
Report. — Eight small samples of upland cotton, well handled, and fair staple. 



343. Government of Portugal, Portuguese Colonies. 

RAW COTTON. 
Report. — Although the samples shown are too small to receive an award as an actual 
commercial exhibit by individuals, they are deserving of one as an exhibit of the capabili- 
ties of the districts wherein they were grown, and the enterprise of the government which 
has collected them, as well as for the promise which they offer for the future. 



344. T. A. Beckett, John's Island, S. C, U. S. 

SEA-ISLAND COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for unusual fineness, length, strength, and preparation. 



345. Wm. Taylor, Philips County, Arkansas, U. S. 

RAW COTTON, COMMERCIAL BALE. 

Report. — Commended for extraordinary fineness, silky appearance, good staple, and 
excellem ginning. 



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GROUP VIIL 67 

346. Adams Kellogg, Kellogg's Landing, Madison Parish, Louisiana, U. S. 

RAW COTTON, CX)MMERCIAL BALE. 

Report. — Commended for extraordinary strength of staple, brightness of color, and good 
bandling. 

347. Benjamin Montgomery (colored), Warren County, Miss., U. S. 

RAW COTTON, COMMERCIAL BALE. 

Report, — Commended for very extraordinary length of staple and good handling. 



348. Claghom, Herring, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

RAW COTTON IN VARIETY. 
Report. — The best exhibit of commercial bales of raw cotton from all parts of the world ; 
also cotton in the seed and on the planL 



349. J. M. Seabrook, South Carolina, U. S. 

SEA-ISLAND COTTON (RAW). 
Report. — Commended for extra length, strength, and fineness of staple. 



350. Charles Taulez-Bottelier, Bruges, Belgium. 

FLAX. 
Report. — Commended for very good quality and nice variety, specially in strong and soft 
flaxes, ordinarily long. 

351. Pietro P. Facchini & Co., Bologna, Italy. 

HEMP AND FLAX. 
Report. — Commended for superior excellence in raw, scutched, and combed flaxes and 
hemp ; great strength and length of products ; fine lines and clean soft tows ; clearness of 
color and brightness of white and yellow unsurpassed ; splendid specimens of the product 
of Italy. 

352. Henry Le Clercq, Courtrai, Belgium. 

FLAX. 

Report. — Commended for superior excellence of quality; splendid collection of the flaxes 
of Belgium ; beautiful colors; rare softness of fibre; great strength : unsurpassed in the whole 
exhibition. 

353. S. S. Fuller, Stratford, Ontario, Canada. 

FLAX. 
Report. — Commended for good quality and long staple. 



354. Joaquim Rodrigues, Oporto, Portugal. 

FLAX. 
Report. — Commended for excellence in length and strength of the combed flax. 



355. State of Oregon, U. S. 

FLAX. 

Report, — ^Very fair quality, considerable strength, good color, and well prepared. 

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68 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

356. Province of Parana, Brazil. 

FLAX AND JUTE. 
Report, — Fair quality of the flax. The jute is more highly recommendeH. 



357. Dutch Association for the Encouragement of Flax Industry, Rotterdam, 

Netherlands. 

FLAX AND LINSEED. 
Report, — G>mmended for first-rate quality of fibre, strength and vigor of fibre, fine dark 
color, sloftness and general beauty of material. 



358. Nicholas Vassilief, Pskof, Russia. 

FLAX FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the very large collection and the great beauty and strength of 
the flax fibres. 



359. Anthony Nemilof, Orel, Russia. 

HEMP. 

Report, — Commended for the excellence, in length and strength, of the dressed hemp. 



360. A. P. Van Casteel, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 

DRESSED FLAX. 

Report. — Commended for the great length and excellent quality of fibre of the Dutch, 
Zealand, and Friesland dressed flax. 



361. Zealand Association for the Promotion of Agriculture, Middelburg, Neth- 
erlands. 

DRESSED FLAX AND HEMP. . 

Report. — Commended for the great excellence of the specimens of dressed hemp and flax. 



362. Loring Brothers, Malaga and Granada, Spain. 

ESPARTO CRASS. 
Report. — Commended for the excellent quality of the esparto grass, showing the great 
improvement in the fibre by careful*cultivation and attention. 



363. Clement Nemilof, Rjef, Tver, Russia. 

HEMP. 

Report, — Commended for the excellent quality of the dressed heipp in all states ot 
progress, from the hackle to ** dressed line." 



364. W. H. Dabney, Azores Islands, Portuguese Colonies. 

FLAX FIBRE. 
Report, — Commended for the good quality of tlie specimens of dressed and half-dressed 
flax, showing the resources of the islands. 



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GROUP VIIL 69 

365. Committee of the Riga Exchange, Riga, Russia. 

FLAX AND HEMP. 

Heport, — Commended for ihe admirable selection of the specimens of flax and hemp in 
difierent states of progress. 

366. Basil Maxinof, Zagorie, Kostroma, Russia. 

FLAX. 

Report, — Commended for the very excellent quality of the collection of flax flbre. 



367. Roman Cartau, Pskof, Russia. 

FLAX. 

Report, — Commended for the superior length and quality of the specimens of flax. 



368. Eugene Karamyshef, Torjok, Tver, Russia. 

HEMP AND FLAX. 

Report, — Conmiended for the economy and adaptability of the flax and hemp flbres pro- 
duced from ripe plants, with specimens of the plants in seed. 



369. Theodore Bykof, Vologda, Russia. 

FLAX PRODUCTS. 

Report, — Commended for the great length and smoothness of fibre and strength and ex- 
cellence of the flax yams. 

370. Statistical Committee of Pskof, Russia. 

FLAX FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended for the very large and admirable collection of the fibres of flax, 
raised on very poor and sandy soil, and showing all the steps of preparation previous to 
spinning; all of very superior quality. 



371. Manoel Ignacio Femandes, Telloes, Villa Real, Portugal. 

FLAX FIBRES. 
Report, — Commended for the fineness and softness of staple. 



372. Prince Nicholas Repnin, Poltava, Russia. 

FLAX FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the very valuable and instructive collection of flax fibres, in 
diflerent states of progress. 

373- Johann Narbuth, Vienna, Austria. 

HEMP FIBRES. 

Report, — Commended for the excellent quality of the undressed retted and unretted 
hemp, and its adaptability for the purpose of cordage. 



374. Provincial Government of the Camarines, Philippine Islands. 

MANILA HEMP FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended for great excellence in length, strength, and uniformity of fibre. 

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jro REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

375. Alfred Wishaw, St. Petersburg, Russia 

FLAX FIBRES. 
Report, — Commended for the large collection and excellent quality of the specimens of 
flax, grown in the extreme north of Russia. 



376. Provincial Board of Agriculture, Castellon, Spain. 

HEMP FIBRE. 
Report. — Commended for the excellence in quality of the samples of first and second 
quality dressed hemp. 

377. Valentin de la Crux Carrascalejo, Caceres, Spain. 

FLAX FIBRE. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence and usefulness of the dressed flax. 



378. Qent & Co., Pskof, Russia. 

FLAX. 
Report. — Commended for the great strength and fineness of the flax. 



379. Victorino Teixeira da Costa Liberal, Mondim de Basto, Villa Real, Portugal. 

FLAX. 

Report. — Conunended for fineness and softness of the flax samples. 



380. Dutch Agricultural Society, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 

FLAX AND HEMF. 
Report. — Commended for the excellence in quality and adaptability to purpose of the 
dressed flax and hemp. 

381. Agricultural and Forestry Union, Neustadtl, Moravia, Austria. 

FLAX AND TOW. 

Report. — Dressed flax of various qualities, in all states of progress from the "hackle*' to 
the "dressed line," prepared after the Belgian method. 



382. Joaquim Augusto da Silveira Carvalho, Penafiel, Oporto, Portugal. 

FLAX. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in length and softness of the flax fibre. 



383. Pedro Martins, Vieira, Braga, Portugal. 

FLAX. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in quality of sample of flax. 



384. The Committee of Ponta Delgado, St. Michael, Azores Islands. 

FLAX AND FLAX YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for the excellence of the samples of flax and brown and bleachcti 
linen yams ; and also the tow and yams of the same. 

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GROUP VIII, j\ 

385. L. Kluftinger, Bologna, Italy. 

HEMP. 

Keport, — Commended for the very great variety and excellence of the collection of dressed 
hemp, fibre of extraordinary fineness. 



386. Provincial Qovemment of Laguna, Philippine Islands. 

MANILA HEMP. 
Report, — Commended for excellent quality in length, strength, and evenness of fibre. 



387. Provincial Government of Albay, Philippine Islands. 

BIANILA HEAfP. 
Rfpori. — Commended for the great excellence of the Manila hemp in length, strength, 
and evenness of fibre. 

388. Jose de Segueira Pinto Queiroz, Vianno do Castello, Portugal. 

FLAX. 

^^^(^f/.^— Commended for the excellence of staple. 



389. Anacleto da Fonseca Motta, Sardoal, Santarem, Portugal. 

HEMP. 
Report, — Commended for excellence in length and fineness. 



390. John Fomara ft Co., Lingotto, Turin, Italy. 

WIRE CLOTH. 

Report, — Commended for the great variety and general excellence of the samples of wire 
doth, ranging from very coarse, for fencing purposes, to fine wire gauze. 



391. Barnard, Bishop, & Bamards, Norwich, England. 

WIRE FENCING. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in diagonal weaving in a low-priced fabric. Prin- 
cipal merit, economy and adaptation to general use. 



392. Louis Herrmann, Jr., Dresden, Germany. 

WIRE GOODS, WOVEN, 2^ INCHES Tu ^. 

Report, — Commended for special adaptability to wire screens in jails, out-houses, lawn 
fencing, for safety and ornament; also wire screens for sand, gravel, and general purposes 
in manufactories. 

393. Ph. J. Sch511er & Sons, Neustadt-on-the-Haardt, Germany. 

WIRE CLOTH, DOUBLE TWILLED. 

Report. — Commended for utility, especially in sifting potato-meal, sugar, starch, and all 
meals of that descrii>tion. 

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72 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

394. N. Greening & Sons, Warrington, England. 

WOVEN WIRE. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in material, regularity of meshes, smoothness of 
wire, strength of fabric ; very wide in heavy wire-woven fabrics. 

General purposes ; mait-kilns ; rice and flour mills ; general mining purposes. 



395. J. B. Brown & Co., London, England. 

GALVANIZED WIRE NETl'lNG FOR INCLOSING POULTRY, PHEASANTS, DOGS, EIC 

Report, — Commended for excellence in assortment, from four-inch to half-inch meshes, 
material, workmanship, economy, regularity of meshes, quality, and maimer of galvanizing. 



396. Pennsylvania Wire Works, E. Darby & Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

WIRE GOODS IN VARIETY AND NOVELTY. 

Report, — Novelties in trellises, bird cages, flower stands, and cases ; garden fencing. 
Commended for general excellence in design, material, and manufacture. 



397. J. Andersson, Kjardingagarde, Gnosjo, Sweden. 

(A peasant, making the goods by hand.) 
WIRE AND SIEVE CLOTH. 
Report, — Very deserving; commended for excellence in plainness, economy, anil strength. 



398. The Sellers Manufacturing Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

WIRE CLOTH FOR PAPER MACHINES. 
Report. — Commended for excellence in quality of material and workmanship; very 
heavy and flexible : seventy-two inches wide, thirty-six feet long. 



399. Clinton Wire Cloth Co., Clinton, Mass., U. S. 

WIRE FIRE-PROOF LATHING, FENCING, AND SCREENS. 
Report. — Conui'.ended for excellence of workmanship, utility, and stren;^iJi : especial noie 
taken of the wire lathing, as a means of protection from fire. 



400. The Woven Wire Mattress Co., Hartford, Conn., U. S. 

WIRE MATTRESS. 
Report, — Commended for excellence, strength, peculiar weaving, adaptation, economy, 
great durability, novelty of production. 



401. G. Dc Witt, Brother, & Co., Belleville, N. J., U. S. 

T ENTILATED ELASTIC BREAST PADS, FINE BRASS WIRE THREAD, AND FINE WIRE CLOTH. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in material, flexibility in the combination of br.iss 
wire and cotton threads, utility, and economy. One coil brass wire, five miles long, weighs 
one jwund ; wire cloth 10,000 (ten thousand) holes or meshes per square inch. 



402. John G. Avery, Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

THREAD, TWrNK, AND CORD MACHINERY. 

Report. — Commended for originality, perfection, and utility of machinery, fitness for the 
purposes intendetl, quality of products, and economy of working. 

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GROUP VIIL 73 

403. Waiiam Crabb, Newark, N. J., U. S. 

HACKLES, CARD CLOTHING, WOOL COMBS, PICKER TEETH, COMB PINS, AND GILLS. 

Report, — Commended for superior quality and utility of all the numerous articles exhib- 
ited, and fitness for their respective purposes. 



404. Fairbaim, Kennedy, & Naylor, Leeds, England. 

MACHINERY FOR PREPARING AND SPINNING JUTE, ETC. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in design, arrangement, and construction of the 
machines, and for the quality and economy of their productions. 



405. Samuel Lawson & Sons, Hope F6undry, Leeds, England. 

MACHINERY FOR CORDING, PREPARING, AND SPINNING JUTE, ETC. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in design, arrangement, and construction, and 
smoothness in working, of the machines, resulting in superior and economical production. 



406. Howard & Bullough, Accrington, England. 

CARDING ENGINE, DRAWING FRAME, AND INTERMEDIATE ROVING FRAME. 

Report, — Commended for the very great novelty and originality of the electric stojv 
motion, which overcomes one of the most serious difficulties incident to the intermediate 
roving frame, and is also of great value as applied to the card and drawing frame; and for 
good workmanship and excellence of machines. 



407. Thomas Gadd, Manchester, England. 

EIGHT-COLOR CALICO PRINTING BIACHINE AND STEAM ENGINE; ALSO ROLLER ENGRAVING 

MACHINERY. 

Report. — Commended for great excellence in design, arrangement, and construction, 
fitness for the purposes intended, economy, and adaptation to public wants. 



408. J. A. V. Smith, Manchester, N. H., U. S. 

TUBULAR STEEL SPEEDER FLIERS. 

Report. — Commended for lightness, strength, quality, and fitness of the fliers to the pur- 
poses intended, and saving of power. 



409. Providence Machine Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

SLUBBING, INTERMEDIATE, AND FINE COTTON ROVING FRAME. 

Report. — Commended for good workmanship and quality of machines, and for the supe- 
nor work produced by iheni. 

410. Greenwood & Batley (Albion Works), Leeds, England. 

MACHINE TO TIE IN WARPS FOR LOOMS. 

Report. — Commended for originality of invention, of construction, and of exhibition, 
combined with utility, quality, skill, and superior workmanship. The object sought, lo tie 
automatically instead of by hand, is completely achieved. 

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74 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

411. Piatt Bfothera ft Co. (Limited), Oldham, England. 

LONG STAPLE COTTON GIN. 
Report, — Commended for originality of invention, perfection in construction, and adap- 
tation to public wants in ginning of long staple cotton or "sea-island cotton." It ginned 
in presence of the Judges in thirty minutes 247^ pounds of sea-bland long staple seed 
cotton (or equal to the capacity of about a 25-saw gin on short staple cotton) without injury 
to the lint, requiring about one-half the power of the saw gin, the work being perfectly 
done. 

412. William T. Horrobin, Cohocs, N. Y., U. S. 

ANTI-FRICTION TOP ROLLERS. 

Report, — Commended for excellent quality and fitness for the intended purpose, with 
economy of cost and use. 

413. Lewiston Machine Co., Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

THOMAS'S POWER LOOMS AND WARPING MACHINE. 

Report, — Commended for ingenuity, skill, quality, economy, and fitness of machines for 
the production of plain and fancy fabrics and seamless bags. 



414. Eaton ft Ayer, Nashua, N. H., U. S. 

BOBBINS, SPOOLS, SHUTTLES, AND SKEWERS FOR SPINNING AND WEAVING. 

Report, — Commended for good quality and workmanship. There are also features of 
novelty and utility in the self-threading shuttles, and in the iron rings applied to spinning 
bobbins, for the Sawyer and Rabbeth spindles; and also to roving bobbins. 



415. A. B. Prouty, Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

CARD SETTING MACHINE. 

Report, — Commended because the machine possesses the important features of novelty 
and utility, combined with simplicity of arrangement and action and excellent construction. 
The work produced b superior in quality and economical in cost 



416. The Dutcher Temple Co., Hopedale, Mass., U. S. 

POWER LOOM TEMPLES. 

Report, — Commended for excellent quality and eminent fitness for the intended purpose. 



417. Saco Water- Power Machine Shop, Biddeford, Me., U. S. 

MULE SPINNING, DRAWING, AND ROVING MACHINES. 

Report, — Commended for originality, utility, and excellent quality of the machines, and 
for the great consideration given to the details. 



418. Geo. Draper ft Son, Hopedale, Mass., U. S. 

SPINNING FRAME AND TWISTER WITH THE SAWYER SPINDLE; IMPkOVED SPOOLS, WARPER. 
AND CREEL; SPINDLE; DOUBLE ADJUSTABLE RINGS. 

Report, — Commended for variety of machines, with originality of invention, excellence 
in quality, utility, and fitness for the purpose intended, economy of power and labor, and 
excellence of work produced. 

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GROUP VIIL 75 

» 419. Clark Thread Co., Newark, N. J., U. S. 

SELF-ACTING MULTI-SPOOL WINDING MACHINE FOR SPOOLING THREAD AND COTTON. 

Report, — Commended for originality and excellence of invention, fitness for the purpose 
intended, good construction, and accurate working of machine, resulting in a superior 
quality and great economy of winding. 



420. Fales & Jenks Machine Co., Pawtucket, R. I., U. S. 

mayor's COMBINED FLY FRAME AND SPEEDER. 

Repork — Commended for good substantial machinery, novelty of details and action, 
utility, fitness for the purpose intended, economy, and quality of work produced. 



421. Knowles ft Brother, Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

OPEN SHED FANCY LOOMS, FOR COTTON, WOOL, AND SILK. 

Report. — Commended for originality of invention, substantial and good construction of 
machinery, smoothness of working, facility for efiecting changes and for manipulating, 
economy, quality and variety of work produced. 



422. David McParland, Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

CARD SETTING MACHINE. 
Report, — Conmiended for simplicity and excellence of machine, and for the good quality 
and economy of the work done by it. 



423. H. W. Butterworth ft Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

liRYING MACHINES FOR COTTON FABRICS, AND DYEING MACHINES FOR COTTON WARPS. 

Report, — Commended as excellent in design, arrangement, and construction, possessing 
features of novelty and utility, and fitness to the intended purposes. 



424. Thomas Wood, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

POWER LOOMS AND WINDING MACHINE. 

Report. — Commended for excellent construction, numerous features of novelty, simplicity, 
and utility, facility for working, economy of labor in attending, cheapness, and quality of 
work produced. 

425. Richard Kitson Machine Co., Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON OPENERS AND LAPPERS AND SHODDY PICKER. 

Report. — Commended for originality ol invention in opener and in elastic beaters, as 
well as for general good workmanship and utility in all the machines. 



426. George Crompton, Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

PLAIN AND FANCY POWER LOOMS FOR COTTON GOODS. 
Report, — A large assortment of well designed and constructed looms, possessing great 
range and capacity for the manufacture of figured cotton fabrics. 



427. Foss ft Pevey, Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

UNDER-FLAT COTTON CARD. 

Report. — This machine has peculiarities of constniction which are original. 

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76 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

428. Merrick Thread Co., Holjroke, Mass., U. S. 

READY WOUND BOBBINS OF COTTON THREAD FOR SEWING-MACHINE SHUTTLES. 

Report, — Commended for the very ingenious device for saving labor in their " patent" 
ready-wound bobbins for use in sewing machines. 



429. Willimantic Linen Co., Hartford, Conn., U. S. 

SPOOL COTTON, FINE YARNS, AND MACHINES FOR WINDING AND TICKETING SPOOLS FOR 

SEWING-THREADS. 
Report, — Commended for originality and completeness of system, excellence of ma- 
chinery and appliances, the winding-frame being the invention of Hezekiah Conant ; and 
for sui>eriority and economy of production ; also for excellence of material and variety of 
colors of threads. 

430. Hope & Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

PENTAGRAPH ENGRAVING &IACIIINE FOR CAUCO PRINTERS. 

Report, — Commended for novelty in some of the details, and altogether beautifully and 
accurately made. 

431. Peter Lawson, Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

IMPROVED COMPOSITION DRAWING OR ROVING CAN. 

Report. — Commended for lightness, strength, handiness, and cheapness, as compared with 
the ordinary can. 

432. J. & W. Lyall, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

I'OSITIVE-MOTION LOOMS, FOR CORSETS, CANVAS, SEAMLESS BAGS, JUTE CARPETS, COTTON 

SHEETING, ETC. 
Report, — Commended for the variety, extent, and importance of the looms, invention of 
the positive motion, its wide range of applicability, fitness for the purposes intended, excel- 
lence of design, construction, and working, utility, and economy. 



433. Palmer Patent Tentering & Drjring Machine Co., Norwich, Conn., U. S. 

MACHINE FOR STRETCHING, STRAIGHTENING, AND DRYING TEXTILE FARBICS. 
Report, — Commended for originality, utility, and completeness of machine, excellence 
of construction, fitness for the purposes intended, adaptation to public requirenienti, and 
economy. 

434. J. Morton Poole & Co., Wilmington, Del., U. S. 

CALENDER ROLLS. 

Report, — Commended for the excellent finish, beauty of the articles exhibited, as well 
as the superior quality of the material. 



435. R. D. Wood & Sons, MUlville, N. J., U. S. 

CALENDER FOR COTTON GOODS. 
Report. — Commended for good workmanship, material, and fitness for the intendeii 
purpose. 

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GROUP VIIL yj 

436. S. N. Drake, New Orleans, La., U. S. 
drake's patent cotton ties. 
Report, — Commended for the simplicity, effectiveness, and applicability to purpose, of 
the ho<^iron stamped and slotted ties for baling cotton. 



437. Peabody Mills, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

COLORED COTTON GOODS, PRINTS, AND COLORED SUITINGS. 
Report. — Commended for superiority of fabric, smoothness, economy, and adaptation ; 
colors clear and well defined, and in very large variety. Also for non-fading qualities of 
colors. 



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1 



SIGNING JUDGES OF GROUP VIII. 



The figures annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written by them 
respectively. 

Isaac Watts, i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 53, 54, 64, 65, 67, 71, 72, 73, 74, 117, 200, 207, 208, 211, 
215, 224, 228, 234, 23s, 236, 237, 252, 253, 327, 328. , 

Samuel Webber, 5, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 56, 
57» 58. 59' 61, 69, 80, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105. 
106, 107, 109, no, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 
127, 128, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 165, 
167, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 
187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 205, 206, 212, 214, 220, 
221, 223, 225, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 238, 239, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 269, 
270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 
291, 292, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313. 
3H, 315. 316, 317* 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 325. 326, 33i» 335» 337. 33^, 339. 353. 354. 
358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363. 364, 365. 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 
376, 377. 378. 379. 380, 381, 382, 383. 384. 385, 386, 387, 388, 389. 390, 406. 426, 434, 
435. 436. 

E. Richardson, 37, 47, 48, 55, 68, 70, 160, 162, 163, 166, 340, 341, 342, 343, 348. 

Edward Atkinson, 44, 164, 210, 276, 333, 428. 

Chas. H. Wolff, 60, 66, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83. 88, 89, 95, 97, loi, 108, iii, 
129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 141, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 222, 233, 242, 246, 247, 
248, 249, 251, 280, 281, 324, 329, 330, 332, 334. 391. 392. 393. 394. 395. 396. 397, 398, 
399, 400, 401, 437. 

A. GOLDY, 62, 63, 94, 102, 143, 144, 145, 146, 168, 169, 201, 202, 203, 204, 209, 213, 
232, 243, 244, 245, 250, 254, 255, 256, 257, 265, 266, 267, 268, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 

323. 350, 351. 352. 355, 356, 357. 

Gustav Herrmann, 216, 217, 218, 219, 241,403,404,405,407,409,410,412,413, 

417, 418, 420, 422. 

William W. Hulse, 240, 402, 408, 4x4, 415. 4i6, 419. 420, 421, 423, 424. 427. 43o. 

431. 432, 433. 
Geo. O. Baker, 336, 345, 346, 347, 349, 4««« 
H. Waddell, Jr., 344- 
A. D. LocKwooD, ^25, 429 



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SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP VIII. 



REPORTS 

OP 

JUDGES ON APPEALS. 



JUDGES. 



John Fritz, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Edward Conley, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Charles Staples, Jr., Portland, Me. 
Benj. F. Britton, New York City. 
II. H. Smith, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Coleman Sellers, Philadelphia, Pa. 
James L. Claghorn, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Henry K. Oliver, Salem, Mass. 
M. WiLKiNS, Harrisburg, Oregon. 
S. F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 



I. R. T. White & Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CARPET WARPS. 

Report. — Commended for general good quality. 



2. Parrish & Miller, Jefferson, Marion Co., Oregon, U. S. 

FLAX IN THE STRAW AND LINT. 
Report, — Commended for extraordinary length, great strength, superior gloss, and silky 
softness. 



3. Westbrook Manufacturing Co., Portland, Me., U. S. 

COTTON DUCK. 
Report. — Commended for great excellence in texture and uniform good Bnish. 



4. The Utica Steam Cotton Mills, Utica, N. Y., U. S. 

COTTON SHEETINGS AND SHIRTINGS, UNBLEACHED AND BLEACHED. 

Report. — Commended as a fabric in various widths of great excellence in texture and 
general finish. 



5. Albion Print Works, Conshohocken, Pa., U. S. 

DYEING AND PRINTING. 

Report. — Commended for great variety of colors and excellence of dyeing and finishing 
1x>th in solid colors and plain black for suiting. 

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8o REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

6. Farwell Mills, Lisbon, Me., U. S. 

BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED COTTON, SHEETINGS AND SHIRTINGS. 

Report, — For uniform texture and excellent finish. 



7. Clariana Ciuro Aug6 & Co., Qranollers, Barcelona, Spain. 

COTTON PLAIDS. 

Report* — Commended for enonomy in cost and fitness for purpose intended. 



8. Angus Mackay, Queensland, Australia. 

RAW COTTON. 

Report, — ^An exhibit of cotton grown from American seed, cultivated by himself, of 
excellent quality. 

9. £. Ashworth & Sons, Bolton, England. 

COTTON THREADS AND YARNS. 

Report, — ^A good exhibit, especially in three, six, and nine ply on spools, showing great 
excellence in strength and finish. 

10. McTear & Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

SHIP SHEATHING OF JUTE FELT IN BOTH VEGETABLE AND COAL TAR; BOILER FELTING. 

Report, — Commended for good quality of material and workmanship. 



II. Fredenck Facchini di Cesare, Bologna, Italy. 

HEMP IN BRAIDS AND TWISTED. 

Report, — Commended for superior quality for wearing purposes and adaptation to pur< 
pose intended. 



SIGNING JUDGES OF SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP VIII. 



The figures annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written by them 
respectively. 

B. F. Britton, I, 3, 4, 5» 6, 7, 8, 9. 

M. WiLKINS, 2. 

Coleman Sellers, 10, 
Henry H. Smith, 11. 



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GROUP IX. 



WOOL AND SILK FABRICS. 



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GROUP IX. 



JUDGES. 



AMERICAN. 

John L. Hayes, Cambridge, Mass. 

Elliot C. Cowdin, New York. 

Charles Le Boutillier, Philadelphia, 
Pi. 

Charles J. Ellis, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. D. Lang, Vassal boro*, Maine. 



FOREIGN. 
GusTAV Gebhard, Germany. 
Theodore Bochner, Jr., Austria. 
Henry Mitchell, Great Britain. 
Max Weigert, Germany. 
Louis Chatel, France. 
Carl Arnberg, Sweden. 
Hay AMI Kenzo, Japan. 
John G. Neeser, Switzerland. 
August Behmer, Egypt. 
Albert Daninos, Turkey. 

Edwajld H. Knight was assigned as expert from Group XXII to assist in examina- 
fionfi gf woolen and silk machinery. 



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GROUP IX. 



WOOL AND SILK FABRICS, INCLUDING THE MATERIALS 
AND THE MACHINERY. 



WOVEN AND FELTED GOODS OF WOOL, AND MIXTURES OF WOOL. 

Class 667. — Wool in the fleece, in bales, and carded. 

Class 235. — Card wool fabrics, — ^yams, broadcloth, doeskins, fancy cassimeres. 
Felted goods. Hat bodies. 

Class 236. — Flannels, — plain flannels, domets, opera and fancy. 

Class 237. — Blankets, robes, and shawls. 

Class 238. — Combed wool fabrics, — worsteds, yams, dress goods for women's wear, 
delaines, serges, poplins, merinoes. 

Class 239. — Carpets, rugs, etc., — Brussels, Melton, tapestry, tapestry Brussels, Ax- 
minster, Venetian, ingrain, felted carpetings, druggets, rugs, etc. 

Class 240. — Hair, — alpaca, goat's hair, camel's hair, and other fabrics mixed or 
unmixed with wool. 

Class 241. — Printed and embossed woolen cloths, table covers, patent velvets. 

Class 522. — Machines for the manufacture of woolen goods. 

SILK AND SILK FABRICS, AND MIXTURES IN WHICH SILK IS THE 
PREDOMINATING MATERIAL. 

Class 242. — Cocoons and raw silk as reeled from the cocoon ; thrown or twisted 
silks in the gum. 

Class 243. — Thrown or twisted silks, boiled off or dyed ; in hanks, skeins, or on 
spools. 

Class 244. — Spun silk yams and fabrics, and the materials from which they are 
made. 

Class 245. — Plain woven silks, lutestrings, sarsenets, satins, serges,. foulards, tissues 
for hat and millinery purposes, etc. 

Class 246. — Figured silk piece goods, woven or printed. Upholstery silks, etc. 

Class 247. — Crapes, velvets, gauzes, cravats, handkerchiefs, hosiery, knit goods, 
laces, scarfs, ties, veils, all descriptions of cut and made-up silks. 

Class 248. — Ribbons, — plain, fancy, and velvet. 

Class 249. — Bindings, — braids, cords, galloons, ladies' ^ess trimmings, upholsters', 
tailors', military, and miscellaneous trimmings. 

Class 520. — Machines for the manufacture of silk goods. 



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GENERAL REPORT 



OF THE 



JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 



Philadelphia, December, 1876. 
Prof. Francis A. Walker, Chief of the Bureau of Awards : 

Sir, — In pursuance of instructions from your Bureau, that each 
group of Judges should submit a report exhibiting a survey of the 
Exhibition in their particular department, embodying the instructive 
facts observed and conclusions suggested in their examination, the 
Judges of Group IX. have authorized the undersigned to present 
the results of their examination. In the consultations .upon the 
awards to exhibitors, among the members of this group, who repre- 
sented ten different nationalities, all national distinctions were ignored, 
and so full was the interchange of opinion among the Judges, and so 
absolute the harmony of sentiment, that an individual member of the 
group can hardly fail to express the common opinion. 
Respectfully submitted, 

JOHN L. HAYES. 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 



GROUP IX. 
WOOL AND SILK FABRICS. 

by' JOHN L. HAYES. 

CLASS 667. — Wool in the Fleece, in Bales, and Carded. 

Leading all nations in the supply of this material, the group of 
British colonies in the Southern Hemisphere, known as Australia, 
makes itself most conspicuous. The colonies of New South Wales, 
Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia, 
and New Zealand, although separate political organizations, exhibit 
so marked a nationality in this common production, that we are 
compelled to consider them as one. 

Foreign Judges, who were familiar with the great European Expo- 
sitions, concur in pronouncing the exhibition of wools by Australia 
at the International Exhibition of 1876 as surpassing any ever before 
made. The colonies vied with one another in making their exhibits 
upon a scale proportionate to their vast power of production. Thus 
the wools of each exhibitor were shown in bales, in numerous fleeces, 
and illustrative samples, as produced from ewes, rams, hoggets, and 
lambs, as unwashed, cold-washed, and hot-water-washed, and as 
adapted for combing or for clothing purposes. Of course, the char- 
acteristic feature of the display was the capacity of Australia for the 
culture of wool of the Merino breed, adapted to the present exigencies 
of the manufacturing nations, for the exhibition of wool of other 
breeds by Australia was comparatively unimportant. The fibre of 
this breed was shown here in the utmost perfection, both in staple and 
condition, for all ordinary purposes of manufacture, with a production 
already of great proportions, yet constantly enlarging. When we 
consider the wide ada^ation of this fibre to the- uses both of luxury 
and necessity, and remember that it was for centuries the monopoly 
of a single nation, refused even to its colonies; that when Spain 
relaxed her monopoly, scarcely over a centur}'^ ago, it was only in 
favor of the kings of Europe ; and that the Merinos procured from ' 
Spain by George III., in 1792, in exchange for eight carriage-horses, 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 3 

were literally the direct source of the Australian wool-husbandry, 
we must regard the Australian exhibit as one of the most striking 
illustrations of the world's acquisitions within the last century. 

The only deficiency attending this exhibit — one which the high 
culture and science of these colonies might have easily supplied — 
was the want of systematized information as to the statistics of wool- 
production and sheep-husbandry, the methods of improvement, and 
the details which would be interesting to the practical shepherd. This 
deficiency, in some respect supplied by the several Commissioners, 
and by personal inquiries and reference to trustworthy authorities, 
forbids the fullness of information in this report which the importance 
of the Australian wool-production demands. 

The number of sheep in Australia, according to the latest returns, 
is stated in the following communications : 

"St. George's House, Fairmount Park, 
" Philadelphia, September 2, 1876. . 

" Sir, — With reference to your letter of the 28th ultimo, I beg to 

send you a copy of a letter which I have just received from Mr. 

Robinson, Secretary of the New South Wales Commission. 

" I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

"A. J. R. TRENDELL. 

" John L. Hayes, Esq., i i Pemberton Square, Boston, Mass." 

[Enclosure. — Copy.] 

" Philadelphia. 

" Sir, — In reply to your letter of yesterday's date, covering a com- 
munication from Mr. Hayes, I have the honor to inform you that the 
number of sheep in the Australian colonies in the year 1874, the 
latest year for which I have statistics, was as follows : 

" New South Wales 22,872,882 

Victoria 11,225,206 

South Australia 6,120,211 

Queensland 7,268,946 

Tasmania 1,714,168 

Western Australia 777,86i 

New Zealand 11,704,853 

61,684,127 

"The number at the present time would be very much larger, but 
I regret that I cannot inform Mr. Hayes what is the average rate of 
yearly increase. The production of wool may be arrived at on the 
basis of the average clip, which I believe to be 2^ pounds of washed 
wool for each fleece. If Mr. Hayes consults the export returns of 
the different colonies, it may be important that he should know that 

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4 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

a large quantity of Queensland-grown wool is exported from Sydney, 
and that much of the wool grown in New South Wales is shipped 
from Victoria and South Australia, owing to their 'exceptional facilities 
for water and railroad carriage. 

" The statistical returns of the different colonies would, without a 
knowledge of this fact, be very misleading, by the wool-production 
of Australia being made to appear vastly greater than it is in fact. 
" I have the hotior, etc., 

"CHAS. ROBINSON. Secretary, 
'' New'South Wales Commissioner" 

The report of 1870, of H. Schwartz & Co., of London, very high 
authorities in wool statistics, states the exports of Australian wool in 
1875-6 as follows: 

Great Britain 771,786 bales. 

United States 5,807 " 

Continental Countries 2,414 " 

Total 78o,cx>7 " 

This amount, according to their estimates, is equal to 247,700,000 
pounds. 

The report for 1874, of Mr. Alexander Bruce, the chief inspector 
of live-stock in New South Wales, declared to be a high authority, 
gives the following instructive facts in relation to the sheep of that 
colony, and may be regarded as illustrative of all the colonies : 

1. Number. — The number of sheep in the colony in 1874 was 
20,709,338, and 22,767,416 in 1875, being an increase in 1875 of 
2,058,078. 

2. Combing and Clothing. — The returns give 6,100,000 combing 
sheep, and 5,490,000 clothing, while with respect to 6,420,000, it is 
not stated whether they are combing or clothing, and in many cases 
owners give no information. 

3. Long-wooled and Cross-bred Sheep. — Of these some 125,000 are 
returned, and they are given as being of the following breeds: Leices- 
ters, 15,881 ; Lincolns, 9771 ; Downs and other breeds, 37,583; and 
Cross-bred sheep, 62,242. 

4. How kept. — In 395 cases sheep are returned as depastured in 
paddocks, in 504 as shepherded, in 88 as both in paddocks and shep- 
herded, and in 381 cases no informtition is given on this point. 

5. Improvement. — On 681 holdings the sheep are reported to be 
improving, on 43 as deteriorating, on 72 as stationary, and 548 owners 
make no returns. 

6. Stud Sheep. — The returns show that of these sheep there were 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 5 

23412 introduced; of which 18,086 were Merinos, 343 Leicesters, 
4741 Lincolns, and 42 Downs. 

7. Fencing. — It heis proved advantageous to inclose flocks within 
fences on the following accounts: a. Improvement. — (i) In the health 
and soundness of the sheep; (2) in their size and stamina; (3) in the 
quantity and quality of wool ; (4) in the carrying capability of the 
holding, b. Saving. — (i) In expense of management; (2) in the losses 
arising from shepherding, especially from bad shepherds, c. Advan- 
tages to Owner. — It relieves him from the trouble of managing shep- 
herds and hut-keepers, and allows him time to attend to the improve- 
ment of the breed of his sheep, d. General Benefit. — This is stated 
by owners to be an increase of the value of a run of from 20 to 60 
per cent. 

8. Lambing. — The general average of shepherded flocks was 72^ 
per cent; of paddocked sheep 75 per cent.; and of sheep depastured 
both ways 74^ per cent. 

9. Clip. — The yield of wool per sheep, in 1874, was as follows : 

Creasy. Ibt. on. 

The average clip of greasy wool in shepherded sheep was . 4 3^ 

" " " paddocked sheep was .... 4 I5|^ 

" " " both 4 10,5;^ 

Creek-washed, 

The average clip of shepnerded sheep was . . . . 2 I2j^ 

" " " paddocked 3 4^ 

" . " " both 2 \z^ 

Hot-water-washed, 

The average clip of shepherded sheep was .... 2 8^ 

" " " paddocked 3 2 

" *« " both 2 i\^ 

Scoured, 

The average clip of shepherded sheep was .... 2 2-^ 

" «* " paddocked 2 8 

" " " both 2 10 

10. Difference in Weight between Combing and Clothing. — On this 
point 1238 owners give no information, 75 ■** cannot say," 4 report 
that there is no difference, 32 that there is a slight difference in favor 
of combing; 4 put the difference at 8 ounces, 2 at 12 ounces, i at 16 
ounces, 4 more at more than 16 ounces, and 6 state that combing is 
the more profitable. 

The important facts presented by this statement are, that more than 
half the sheep produce combing wool ; the respective weights of the 

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6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

greasy, creek-washed, hot-water- washed, and scoured wools ; and the 
positive testimony, which should be specially noted by the California 
wool-growers, as to the advantages of fenqing sheep. It is obvious 
that this must depend somewhat upon the nature of the feed and 
general custom of the country, and still more upon whether the flock- 
masters own the land or pasture at large. In this connection it 
may be noted that Mr. Bruce elsewhere states that the fence most 
approved for sheep and cattle is a fence with split posts, one split 
top-rail, and five wires. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN WOOL. 

The following communication from the Commissioner of another 
colony. South Australia, gives interesting facts as to the weight of 
fleeces and extent of the flocks of individual flock-masters : 

" Philadelphia, 
*' Main Building, 8th June, 1876. 

"To THE Judges of Wool, International Exhibition, 1876: 

"Gentlemen, — As Commissioner for South Australia, I have the 
honor to subjoin a statement of the weight of fleeces of wool exam- 
ined by you in this court; taking first a copy of the declared weights 
of some wool in bales seen by you, and of which you have the 
growers* names, and then appending the weights of fleeces you desired 
should be weighed in the Main Building. 

" 1st. Declared Weights of Wool exhibited all Unwashed, 
" MooRAK Wool. (W. T. Brown.) 



No. of Bales and Classes 


Contents In 


Average Weight of 


Age of Sheep. 


of Sheep. 


Fleeces. 


Ibt. 


Fleece, 
ozs. dwt. 




No. I. Ewes. 


. 14 


7 


9 2A 


3 years. 


" 2. Hoggets , 


. 15 


7 


3 3A 


18 mos. 


" 3. Lambs 


. 20 


2 


12 I2iJ 


■ 4 " 


" 4. Wethers . 


. . 15 


7 


6 6A 


2 years. 



* N.B. — ^40,000 sheep are pastured at Moorak. 

" WoNOKA Wool. (Hayward, Armstrong, & Co.) 



\, of Itales and Gasses 


Contents in 


Average Weight of 


Age of Sheep. 


of Sheep. 


Fleeces. 


lbs. 


Fleece, 
ozs. dwt. 




No. I. Ewes . 


. H 


7 


> ^ 


3 years. 


" 2. Hoggets • 


. 13 


7 


4 14H 


18 mos. 


«« 3. Lambs 


. 20 


3 


" 3A 


5 " 


*« 4. Wethers 


. 12 


8 




3 years. 



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GENERAL REPORT OF TIJE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 



" Welpena Wool. (Price & Browne.) 



No. of Bales and Classes 


Contents in Average Weight of 


Age of Sheep. 


of Sheep. 


Fleeces. Fleece. 

lbs. ozs. dwt. 




No. I. Ewes . 


. . " 7 II 3A 


3 years. 


" 2. Hoggets 


• -12 7 5 5A 


18 mos. 


" 3. Wethers 


.10 8 II 3,^ 


3 years. 


" 4. Lambs 


.16 37 
"J. Keynes Wool. 


5 mos. 


No. of Bales and Oass 


Contents in Average Weight of 


Age of Sheep. 


of Sheep. 


Fleeces. Fleece. 





lbs. ozs. dwt. 

No. I. Wethers .... 15 9 

* N.B. — 13,000 sheep are kept by Mr, Keynes. 



4 teeth. 



"Allan McFarlane Wool (MF). 

No. of Bales and Class Contents in Average Weight of 

of Sheep. Fleeces. Fleece. 

Jbs. ozs. dwt. 
No. I. Ewe, with lamb . . 15 6 well sorted. 

"N.B.— 15,500 sheep are kept by Mr. McFarlane. 

" COLLINGROVE WoOL. (J. H. AugaS.) 



Age of Sheep. 



3 years. 



No. of Bales and Classes 
of Sheep. 


Contents in 
Fleeces. 


Average Weight of 
Fleece. 


Age of Sheep. 


No. I. Ewes . 


. Not stated. 


lbs. ozs. dwt. 
610 


2 teeth. 


** 2. Ewe Hoggets 
" 3. Wet Ewes . 
" 4. Lambs 
« 5. Lambs 


. . 25 
Not given. 

u 
tt 


7 loX ... 
Not given. 
« 
« 


2 and 4 tee 

4 and 5 " 

Not given. 
« 



" 2d. Weights of Fleeces weighed in the Building, as requested. 

" Fleeces exhibited by J. Keynes. (Merino Wool.) 
Fleece I weighs nibs. 6 ozs. o dwt. 





« 


2 


tt 




« 


3 


tt 




<4 


4 


tt 


No 


• I 


(4 

weighs 


u 


2 


tt 




« 


3 


tt 




M 


4 


tt 




M 


5 


tt 




« 


6 


tt 





10 " 


12 " 


II " 


10 " 


II " 


8 " 


12 " 


7 " 


8 " 


(Merino 


Wool.) 




12 lbs. 


II ozs. 


8 dwt 


12 " 


2 " 


8 " 


15 " 


II " 


" 


14 " 


5 " 


" 


15 " 


13 " 


" 


15 « 


3 " 


8 « 



"Fleeces exhibited by Thos. Graham. (Mixed, Lincoln and Leicester.) • 

No. I weighs ,3 lbs. nozs. odwt 

*t t* tt 

2 II «* 6 " 12 " 

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8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 3 weighs 11 lbs. 15 ozs. o dwt 

«« 4 «« 12 " 9 " 8 " 

" 5 «« 10 " 2 " o " 

«« 6 " 13 " 3 " o " 

" I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

"SAM. DAVENPORT, 
" Special Commissioner for South Australia^ 

A brief review of the methods by which the Australian sheep- 
husbandry has reached its present commanding position, with a 
presentation of some of the instructive facts in relation to the 
Merino culture drawn from Australian experience, is justified by the 
importance of the subject. The principal sources of this review are 
responses to personal inquiries, or information obtained from or con- 
firmed by the respective colonial Commissioners. Of the works 
having this sanction, the most important are Mr. Graham's treatise on 
the Australian Merino and the New South Wales Wool Inquiry, pub- 
lished in 1 87 1 by the Agricultural Society of New South Wales. 

Captain John McArthur, an officer of the British army, who had 
landed at Sydney in 1790, just two years after it had been formed 
into a penal settlement, was the first to observe that the fleeces of 
the hairy Bengal sheep, brought from the Cape of Good Hope, had 
in some way become sensibly improved. Conceiving the idea that 
the soil and climate of the settlement were peculiarly adapted for 
the production of fleeces of the best quality, he induced the importa- 
tion of a small flock of Merino sheep which had been sent to the 
Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch Government. In 1803 he took 
with him to England samples of wool from the crosses which he had 
made of coarse-wooled ewes with Spanish rams. At that period all 
the fine cloths of England were made of wool imported from Spain. 
Fortunately, Captain McArthur arrived in England at a time when 
the English manufacturers were alarmed lest their wool-supply from 
Spain should be cut off" by a threatened war. Through the influence 
of these manufacturers Captain McArthur secured assent from the 
British Secretary of State for the Colonies to his application for a 
grant of ten thousand acres of land in New South Wales for carry- 
ing on the growth of fine wool for export. He also obtained a few 
Spanish Merinos from the royal flock of George HI., these Merinos 
being the "twin Cabana with the French Imperial Cabana Ram- 
bouillet." Having arrived in the colony with his chosen flock, which 
was placed upon the tract of land secured by his grant, he commenced 
the reclamation of his estate and the creation of fine-wool flocks, 

through the persistent use of the George III. rams upon so sorry a lot 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. g 

of sheep that " long years were taken to eliminate the bad qualities 
of the pristine animals, on which he bred/' For years the only efforts 
for improvement were made by himself, and so slow was his progress 
" that it took some twenty-three years" to perfect the pure breed of 
Australian Merinos. In iSiothe exportation was only 167 pounds; 
in 1820, 99,415; in 1826, 806,302 pounds. The best growers in the 
colony "bred from McArthur ewes." "From about 1829 to 1840," 
says Mr. Graham, " the Australian wool had a character so uniform 
and fixed that an English wool-broker or sorter could with certainty 
select by the touch alone, from a bale of others, a Botany Bay fleece, 
as they were called." The sheep, however, were small, the ewes 
weighing not more than 30 to 34 pounds each, and the wool wanting 
in denseness, the animals being bred mainly for fineness, in which 
they excelled. Smallness of size still appears to be the general char- 
acter of Australian sheep, as shown by the average yield of unwashed 
wool per sheep in New South Wales, — 4 pounds 9 ounces. After the 
time of Mr. McArthur, who died in 1834, many breeders, by selecting 
the largest and best-wooled sheep to breed from every year, and by 
keeping their runs understocked, or by liberal feeding, imparted size 
and density of fleece to the Australian Merinos, the ewes of some 
flocks attaining an average weight of 70 pounds. 

After 1835, stud sheep were largely imported from abroad; and 
attempts were made to improve the Australian Merinos by crosses of 
the English races, — the Leicesters, Lincolns, and Downs, — not only 
with signal failure, but with incalculable injury to the most of the 
Merinos. 

The Rambouillet sheep were also largely introduced, but without 
benefit, in the opinion of Mr. Graham, because without artificial sus- 
tenance they were too large for the country. The German sheep, im- 
ported at great expense, produced no benefit either in quality of wool 
or weight of fleece. Recently, Vermont sheep have been introduced, 
and Mr. Graham says, " of all imported sheep those of our first 
cousins, the Americans, are the best." 

The results of Australian experience would seeip to show that, 
climate has less to do with the excellence of Merino wools than is 
commonly supposed. The "Salt-bush" country (a region of ex- 
cessive heat) can, and does in some instances, produce as heavy or 
valuable wool as do any other portions of the colonies ; and wool of 
the Darling Downs within the tropics, grown by a careful and judi- 
cious system of selection, is unexceptionable, although known as a 
"hot country wool." Still, Australia confirms the theory of scientific 
writers, that the natural region for Merino sheep is the region of the 

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lO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

vine, for the excellent wines of these colonies were among the most 
characteristic of their productions shown at the Exhibition. 

Another lesson taught by the Australian sheep-husbandry, and con- 
firmed by notes taken at the Exhibition, is the advantage of close 
breeding. Mr. Graham says that for a period of twenty-five years he 
was engaged in testing the value of in-and-in breeding. By in-breed- 
ing he does not mean indiscriminate breeding without selection, but, 
on the contrary, breeding with judicious selection, — that is, rejecting 
the faulty sheep, male and female, and breeding only from the perfect. 
With this qualification, he remarks, ** I say that I never saw an entire 
flock of really good sheep that was not wholly composed of in-bred 
animals, and I think it scarcely possible to breed good sheep without 
having recourse to in-breeding." 

It was interesting to observe that these views were confirmed by 
memoranda attached to Australian fleeces displayed at the Exhibition ; 
memoranda made, of course, without reference to any theory of 
breeding. Some of these memoranda were as follows : 

" Gore & Co., Yandella, Queensland. Combing ewe, bred pure 
within their own flocks for 21 years; bred in paddocks entirely on 
indigenous grasses." 

"C. B. Fisher, East Haddington Hill, Darling Downs District, 
Queensland. This clip has been bred in Adelaide, South Au.stralia, 
40 years in-and-in to their own blood, and has been acclimated in 
Queensland 7 years ; pronounced by Chamber of Commerce to be 
the most essentially combing wool.*' 

•* George Clark, Queensland. Sheep improved by Tasmanian 
Merinos bred pure for more than 50 years." 

" C. H. Grison, Queensland. Bred within their own blood many 
years. Undoubtedly one object of this close-breeding with large 
flock-masters is to preserve the special characteristics of the wool 
approved by their old controversies." 

It is well known that so uniform are the characteristics in certain 
flocks, and so high the probity of the growers, that the clips of some 
proprietors are purchased by the same customers from year to year 
almost without testing. This uniformity and reliability is one of the 
great advantages to the manufacturer of having sheep-husbandry 
pursued on a large scale. He may select from one or two clips with 
certainty the precise wools adapted to his fabrics. This advantage 
has already been perceived in purchases from California, where wool- 
growing in large flocks has begun to be pursued by capitalists, as in 
Australia, systematically. 

Sheep-husbandry being — not even excepting the gold-mining inter- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. u 

ests — of the first importance in the Australian colonies, is pursued by 
capitalists and men of intelligence. Relieved, as the proprietors are, 
fi-om an expense of northern climates, — that of providing shelter and 
stores of winter fodder ; winter production not being required, and the 
indigenous grasses being nutritious even when dried, — the principal 
outlay required in addition to that for stock is for providing an unin- 
terrupted supply of water. The destructive droughts of 1866 have 
led to provisions for this supply on the broadest scale. Precautionary 
measures have been taken over the length and breadth of Australia 
against the failure of water. At enormous expense, dry water-courses 
have been converted into permanent rivers, reservoirs and tanks have 
been constructed, wells have been dug and dams made, and the sta- 
tions so provided with water as to prevent the recurrence of the 
catastrophe of 1866. 

The expense of transportation to the very distant markets making 
the weight of the dirt and yolk of the wool a serious item, the washing 
of the wool on the sheep is conducted with a thoroughness nowhere 
else known. The washed wools, whether cold- or hot- water-washed, 
extensively exhibited at the Exhibition in bales and cases, could 
scarcely be distinguished from sound or absolutely clean wools. 

Attention is given to every detail connected with the manufacture 
of wool, as in the shearing. The uniformity of the clipping in fleeces 
exhibited at the Exhibition, the steps usually made by the shears 
being scarcely visible, was the subject of favorable comment by our 
wool-growers ; yet the price paid the shearers, reported in the official 
record of Victoria, is only 14 shillings 4 pence for every hundred 
animals shorn. 

The Wool Inquiry, instituted by the Agricultural Society of New 
South Wales, is illustrative of the high intelligence with which the 
wool industry of the Australian colonies is pursued. The main sub- 
jects of the inquiry were. What descriptions of wool are now likely to 
be most in demand, and what are the best modes of preparing the 
wool and putting it in the market ? Circulars containing interroga- 
tories, all pertinent to the general question, were addressed to the 
most eminent wool houses and chambers of commerce of England. 
Full answers to these interrogatories by thoroughly-informed per- 
sons and commercial bodies in England are published in the Wool 
Inquiry, As the readers of this report will be principally those 
interested in wool-production, we may be permitted to condense 
some of the most important points presented in these answers. 

As to the distinction between combing and clothing Australian 
wools, writes one of the respondents, Southey, Baline, & Co., " All 

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12 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

wools of Australian production can be used for clothing, but by no 
means all for combing. There are limits as regards length of staple, 
in the first place, and other requisites, such as soundness and elasticity, 
necessary for the latter purpose. It will be clear, therefore, that, 
within these conditions, no line of distinction can be drawn above or 
below which it can be said that this or that sample is a clothing-wool 
and a clothing-wool only, a combing-wool and a combing-wool only." 

The committee, in their interrogatories, proposed for combing-wool 
the following points of excellence, or questions, which should distin- 
guish a true combing-wool, viz., ist, weight; 2d, color or lustre; 
3d, length; 4th, freeness ; 5th, fineness; 6th, elasticity ; 7th, softness ; 
8th, soundness ; 9th, evenness of fleece ; and requested their respond- 
ents to divide a thousand points among them according to their 
respective values. 

J. T. Siraes & Co. reply : " Soundness is the first requisite in comb- 
ing descriptions ; next, length up to three and a half inches for fine 
Merino. This desideratum is a most essential one in combing de- 
scriptions. We should place the characteristics of a Merino combing- 
wool in the following order and value: Soundness, 300; length, 250; 
freeness, 175; weight, 100 (important to growers); evenness, 75; 
elasticity, 50; fineness, 50. Lustrous color is scarcely an element in 
Merino combing." 

H. Schwartze : ** Soundness and quality, not singly but combined, 
constitute the most valuable feature of a combing-, small growth and 
softness that of a clothing-wool." 

Hazard & Caldicott give the following statement of the relative 
importance of qualities in combing-wools : Length, 170; density, 60; 
softness, 80; fineness, 50; elasticity, 90; evenness of fleece, 80; 
soundness, 170; weight, 150. 

A similar question was proposed by the Agricultural Society in 
relation to the desirable qualities of clothing-wools. 

To this Jacomb, Son, & Co. reply : ** The chief requisites of a good 
clothing-wool are fineness, density, softness, and fitting qualifications." 

H. Schwartze : " Small growth, softness, etc., combined, constitute 
the most valuable features of a clothing-wool." 

J. T. Simes & Co. : " Clothing-wool may be estimated by the fol- 
lowing points : Firmness, 300; softness, 200 ; density, 150; evenness, 
100; elasticity, 100; weight, 100; soundness, 50." 

Hazard & Caldicott give the following statement for clothing- 
wools: Length, 50; density, 140; softness, 80; elasticity, 170; even- 
ness of fleece, 80; soundness, 80; condition, 140; weight, 150. 

As to the question whether combing- or clothing-wools are likely 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 13 

to be in most demand, the answers are substantially that the greater 
demand at present for combing-wools is due in some measure to 
the fashion for worsted coatings, but that no one can with certainty- 
forecast the future. As to prices, it is said there is a difference of 
opinion, but the preponderance is that the best clothing-wools bring 
the highest prices, although they have less weight As to shearing 
and shipping in grease, it is answered that this is almost wholly 
dependent upon local circumstances, such as the washing facilities 
at the statk)n, though the washed condition is that most generally 
acceptable to various buyers and consumers. For uses in which 
color is an important quality, the unwashed wools stand at a dis- 
advantage, as there is " a greater difficulty in procuring a bright color 
from wools which have been packed and shipped in the grease." The 
Bradford Chamber of Commerce decidedly recommends washing as 
"pecuniarily most advantageous to the grower." 

As to cold- or hot-water-washing, the preponderance of opinion 
appears to be, that there is very little to choose between the two 
processes where both are efficiently and skillfully applied. 

In reply to the question. What proportion of yolk should be retained 
in the wool ? all agree that just sufficient yolk should be retained to 
give a ** kindly handle" to the fleece, the amount being variously 
put at from 10 to 20 per cent. Webster, Dewall, & Co., say ** the 
sheep should be allowed 48 hours minimum run between washing 
and shearing, but in cold weather more time might be required. No 
yolk should be retained, but it should be allowed to rise again after 
washing to the extent of 20 per cent. After washing, the fleece 
should be allowed to dry thoroughly on the sheep's back, and only 
sufficient yolk should be allowed to rise to give the wool a soft and 
silky feel. In fact, the aim under all circumstances, whatever process 
of washing maybe adopted, ought to be to give this soft, silky handle. 
The slight quantity of yolk tends to preserve the wool, and cause it 
to retain its natural elasticity and strength." 

In answer to the question as to sorting and skirting and packing, 
the respondents recommend that ** fleeces should be carefully skirted 
and stripped of all locks, bellies, and stained, burry, or seedy pieces, 
great care being taken that shanks or kimpy hairs are not folded in 
the fleece. The pieces should include the pole-lock, belly-piece, 
skirting, and shank, and any portion towards the extremities which 
are either stained or badly infested with burr or seed, and by the 
removal of which the rest of the fleece will remain comparatively 
free from faults." In respect to the classing of wools, Mr. Schwartze 
says, "With very superior brands elaborate sorting is desirable. In 
7 97 



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14 INTERNA no IV A L EXHIBITION, 1876. 

the case of medium and good wools, the separation into young wool, 
first and second combing, first and second clothing, cross-bred lambs, 
pieces, and locks is all that is required, while with superior and faulty 
wools plentiful skirting is sufficient." 

This long abstract of the Wool Inquiry will be excused, as it 
serves to answer questions directly presented to the observer by the 
peculiarities of the Australian wool exhibits ; while the whole review 
of the Australian wool industry anticipates many points which would 
arise in considering the Merino wool-culture of other countries. 

It is a natural inquiry whether the Australian wools will continue 
to increase in the accelerating ratio which has been witnessed in 
recent years. In the last decade the increase in New South Wales 
has been threefold, the numbers of sheep in 1866 being 8.132. 511. 
while the returns for the year 1875 reached nearly 25.000,000. The 
Commissioners of this colony declare in their Official Catalogue that 
if seasons continue propitious, and prices are maintained at anything 
like the present rates, the probability is very great that another ten 
years will see New South Wales doubling the number of her sheep, 
and able to exhibit a return of 40,000,000 or 50,000,000. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

The country ranking second in importance in the supply of the 
wools of commerce is the Argentine Republic. The number of 
sheep, as stated by Dr. Oldendorff, the Chief Commissioner of this 
Republic at the Exhibition, from a numeration made by himself as 
Commissioner of her Agricultural Department, is 57,501,200, with 
an annual yield of 216,000,000 pounds of wool, all of which, as there 
are only one or two wool-manufacturers, may be said to be destined 
for export. 

The details as to the numbers and distribution in the several prov- 
inces of this Republic, as furnished by Dr. Oldendorff, from the census 
of 1876, are as follows: 

Number. Value. 

Buenos Ayres 45»5ii»358 $72,818,172 

Entre Rios 3,000,000 3,600,000 

Santiago 1,200,000 960,000 

Santa F6 ' 4,500,000 3,600,000 

Corrientes 77,846^ 878,000 

Cordova 1,405,638 1,060,000 

San Luis 113,815 170,000 

Cataraarca 114,420 145,000 

* This probably should have been 770,846, as indicated by the value. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 15 



Number. 


Value. 


53>932 


$108,000 


70,000 


56,000 


53,856 


94,500 


120,200 


285,000 


514,621 


331,473 


64,930 


46,000 


57,800,616 


$84,152,145 



La Rioja 
Tucuman 
Mendoza 
San Juan 
Jujuy . 
Satta . 



The chief, though not to our own country the most important, 
portion of these exports consists of Merino wools. The exhibits of 
wools from the Argentine Republic, at the Exhibition, with the ex- 
ception of that of Mr. Samuel B. Hale, scarcely did justice to the im- 
portance of this production. The most noticeable feature was the 
enormous size of some of the fleeces of Merino wool of the Ram- 
bouillet and Negretti stock, — one fleece, a pure-bred Negretti raqi, 
grown in eleven months and eighteen days, weighed 31 pounds; other 
Rambouillet fleeces weighed 25 and 27 pounds. Two pelts were shown 
from sheep of the same race, one of which measured 5 feet 6 inches 
in length, and 4 feet in width at the hips, with a staple 9 inches in 
length. These fleeces, although they may exhibit the recent attempts 
for improvement, do not illustrate the general character of the Merino 
wool of this country. The general characteristic of these wools is 
lightness of fleece, the weight not usually much exceeding three 
pounds in the grease to the fleece. They are fine, soft, and short, and 
principally suited for the card, though generally wanting in strength 
and nerve. Their principal defect, however, is the clinging to the 
fleece of the carratilla or burr from the clover or white medoc on 
which these sheep feed, which seems to be inseparably connected 
with the productive lands and best pasturage. Notwithstanding these 
defects, which are obviated by burring machinery, and more recently 
by chemical processes applied either to the wool or to the cloth, these 
wools are in high esteem with the cloth-manufacturers, especially of 
Belgium and France. 

The Argentine Republic vies with Australia in representing the 
results of the Merino wool-culture in the last century. The raising 
of fine sheep was not seriously commenced until 1826, when it 
began with the importation of good Merino animals, with German 
shepherds, under the direction of Messrs. Hannah & Sheridan, whose 
establishment still survives. When fairly commenced the production 
increased with an accelerating ratio. The exports rose from 944 
bales in 1832, to 3577 in 1840, an increase of 280 per cent, in eight 
years. In 1850, it attained 17,069 bales, an increase in ten years of 
380 per cent. 

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l6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

This Republic, with a climate where the cold of winter is so mod- 
erate as to exhibit no more severe effects than slight hoar-frosts 
which disappear with the morning's sun, with an extensive seaboard, 
an internal and arterial system of rivers counted among the finest in 
the world, and with a soil furnished by a rich and vast alluvial plain 
on a subsoil of silicious clay, would seem to have a capacity for an 
unlimited wool-production of Merino wool. It would be well if the 
same could be said of another branch of wool, the product of the 
same country, — that proceeding from the indigenous races, or rather 
the descendants of the coarse Spanish sheep introduced by the con- 
querors in the middle of the sixteenth century. These wools, pro- 
ceeding from Churros sheep of Spain which have not been crossed 
with the Merinos, proceed from flocks found in the Sierra of Cordova, 
at an altitude of from three thousand to five thousand feet, also from 
other provinces of the Argentine Republic, as shown at the Exhi- 
bition, each known by the name of the province. The wool, long, 
though coarse, and produced in small fleeces, is in great demand in 
the United States for the manufacture of carpets. A plateau plain in 
the province of Cordova, of eight hundred superficial leagues in ex- 
tent, at an elevation of above ten thousand feet, produces sheep of 
this race which bear much larger fleeces of long carpet-wools. Some 
of the pelts were shown at the Exhibition. The tendency is for these 
wools to constantly increase relatively in value, as they are grown 
only by the rudest people, who are rather diminishing than increasing 
in numbers. The question of the future supply of these wools is, 
therefore, one of serious consideration with carpet-manufacturers. 

Three specimens of fleeces, styled " Lana de Lina," were also 
shown. These are the wools of the cross of the sheep and the goat. 
They resemble in appearance the wools of the sheep of the several 
provinces where they were grown, but are more wiry and slippery. 
Dr. Oldendorff, who is a man of thorough scientific and practical 
information upon all subjects connected with agriculture, and who 
has resided in Buenos Ayres for twenty years, being now the head of 
the agricultural department of the Argentine Republic, says that they 
are the offspring of the male goat and the ewe, never of the ram and 
the female goat, and are invariably sterile. The skins, dressed, are 
called pellones, and are used by the natives to cover their saddles. In 
traveling over the mountains, frequently eight or nine are put upon 
the saddle, on top of which the driver sits. They serve for his bed 
and covering as he bivouacs at night. 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, ij 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

The third great source in the Southern Hemisphere of fine wools 
of commerce is the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. The statis- 
tics, as furnished by Mr. Coates, the Commissioner of the colony, are 
as follows : 

Number of wooled sheep in 1875 10,064,289 

Other sheep 944,050 

Angora goats 972,733 

Export of wool in 1874 43,000,000 pounds. 

From H. Schwartze & Co.'s report, January 18, 1877, the following 
statistics in relation to the Cape of Good Hope are obtained : 

Imports. 1876. 1875. 1876. 1875. 

England . bales, 169,908 174,598 lbs., 42,054,712 44,170,950 

Continent . 1,033 997 

America . 7,529 14,001 

Total . . 178,470 189,596 50,600,000 

The imports into England are chiefly washed. They estimate the 
number of sheep at 16,000,000. 

CHILI. 

No facts as to the wool-production of Chili could be obtained at 
the Exhibition. Statistical reports give its exports of wool for 1872 
as 5,773,821 pounds, for 1873 as 4,102,078 pounds, and estimate the 
whole clip of the country at 3,000,000 kil., or 6,600,000 pounds. 

URAGUAY. 

An official report of the exports of Montevideo (Uraguay) makes 
the whole 

Exports of wool 51,953,8541155. 

Imports from the Argentine Republic to be deducted . 7,188,425 

44,768,829 

Another statement gives the export as 57,042 bales; which, at 900 
pounds per bale, the usual size for that country, would be equal to 
51,637,800 pounds, from which are to be deducted 7,188,425 pounds 
imported from the Argentine Republic. 

PERU AND BOLIVIA. 

There are no sufficient data in relation to these countries. The 
best estimates give the amount of 6,000,000 pounds for both. 



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1 8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

GERMANY AND AUSTRIA. 

The exhibits of wool from Germany and Austria were h'mited to that 
variety of the Merino fleece commonly known as Silesian, but more 
properly called Electoral, from the Elector of Saxony, the country 
in which this wool was first produced. Some beautiful specimens of 
the Electoral fleeces were exhibited from Germany and Hungary, the 
latter grown by Hungarian nobles. They illustrated all the charac- 
teristic features of the " noble" wool, as it is sometimes called in 
Germany. The fibres of these wools, according to Mall, measure 
from 1.4 to 1.8 of a centime of a millimetre in diameter; a centime 
of a millimetre being equal to ^^Vir of an inch. Nathusius-Konigs- 
born, in Das Wool/mar das Schaf, makes the average measure of 10 
hairs 1.79 centimes, 141 8 to an inch. Among these hairs one hair 
measured i centime, equal to 2540 to an inch. According to the 
same author, 18 hairs of a very high-blood ewe average 1.53 centimes, 
or 1661 to an inch. The finest single hair measured 1.17 centimes, 
equal to 2164 to an inch. The finest Silesian ram averaged 1.54 cen- 
times. Dr. George May, in Das Schaf, Breslau, 1868, in a tabje of 
measurements of 55 different kinds of wool, gives the finest, that of 
a Silesian super-elector, the very highest Electoral wool, as averaging 
0.13 millimetres, equal to 1954 hairs to an inch. The length of these 
wools rarely surpasses 4 centimetres, and the weight of the average 
of many flocks' fleeces is scarcely over i ^ pounds. They are used 
at present only for the fabrication of the most precious of woolen 
goods, imitation Cashmere shawls, extra fine broadcloths, etc. The 
thick felts, now made in this country for the hammers on the keys of 
pianos, are made solely of this wool imported from Silesia. It is 
admitted that this branch of wool-production is everywhere dimin- 
ishing. Saxony, the cradle of the race, has scarcely any of the 
Electoral sheep. Silesia still possesses a considerable number, while 
others are found in Moravia, Hungary, Prussia, and Poland, which 
produce all the superfine wools used in Europe. The whole pro- 
duction of the superfine wools of these countries in 1866 is stated 
by a competent authority as follows : 

Hungary . . . 560,600 kil. 

Bohemia iio,ooD 

Moravia 55»^^*00 

Silesia 85,000 

Total 810,000 

This small production is due to the small weight of the fleeces, the 
great care which the animals require, prices disproportionate to the 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP 2X, \g 

cost of production, and the loss of that distinction which formerly 
encouraged the growers of the noble wool. Mr. Bochner, of Aus- 
tria, one of the Judges of this group, is authority for the statement 
that Count Hunyady, of Hungary, one of the exhibitors of the 
Electoral fleeces at the Exhibition, produces 12,000 pounds annually 
of these wools, which he sells at 90 cents, principally in France, for 
the manufacture of imitation Cashmere shawls ; but at these prices 
there is no profit in the culture. The few growers of this wool in 
Hungary, who are generally noblemen, continue the production only 
from motives of pride. Most of the wealthy proprietors, who for- 
merly made a specialty of the production, have abandoned it or 
allowed their flocks to run down. 

In no portion of the world have so much science and intelligence 
been directed to the Merino sheep-husbandry as in the German states. 
Saxony was the first to acquire the Spanish Merinos in any consider- 
able number, first receiving them in 1765. In 1774, the pure-blooded 
progeny of the Spanish importations amounted to 325 head. As the 
culture of this race extended, there grew with it a desire to increase 
the characteristic property of the fleeces or the fineness of the fibre. 
This passion, as it became, for the utmost possible fineness of fibre, 
irrespective of all other considerations, led insensibly to the methods 
of breeding which produced a race possessing this attribute in the 
highest degree, but with a corresponding delicacy of constitution and 
lightness of fleece. This race, known in this country as the Saxon 
and in Germany as the Electoral, or Escurial, both names being used 
indifferently, does not appear to have been the inheritance from 
any special Spanish Cabanas, but a production of art. The com- 
mercial demand produced by the reputation of their wools led the 
German growers to increase the size of their animals and fleeces. 
Another race was developed by the side of the one above described, 
the ideal of which was a robust body producing the largest possible 
quantity of wool of the utmost fineness consistent with the increased 
production. This race was called the Negretti, from Count Negretti, 
the proprietor of one of the most celebrated original Cabafias in Spain. 
It was also sometimes called the Infantado race, from the Duke of 
Infantado, another Spanish proprietor; both terms, as in the case of 
the term Electoral and Escurial, indicating the character of the race 
and not its special Spanish descent, as it is often erroneously held. 
The descriptive terms Negretti and Infantado were found at the Exhi- 
bition applied to wools of the same general character. While Silesia is 
still in possession of the largest number of the superfine Electoral 
sheep to be found in the whole world, Saxony, Pomerania, I\Iecklen- 

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20 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

burg, and Eastern and Western Prussia in time renounced the Elec- 
lorals and replaced them by the Negrettis. Thirty or forty years ago 
Germany attained the utmost production that her land would permit. 
In 1850, according to personal statements made to the writer by Pro- 
fessor Grothe, the number of sheep in all the German states exceeded 
50,000,000; at the present time they do not exceed 25,000,000. Mr. 
Dodge places the number at 29,000,000. It is said that she is even 
losing her magnificent Merino breeds; for not only the Electorals, 
but the Negrettis, are being replaced by the English long-wooled 
races. What effect this will have upon the once famous broadcloth- 
manufacture of Germany is an interesting subject of inquiry; while 
the question suggests itself, what relation this decline of the German 
fine-wool-industry has to the abolition of the former protective duties 
on imported wool. 

The estimated product of wool in Austria, according to the re- 
turns made at the Exhibition, is about 30,000,000 kilogrammes of 
66,150,000 pounds. The number of sheep is not given ; but at three 
pounds of wool per head the number would be about 22,000,000. 
Mr. H. Schwartze and Mr. Dodge give, from returns in 1 871, the 
number of sheep as, — 

In Austria 5,026,398 

Hungary IS»076,997 

Total 20,103,395 

The distribution of sheep in proportion to the area and population, 
in 1 869, was as follows : 

Per square Per xooo 
Kilometre-area. Persons. 

Dep)endencies represented in the Reichsrath . . . 2476 367 

Dependencies of the Hungarian Crown . . . 1 639 341 

The Austrian Monarchy 2043 564 

The largest flocks are found in Hungary. Beautiful superfine 
clothing- wool was exhibited by Count Alois Karolyr, from flocks 
bred at Stampfen. This flock numbers 80,000 head. The average 
length of staple of the fleece is about I ]4 inch ; the average weight 
of the shearings, the fleeces being warm- and soap-water-washed, is, 
winter lambs excepted, 2% pounds English. The whole clip, 145,000 
to 156,000 pounds, is sold abroad, mostly to French manufacturers, 
for from 74 to 85 cents per pound. 

RUSSIA. 

The wools of Russia were well illustrated at the Exhibition by 

numerous fleeces and bales, and admirably arranged samples. The 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 2 1 

most interesting were Electoral wools, comparing favorably with the 
Silesian and Hungarian specimens, samples of the Donskoi carpet- 
wools, and a series of beautiful samples from the estate of the Grand 
Duchess Katharine Michailoona, showing the extraordinary length 
of fibre obtained from sheep of the Rambouillet race. Sheep-hus- 
bandry constitutes one of the most important branches of rural 
economy in the Russian Empire. The full statistics obtained from 
the Russian Commissioner show that the total number of sheep in 
the Empire at the present time is 65,387,000, — Europe 49,493,000, 
Asia 15,894,000, — ^a number which gives a proportion of 81 sheep 
to each 100 inhabitants. The distribution of sheep according to 
the population in the great divisions of Russia is as follows: 



The Provinces of Central Asia have per ic» inhabitants 

Caucasus 

Siberia 

Russia in Europe 

Poland 

Finland 



565 sheep. 

124 " 
90 " 
70 " 
65 " 
49 " 



Compared with the other great states of Europe, Russia occupies 
the fourth place. 

Great Britain has per 100 inhabitants 133 sheep. 

France « « « 97 " 

Prussia «« « u 93 " 

Russia «« " ** 81 " 

Austria " " « 47 " 

Italy u it u 38 " 

The total number is composed of 12,555,000 head of Merinos and 
52,832,000 common sheep. The principal domain of the Merinos is 
comprised in the Government of New Russia, which forms the south- 
eastern portion of the Empire. The Governments of Caucasus, Siberia, 
and Central Asia have scarcely any, and Finland no Merinos; Georgia 
and Circassia possess mostly sheep of the ancient Colchian race. 
Generally considered, the fine-wooled sheep tend to decrease, as the 
increased price of wheat causes a large conversion of pastures into 
arable land. Both the Electoral and Negretti races are grown. The 
small product in wool of the former race, set down at two pounds 
for the ewe and three pounds for the wethers, has led to extensive 
crossing with the more vigorous race. The most successful crosses, 
and those now in most favor, are with Rambouillet rams. The reason 
given for this predilection is, that " this wool responds best to the 
exigencies of the present wool-production, since the clothing industry 
tends to decrease, while that of worsted tissues takes daily more 

development." 

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22 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The culture of Merinos in the southern regions of the Empire is 
favored by the mildness of climate, the sheep requiring shelter and 
fodder only about six weeks. The greater part of the flocks is com- 
posed of a great number of head, single flocks reaching to fifty, 
seventy-five, a hundred, and even four hundred thousand head. Mr. 
Falz Feru, one of the exhibitors of excellent wool of the Govern- 
ment of Tanride, in the Crimea, has 230,000 sheep, all of Spanish 
blood, occupying 340,000 acres of land. These flocks consist of 
Negrettis, which appear to have attained in Russia an unusual hardi- 
ness, which favors their culture in immense flocks, requiring but little 
of that care so indispensable for the Electorals. 

The great masses of the common sheep are found in the countries 
of Central Asia, in the Governments of the south coast of Russia in 
Europe, in the Caucasus, and in Siberia. They consist of four races, 
Tchoundki, or the fat-tailed sheep, belonging to the nomadic people, 
the Kalmucks and Kurds. The Valaque, or the Walladean or Zakel 
sheep, which also abound in Hungary and Moldavia, of a large size, 
with coarse, lustrous wool. They are found in the Caucasus, or 
region of the Don, and probably furnish the wool known as Donskoi. 
The Tsijai, commonly spelt Zijah, meaning Gipsey, or mongrel, with 
an exterior resembling Merinos, but with longer wool. The Russian 
race, of a small size with coarse wool, and a sub-race, Retchelof, found 
at the south of the Government of Poltava, which furnishes the black 
and white fleeces commonly called Astrakan. 

The production of the Merino wool of Russia in the grease is esti- 
mated at 1,569,000 poods, equal to 56,484,000 pounds; of common 
wool at 9,245,000 poods, equal to 332,820,000 pounds, or 6yV pounds 
to a sheep, the total having an estimated value of 46,357,000 roubles, 
or 32,449,000 dollars. The exports of wool are of a value of 13,999,534 
roubles, supposed to be about 30,000,000 washed, equal to 50,000,000 
pounds unwashed. There is a vast domestic consumption of common 
wools in the household for clothing, for carpets or mats, and for mat- 
tresses, while the sheepskins are largely used for clothing. 

The enormous production of common wools, most of which, such 

as those from the broad-tailed and Valaque races, are admirably 

adapted for the carpet-manufacture, shows that this country will be 

one of the most important sources for the supply of the raw material 

for this industry. 

FRANCE. 

The wools of France had no representation at the Exhibition, except 

in fabrics and in the products of other countries which have been so 

largely influenced by an infusion of the blood of the French Merino. 

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GENERAL REFORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 23 

This influence makes it necessary to dwell at some length upon the 
French wool-industry, since it is one of the lessons of the Exhibition. 

The sheep-husbandry of France is unquestionably declining, at 
least in numbers. President Thiers said in 1870, "Our ovine popu- 
lation has gone down from 40,000,000 to 30,000,000." It is stated 
on the authority of the Inspector-General of Agriculture, that the 
number of sheep in France had been reduced from 30,386,000 in 
1866, to 24,707,496 in 1876, a loss of 5,678,787 in six years. Presi- 
dent Thiers attributes this decline to the absence of protective duties 
on wool, others to the abuse of an absurd law which allows the muni- 
cipal councils to prescribe the number of head per hectare which 
each farmer is permitted to keep. The number of Merinos, or their 
grades producing fine wool, is estimated by M. Sanson at 9,000,000. 
The other flocks, consisting of indigenous sheep producing coarse 
wools, and some English mutton-sheep, have no special characteristics 
worthy of notice. 

The wool-industry of France is remarkable for the influence it has 
had upon the combing-wool manufacture of the world, and conse- 
quently upon the sheep-husbandry of all the nations which supply 
it. Louis XVI. obtained from the King of Spain 200 rams and ewes 
of the pure race of Leon and Segovia, exactly a century ago, viz., 
1776. In 1786 he obtained 367 more, which were the foundation of 
the famous Rambouillet flock. In 1799 France received, through 
the treaty of BasleT, 5500 animals from the finest flocks of Castile. 
Sixty sheep-folds were established by Napoleon as accessories to 
that of Rambouillet, where proprietors could obtain the service of 
Merino rams free of charge. The directors of the national sheep- 
folds pursued in breeding precisely the opposite course to that 
adopted with the same original race in Saxony and with the Tropeau 
dt Naz in France. They aimed to increase the size of the frame and 
the weight of the fleece. With this increased size and weight there 
was developed a corresponding length of fibre, and a Merino comb- 
ing-wool was for the first time created. The French manufacturers 
were the first to avail themselves of this new property of wool which 
their own territory supplied. National pride stimulated them to 
create new fabrics from the new material supplied from domestic 
sources. They invented Mousselines de laine Merinos, cashmeres, 
cfiallis, bareges, and more recently worsted coatings, in a word, all 
the woolen stuffs of the nineteenth century which distinguish them- 
selves in their physiognomy from the tissues of the preceding cen- 
turies. The English and other manufacturing nations in due course 
followed the French example. Wool, instead of furnishing the ma- 

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24 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

terial for clothing for one sex, as formerly, supplied it for both. The 
Southern Hemisphere responded to this new and increased demand 
for Merino wool, and the fine sheep-husbandry of the world was 
modified to produce the combing-wools required for the new fabrics. 
To France must be accorded the honor of creating the most charac- 
teristic feature of the sheep-husbandry and wool-manufacture of the 
present century. 

The scientific breeders of France, not contenting themselves with 
producing animals surpassing all others of their race in size and 
weight of fleece and length of staple, have more recently aimed to 
develop, together with the special qualities of the Merino fibre, the 
meat-producing qualities and precocity of development, which for- 
merly were regarded as the exclusive aptitudes of the English races. 
They have succeeded in transforming the Merino into the most 
perfect mutton-sheep, having the same precocity and giving as much 
meat as the South Downs, reputed to be the best producers of flesh, 
while, at the same time, the total weight of the fleece is increased 
without augmenting the diameter of the fibre. In a word, the Merino, 
while becoming a mutton-sheep, preserves all its wool-bearing quali- 
ties. This method of development, requiring of course abundant 
food, should be suggestive to the occupants of the valuable lands in 
this country contiguous to city markets, where the merely pastoral 
sheep-husbandry has declined. 

We must not pass by another product of Frencli sheep-husbandry, 
perhaps the most instructive, in a scientific point of view, of any in 
the Exhibition, as illustrating the wonderful results which skillful 
breeding may accomplish by happily improving the accidents of 
nature. The product referred to is the famous Mauchamp wool, 
admirable specimens of which, both in staple and yarn, were exhib- 
ited by Mr. George W. Bond, who had personally visited the creator 
of this race in France, from whom he obtained his specimens. The 
characteristics of this wool are that to a fineness equal to that of 
Merino, and a length of staple which surpasses it, is added a lustre 
absolutely comparable to that of silk ; a lustre so marked that, in a 
challis made with a silk warp and weft of Mauchamp wool, the stuff, 
which contained only one-eighth of silk and seven-eighths of wool, 
was as brilliant as if made entirely of silk. 

The history of the creation of this race is so instructive that it 
maybe briefly stated. In 1828 there was accidentally produced on 
the farm Mauchamp, in France, cultivated by M. Graux, a ram from 
a flock of Merinos, having a head of unusual size and a tail of great 
length, and also a wool remarkable for its softness, and, above all, 

loS 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 



25 



its lustre. M. Graux separated the animal from the flock and used 
it for reproduction, obtaining some animals similar to the sire and 
others to the dam. Taking afterwards the animals similar to the 
sire and crossing them among themselves or with the sire, which 
served for the type, he succeeded, little by little, in forming a small 
flock whose wool was perfectly silky. He afterwards succeeded in 
modifying the forms and the size of the animals, originally quite 
small, and attained a flock of six hundred head, all furnishing the 
silky wool. The flock was prosperous at the time of the breaking 
out of the Franco-Prussian war. Of its history since that period we 
have no knowledge. 

ENGLAND. 

The English wools were illustrated at the Exhibition by the beau- 
tiful collections of the wools of commerce of Messrs. Bowes, of 
Liverpool, and Bond, of Boston ; and, at a later period, an admirable 
series of fleeces forwarded from Bradford, through the influence of 
one of our colleagues, Mr. Mitchell. The names and prices of these 
wools are given below : 



Half-bred wether 


. 1 5 >^ pence. 


North Hampton hogget 


16)^ pence 


" hogget 


. i6>i - 


Kent wether 


16K 


< 


Somerset wether 


. 16^ " 


Northumberland hogget 


. ivA 


( 


Lincoln " 


. 16 


Gloucester hogget 


16 


< 


North Hampton wether 


. I5>^ " 


wether . 


15 


t 


Yorkshire 


. 16^ " 


Somerset " 


. 16 


< 


Half-bred hogget 


. i^% « 


Irish hogget . , 


M% 


< 


South Down ewe 


.16 " 


Devon (lustre) wether 


17)4 


( 


Leicester wether 


. 16 


Hereford " . 


leyi 


( 


Shropshire hogget . 


. I6>4 « 


Yorkshire hogget 


19 • 


1 


** ** 


. i8>^ " 


Lincoln «* 


18 • 


< 



The characteristics of the fibre of all the many English races were 
well displayed in these collections. It is necessary to say that 
England produces no Merino sheep, and that all are grown prima- 
rily for mutton, and secondarily for the wools, the latter being gen- 
erally used for combing purposes, and entering into the manufacture 
of a large class of worsted goods. The wools of English races, — 
the Leicesters and Lincolns and Cotswolds, — for length, strength, 
and lustre, present the best type of combing-wool proper, or that 
used exclusively for combing-wool purposes. The lands being 
stocked with sheep to their utmost capacity, the numbers of sheep 
vary but little from year to year, so that returns of a few years back 
will pretty fairly represent the present production. The Government 

returns of 1868 show the whole number in England, Wales, Scotland, 

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26 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

and Ireland to be 34,532,000, which are classified by Mr. Graham as 
follows, according to the leading typical races: 

Leicesters and their allies 12,933,000 

Downs 6,130,000 

Cheviots 4,368,000 

Black-faced 5,101,000 

Welsh 2,000,000 

Irish 4,000,000 







34,532,000 


e production 


of these races is thus estimated : 




Leicesters, 


12,933,000 fleeces at 7 pounds each 


90,531,000 


Downs, 


6,130,000 "4 " 


24,520,000 


Cheviots, 


4,368.000 "3 " . 


13,104,000 


Black-faced, 


5,100,000 " 2j{ " 


14,027,750 


Welsh and Irish 


6,000,000 " averaging 2 ix>unds 


12,000,000 



34,532,000 Total number of lbs. washed 154,182,750 

At an average price of 10 pence per pound, the value of the wool- 
product is ;£'6,425,ooo. Taking the average age of these sheep at three 
years, about one-third, or 11,510,000, are killed for mutton annually; 
averaging the carcass at 65 pounds and the price per pound 8 pence, 
there are produced annually 748,150,000 pounds of mutton, realizing 
j^2S,ooo,ooo per year. This, added to the annual value of wool, 
j^6,425,ooo, makes the product of British sheep ;£'3 1,425,000, or $159,- 
125,000. To this is to be added the value of the manure, which can 
only be estimated by the fact that it is an indispensable necessity for 
British husbandry. This estimate is greatly increased when we add 
the value of wool from slaughtered sheep, say 36,000,000 pounds, 
and estimate the value of the wool at 15 pence instead of 10 pence, 
which is nearer the correct figure at the present time. 

THE DOMINION OF CANADA. 

The long wools of English blood exhibited by Canada attracted 
the high commendation of the Judges; an exhibit from Hamilton 
showing Leicester, Cotswold, and South Down wools, and that of 
crosses of Leicester and Merino, Leicester and South Down, Cots- 
wold and Leicester, Lincoln and Cotswold, justified the popularity of 
these wools with the worsted-manufacturers of the United States. 
So prevalent is the culture of the long combing-wools in Canada, and 
so large their consumption in the United States, where they find their 
principal market, that the term Canada Wools is in general use to 
designate the wools of the English type. 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 27 

We are indebted to the Minister of Agriculture of the Dominion 
of Canada for the latest official returns, made in 1871, which furnish 
the following statistics as to sheep and wool production : 

Provinces. Number of Sheep. Pounds of Wool. 

Ontario 1,514,914 6,411,305 

Quebec 1,007,800 2,763,304 

New Brunswick 234,418 796,168 

Nova Scotia 39^,377 1,132,703 

3,155,509 11,103,480 

OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. 

No exhibits of wool were made by Italy, which, according to 
Messrs. H. Schwartze & Co., has 6,977,104, and according to Mr. 
Dodge, 1 1,000,000 sheep. Portugal, which has about 3,000,000 sheep, 
made some excellent exhibits, and is declared by her Commissioners 
to be pursuing sheep-husbandry with a freshly-awakened zeal and 
energy. Spain, which has, according to both the authorities above 
mentioned, about 22,000,000 sheep, made a considerable number of 
exhibits of wool. But the observer could not fail to be struck with 
the fact that the Merino wools exhibited by the country which was 
the cradle of the Merino r^ce, showed no evidence of their pristine 
excellence. 

UNITED STATES. 

It is a subject of great regret that the wools of the United States 
were so inadequately represented at the Exhibition. This was in 
some measure accounted for by the circumstance that the usual 
shearing had not taken place at the time when, by the rules of the 
Exhibition, the entry of exhibits was closed. At the request of the 
Judges of this group, an extension of time was granted to proposed 
exhibitors of wool, but with little effect. The few beautiful fleeces, 
especially from Ohio, but more than all the high character of Ameri- 
can flannels, blankets, and fancy cassimeres, made exclusively of 
domestic wool, were sufficient to impress our foreign associates with 
the value of our wool-product. 

The number of sheep in the United States is set down in the 
Census returns of 1870 at 28,777,951, and the quantity of wool pro- 
duced at 100,102,387 pounds. It is believed that these returns are 
incomplete, as they only give an approximation of the number of 
sheep actually on farms at the dates of the returns, and were imper- 
fect in respect to Texas and the Territories, while the amount of wool 
is also incomplete, as the returns of fleeces of sheep slaughtered in 
cities are not given. 

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28 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

The Statistician of the Agricultural Department, Mr. Dodge, 
whom the writer has consulted, and who has made a special study of 
the subject, estimates the number of the sheep in the United States, 
in 1876, at not less than 36,000,000, producing, with the additional 
fleeces of those slaughtered within the past year, 155,000,000 pounds. 
The sheep of the United States consist, 1st, of what are called the 
native sheep, which are descendants of the unimproved coarse-wooled 
English sheep, first introduced. It is not known to what particular 
type of the English races they originally belonged, although it is 
known from tradition that certain of the common sheep were held in 
particular esteem for producing long worsted wools, which were hand- 
combed and spun in the families of New England for making yarns 
for worsted stockings. These sheep furnished the stock upon which 
the Merinos were engrafted. 2d. Descendants from the more recent 
English races, principally brought immediately from Canada. 3d. 
The Mexican sheep found in Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and 
California, a coarse and sparsely-wooled sheep of Spanish descent, 
undoubtedly the race known as Charro. 4th. The Merino sheep and 
other grades. The latter constitute the principal and characteristic 
sheep of the United States. Six Merinos were introduced to the 
United States by different persons between 1793 and 1802. In the 
last-named year Mr. Livingston, the American Minister in France, 
sent home two pairs of Merinos obtained from the French Govern- 
ment flock. Later, in 1802, Colonel Humphreys, the American Min- 
ister in Spain, on his return from his embassy, shipped a flock to the 
United States, of which twenty-one rams and seventy ewes reached his 
farm in Connecticut. It is not known whether the Merinos imported 
prior to these left any descendants, although it is known that the Me- 
rinos proceeding from the import of Mr. Livingston sold for enor- 
mous prices. The next, and by far the most important acquisition, was 
secured in 1809-10, through the energy and fortunate position of Mr. 
William Jarvis, American Consul at Lisbon, in Portugal. In conse- 
quence of the invasion of Spain by the French, and the subsequent 
confiscation and sale by the Junta from celebrated flocks of Merino 
sheep, Mr. Jarvis was enabled to purchase a large number, — about 
3500, — which he sent to this country and sold, except a few hundred, 
which he placed on his own farm in Wethersfield, Vermont, where 
they or their descendants have remained ever since. Four of these 
sheep were presented to Mr. Jefferson, at Monticello, who thus 
responded : " The four Merinos are now safe with me here, and good 
preparations are made for their increase the ensuing year. Pursuing 
the spirit of the liberal donor, I consider them deposited with me for 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 29 

the general good ; and divesting myself of all views of gain, I pro- 
pose to devote them to the diffusion of the race throughout our State, 
as far as their increase will permit. I shall send a pair to every county 
of the State, in rotation, until the whole are possessed of them.'* In 
1810 and 1811 there was an additional importation of about 2500 
Merinos, all from the prime flocks of Spain, part of which went to 
New York and part to Boston. The Merinos arrived at a propitious 
time for their favorable reception. It was a period when our foreign 
trade was suspended by the embargo, and our people were driven to 
supply themselves with fabrics from their own resources. They hailed 
with eagerness the opportunity of supplying and improving the raw 
material for the wool-manufacture in which they had embarked. The 
Spanish races were eagerly sought to improve the common sheep, 
and flocks of full blood and grades were established in all parts of 
the country. Although the mania for Merino-growing, which rose 
so high during the war of 181 2 that from 1000 to 1500 dollars was 
not unfrequently paid for Merino bucks, was checked by the peace 
of 181 5, and the destruction of our wool-manufacture by the flood 
of importations, while many of the flocks were merged in the com- 
mon coarse sheep of the country, others were kept pure and separate 
and the race was firmly established on our soil. 

In 1824 a new impulse was given to our wool-manufacture through 
legislative influences. Factories on a large scale were established for 
making broadcloths. The fashion of the times required cloths of 
great firmness, such as were made in England and France from the 
wools of German Electoral sheep-husbandry, which was then at the 
height of its prosperity. The necessities of the broadcloth-manufac- 
ture required a finer wool than was supplied by Spanish Merinos, 
as they then were commonly called. Saxon, or Electoral Merinos, were 
imported in large numbers. The record is preserved of 2963 which 
were imported in four years. The first aim of the wool-growers 
thence for a period of fifteen years was to engraft upon their flocks 
the Saxon blood, though, fortunately, a few never entirely abandoned 
the old Merinos. 

Through the effect of general causes, which insensibly led to the 
decline of superfine sheep-husbandry in all the Merino wool producing 
countries of the world, there commenced in the United States about 
1835 a reaction in favor of the neglected old-fashioned Merinos. 
Intelligent growers abandoned improvement through the Saxon 
stock, and sought for stock animals those of undoubted descent 
from the early Spanish importations. From this period the improve- 
ment of the American Merinos, as they began to be designated, 
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30 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

especially in weight of fleeces, was rapid. To give an illustration by 
no means exceptional, in 1835 the choicest flocks yielded 4^ pounds 
of wool per head. In 1844, flocks of the same proportion yielded 
5 pounds 13 ounces of washed wool per head. In 1863, a flock of 
157 two-year-old and yearling ewes yielded 7 pounds 2 ounces of 
fairly washed wool per head. In that year, at the International 
Exposition of Hamburg, the first prizes for the best heavy-wooled 
sheep — rams and ewes of 1761 competing animals — were awarded to 
Mr. Campbell, of Vermont, who exhibited American Merinos. In 
1875, a flock of 33 ewes in Michigan produced 318 pounds of washed 
wool. At the American Wool-Growers' Association, in 1875, the 
premiums were awarded with the following report: 





Weight of Sheep. Weight of Fleece. 


Age of Fleece 


1st premium ram 


i8o>^ lbs. 29 lbs. 


II mo. 21 days. 


2d premium ram 


148 " 23 " 13 oz. 


I year 4 " 


1st premium ewe 


108 " 17 " 3 " 


II mo. 22 " 


Two-year-old ewe 


not entered for premium 22 " 8 " 


I year 5 " 



Two races of our Merinos have acquired special Celebrity: the 
Atwood family improved, descended from Colonel Humphreys* im- 
portation, and supposed, upon somewhat equivocal authority, to be 
of the ancient Spanish stock belonging to the Duke Supantado, and 
the Rich family, supposed to inherit Paular blood. All these alleged 
descents are believed to be equivocal and uncertain. The Wells and 
Dickinson, of Ohio, partially descended from Colonel Humphreys' 
sheep, samples of whose excellent wool were shown at the Exhibition, 
have had much influence upon the early flocks of the Western States. 
The most eminent improver of the American Merino was Mr. Edwin 
Hammond, of Vermont, who bred upon the Atwood stock. Of his 
work it is enough to say that he effected as marked improvement in 
the Merino as was made by Bakewell and Elman respectively upon 
the Leicesters and Downs of England. 

We find, in this brief review, the names of Livingston, Humphreys, 
Jarvis, and Hammond, who are to be specially honored as founders 
of American sheep-husbandry. To these should be added that of 
Henry S. Randall, of Cortland Village, New York, recently deceased, 
at once a practical shepherd and a scholar. His example and his 
writings, which have contributed so much to elevate the pursuit of 
wool-growing in this country, are among the best .fruits of American 
sheep-h usband ry . 

The special application of American wools will be considered under 
the head of fabrics. We will advert to one general attribute which is 
universally conceded to them, viz., their soundness and strength of 

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' GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 31 

fibre. This, and perhaps the great development of fleece and weight, 
are to be attributed less to skill and the character of our soil and 
climate than to the prevailing system of keeping and the careful and 
thrifty habits of the people. The flocks, being generally small, are 
under the. personal care of the proprietors. They are housed in 
winter and regularly and abundantly fed, and consequently produce 
a healthy and sound fibre. Thus our wools owe their best-distin- 
guishing attribute indirectly to social or moral causes. It would be 
seen that our Merino wools, as a rule, belong to the class of inter- 
mediary wools produced in Europe by the Negretti race, now 
generally prevalent in most Merino wool-producing countries and 
increasing in others. Many of our manufacturers complain of the 
falling off* of our fine wool production. The American wool-grower 
has seen little at the Exhibition to induce him to change his pres- 
ent system. He has found that the cloth-industry of the world 
is adapting itself to the intermediary wools such as he produces. 
Even fashion yields to economical necessities. The superfine wool- 
production is unnatural, artificial, and unprofitable. From the nature 
of things there can be no reasonable expectation of seeing it revived in 
this country. So small is the consumption of the superfine wools that 
what might be imported from abroad would hardly compete with 
American wools; and if it were possible to distinguish them so that 
there should be no possibility of fraud or evasion, they might without 
injury to the wool- grower be placed on the same scale of duties as 
carpet-wools, neither being advantageously produced here. 

The reader would naturally look for particulars as to the distribution 
of sheep in the several States of our territory, with observations as to 
the characteristics of the wool in the different States as influenced by 
soil and climate. These particulars the writer hoped to supply, and 
with this view addressed letters of inquiry to each of the Commis- 
sioners from the wool-growing States. The information obtained 
was so meagre that he has been compelled to abandon his purpose. 
The wools of many of our States have characteristic qualities readily 
recognized by inspection or touch ; but the most skilled expert 
would be unable to define, in language intelligible to the unskilled, 
differences which to him are perfectly palpable. 

The deficiency as to the distribution of sheep in the several States, 
is approximately supplied by a statement which accompanied an 
admirable exhibit of samples of wools from most of the States and 
Territories of the Union, made by Messrs. Fiss, Banes, & Erben, of 
Philadelphia. This exhibit, made at the special request of the Super- 
intendent of the Agricultural Department of the Exhibition, was 

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32 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



received too late to obtain the official award it deserved. The sam- 
ples were well arranged and exceedingly instructive, especially as 
supplemented by the estimates of the number of sheep, which these 
gentlemen were so capable of giving with near approach to accuracy. 
This estimate is as follows : 







Number of Sheep. 






Number of Sheep. 


California .... 6,750,000 


New York .... 1,936,500 


Delaware 






23,600 


Ohio . 






4,546,600 


Georgia 






271,200 


Oregon 






710,500 


Illinois 






i.3ii»ooo 


Pennsylvania 






1,640,500 


Indiana 






. 1,250,000 


Rhode Island 






25»3oo 


Iowa . 






. 1,663,900 


Tennessee . 






341,700 


Kansas 






123,900 


Texas . 






. 1,691,500 


Kentucky 






683,600 


Vermont 






490,500 


Louisiana 






68.800 


Virginia 






356,400 


Maine . 






225,900 


West Virginia 






. 544,500 


Maryland 






141,200 


Wisconsin . 






. 1,162,800 


Massachusetts 






76,300 




Michigan 






. 3,450,600 


Not given, Census of 1870 


Missouri 






. 1,284,200 


Colorado .... 120,928 


Nebraska 






48,900 


Utah 59,672 


New Hampshire 






242,200 


Wyoming .... 6,409 


New Jersey . 






125,800 


Montana 






2,024 



Connecticut . 


. . 83,884 


Minnesota 


. 133.343 


New Mexico . 


. 619,438 


North Carolina 


. 463,435 



The following States and Territories were not represented. We 
place against them the number of sheep in 1870, since which time 
some of them have immensely increased their flocks : 

South Carolina . . . 124,594 

Washington Territory . . 44,063 

Mississippi .... 232,732 

Florida 26,599 

' There are some general considerations relating to American sheep- 
husbandry not yet referred to which should not be omitted. Sheep- 
husbandry in the older States is apparently declining, or is rather in 
that condition of suspense which precedes a transition to another form. 
In most of the New England States the number of sheep has greatly 
diminished, as in Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and 
Massachusetts. Vermont, however, still occupies an important position 
as a sheep-producing State, and in one respect is the first. The dis- 
tinctive character of the sheep-husbandry of Vermont is the breeding 
of Merino sheep, and especially of rams, for exportation to other 
States and abroad. The influence of Jarvis and Hammond, and of 
the choice flocks of the purest Spanish races, introduced by the 
former, is felt throughout the State. The objection has been made 
to the Vermont Merinos that with the object of obtaining heavy fleeces 
there has been an undue development of yolk. The best breeders. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 33 

prominent among whom is Mr. George Campbell, of Westminster, are 
now working in a different direction. They are breeding so as to 
destroy the wrinkles formerly so popular as indicating a pure blood, 
but really useless, unsightly and inconvenient in shearing, to diminish 
the quantity of the yolk, and to make a hardy animal, fitted especi- 
ally for regenerating the flocks kept in a state of exposure in Colorado 
and California. Vermont sheep at the Exhibition having attracted 
the favorable attention of the Commissioners from Australia, the 
wool-growers of the State subscribed for the purchase of a model 
ram and ewe, which they have courteously presented to the Agri- 
cultural Society of New South Wales. 

The most remarkable event in the recent history of our wool- 
industry, is the rapid development of the pastoral sheep-husbandry in 
California and the trans-Missouri States. While in the oldest States 
wool-growing has been pursued with small flocks, as an adjunct to 
other husbandry, in these States it has been organized on a grand 
scale. It is conducted not by farmers, but by exclusive wool-growers, 
who are at the same time capitalists. There are single proprietors 
who have flocks exceeding a hundred thousand head in number. In 
1868 the Pacific product was 15,000,000 pounds; in 1870, 23,000,000. 
In 1875 the product of California exceeded 50,000,000. The product 
for 1876 is stated as follows by E. Grisar & Co. : 



Spring wool, 94,102 bales, weighing 
Spring wool shipped direct from the interior 



Total spring production 
Fall wool received, 73,952 bales, weighing 
Fall wool shipped direct from the interior 



Total fleece wool .... 
Pulled wool shipped direct from San Francisco 



28,230,000 pounds. 
1,834,919 " 



30,064,919 

24,031,378 

204,073 

54.300,37® 
2,250,000 



Total wool production of California in 1876 . 56,550,370 " 

The wool is rapidly improving and is in high demand. The great 
ranges of pasturage in the Pacific and trans-Missouri States, and the 
very little winter housing and feeding of forage required, give promise 
of a development of sheep-husbandry in those territories comparable 
to that of the Southern Hemisphere. 

Conditions not less favorable, which are beginning to attract the 
attention of experienced wool-growers, exist in the vast area and 
favorable climate of Texas. 

No reference has yet been made to a branch of our sheep-hus- 
bandry which promises to take the most prominent place in the older 
States, that of the long-wooled or mutton races, or their crosses with 

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34 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

Merinos. The culture of these sheep, which are of recent intro- 
duction, dating back hardly more than twenty years, has been largely 
influenced by the contiguity of Canada and the development of our 
worsted industry within the period mentioned. It has been peculiarly 
successful on the southern shores of Lake Erie, and in the States 
adjoining Canada. From returns furnished by the State Commission- 
ers, it appears that of about 11,000 sheep in Wisconsin, about one- 
quarter are of the long-wooled races. Of 8,000,000 pounds produced 
in Michigan in 1875, about one-quarter is of the same race. In both 
States the culture of this wool is declared to be on the increase. 

In Oregon, of 2,000,000 pounds produced in 1875, the quantity of 
long combing-wools was in the same proportion. The exhibits from 
this State show remarkable success in breeding, actually improving 
upon the English wools, while the climate shows peculiar adapta- 
tion to this product. Kentucky, favored by its blue-grass pastures, 
is also distinguished for the excellence and abundance of its long 
combing-wools. It has been proved by the best test, that of actual 
trial, contrary to the belief formerly prevailing, that our soil and 
climate are well adapted to these heavy sheep. The high prices of 
the wools, the increasing demand for good mutton, and the benefits 
to the soil, cannot fail to induce the farmers of the older sections of 
the country to follow the example of England. A new feature in our 
foreign commerce is the recent invention which permits the trans- 
portation to great distances of fresh meats, hung on shipboard in 
apartments suitably prepared, and the favor which American beef and 
mutton thus introduced have met in England presents unexpected 
inducements for mutton-growing in our Atlantic States. 

Other English races not yet introduced, especially the Cheviot* 
should be tried. It is believed that this race is specially fitted for the 
high plateaus of North Carolina, where they would find a climate 
approximating that of their native locality. The mere acclimation 
and continuance of the English types is not sufficient. Attempts 
should be made to create new races of this class of sheep exactly 
adapted to our climate, manufactures, and conditions of agriculture. 
No wider field for zootechnic achievements is offered than in this 
direction. 

This sketch would be incomplete without some reference to the 
literature of American sheep-husbandry. The most eminent and 
influential worker upon this subject is Dr. Henry S. Randall, lately 
deceased, who by his writings and example has done more than any 
other to elevate what was once a neglected and accidental pursuit of 
the farmer to a cherished and dignified employment. His Practical 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 35 

Shepherd has been pronounced the best book ever published on any 
branch of agriculture. Other eminent writers on this subject are 
Mr. George Geddes, whose contributions have appeared in the New 
York Weekly Tribune; Mr. A. M. Garland, of Illinois, the editor of 
the sheep department of the Live Stock Journal, — ^at present the 
fullest and most trustworthy source of information available to 
American wool-growers ; and Messrs. Glenn & Co., of Pennsylvania, 
contributors to the Practical Fanner. 

T/te Bulletin of the Natiofial Association of Wool Manufacturers, in 
six volumes, has notices of much of the foreign literature bearing 
upon the subject, with discussions of the economical questions con- 
nected with American wool-industry. It contains, besides, essays by 
Mr. George William Bond. Several of the most recent reports of State 
boards of agriculture contain essays of much value, particularly those 
of the States of Maine, Vermont, and Georgia. The reports of the 
National Department occupy the first position as sources of knowl- 
edge on the subject of sheep-husbandry. 

RfeSUMfe OF WOOL-PRODUCTION. 

Messrs. Helmuth, Schwartze, & Co., of London, in their annual 
report dated January 18, 1877, say as follows: 

" An attempt is made in the following to give a survey of the wool- 
trade in its largest proportions. Usually the view is confined to one 
market or to one country, or to colonial- or home-grown wools, as 
the case may be. Here, however, the circle is expanded to include 
all wools and all countries, as far as information reaches or even as 
data exist upon which reasonable guesses may be based. To arrive 
at such a view, the most obvious way would have been an inquiry 
into the total quantity of wool produced in the world. But, though 
we give an estimate of the number of sheep in existence, the figures 
are in several points too uncertain to allow of any conclusions being 
built upon them. It is nevertheless possible to obtain a view of the 
trade in its entirety in another way, viz., by ascertaining not the pro- 
duction of wool which takes place all over the globe, but the quantity 
worked up by the whole wool-industry, which, so far from being 
distributed over the whole earth, is in a developed form practically 
confined to Europe and North America. This has accordingly been 
done. Europe and North America are the manufacturers for the 
whole world; and, if the extent of their work can be gauged, an idea 
is really given of the entire trade. The subject resolves itself into 
an inquiry, first, of the home-production of these two continents, and 

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«875. 


1876. 


830 


798 


619 


419 



36 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

then of their imports, the two together giving the measure of the 
world. Expressed in millions of pounds' weight we find, — 

The home-production of Europe and North America . 
The imports into North America .... 

1449 1217 

1449 million pounds then represent the whole supply ; and of this 
total about 57 per cent, were of European and North American home- 
growth, and about 43 per cent, imported. Apportioning this huge 
quantity, we find that no less than 351 million pounds, or very nearly 
a quarter of the whole, fall to the share of the British industry alone ; 
the rest of Europe takes 844 million pounds, or 58 per cent.; North 
America, 254 million pounds, or 17^ per cent. In 1866, the total 
consumption of raw wool was 12 17 million against 1449 million 
pounds in 1875, and the average annual increase was consequently 
about 2 per cent. Of this about I per cent, was directly owing to 
the increase of population, which in Europe and North America rose 
from 321 to 347 millions in the stated period, the remaining i per 
cent, being due to the employment of wool for new purposes, and to 
the spread of comfort and wealth generally. Calculated per head of 
population, the consumptioii of raw wool, in 1875, was 4^^ pounds, 
or, taking the wool in its cleaned state, 2-^ pounds. 

" It need not be said that all these figures pretend to no accuracy, 
but are open to correction ; all they lay claim to is this, that, wherever 
possible, they are based upon the latest authentic returns, and that 
where such basis was wanting, the estimates have been made with care 
and with a full consideration of all points involved." 

ESTIMATE OF THE NUMBER OF SHEEP IN THE WORLD. 

Year of 

Return. No. of Sheep. 

United Kingdom 1876 32,252,579 

Russia 1870 48,132,000 

Sweden 1873 1.695,434 

Norway 1865 i,705»394 

Denmark 187 1 1,842,481 

Iceland 800,000 

Germany 1873 24,999,406 

Austria 187 1 20,103,395 

Switzerland 1866 447 ,001 

Holland 1873 90'»5'5 

Belgium 1866 586,097 

France 1872 24,589,647 

Italy 1874 6,977,104 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 37 

Year of 

Return. No. of Sheep. 

Spain 1865 22,054,967 

Portugal 1870 2,706,777 

Total Europe (excluding Turkey and Greece), about . . 190,000,000 

Australasia 1875 62,000,000 

Cape Estimate 16,000,000 

Mexico " 16,000,000 

River Plate '* 60,000,000 

North America " 50,000,000 

Remainder of America " 6,000,000 

Total 384,000,000 

Turkey, North Africa, Persia, etc., say ... . 65,000,000 

India and China, "say 35,000,000 

Grand Total 484,000,000 

CONSUMPTION OF WOOL. 

It will be observed that in the following tables the production 
and consumption of the United States are included in that of North 
America. In order to bring our own consumption into more distinct 
relief, the writer has requested Mr. George W. Bond to estimate the 
consumption of v^ooX per capita in the United States, as compared with 
that of Great Britain, and has been favored with a reply. Deeming it 
unnecessary to confuse the reader with a statement of the complicated 
calculations by which Mr. Bond formed his estimate, we give simply 
the results. Of domestic wool and that imported, either in the form 
of wool or fabrics, the average consumption of the people of Great 
Britain is set down at three and two-thirds pounds of clean wool per 
person. The consumption of clean wool in the United States is set 
down at four and a third pounds per head. Although the tables 
which follow may surprise enthusiasts, by showing how gradually the 
consumption of the raw material of the wool-manufacture of the 
civilized nations increases, it being at the rate of but about 2 per 
cent, for each year of this last decade, they show progress and stability 
of progress. They show that wool is holding, and likely to hold, its 
place among the few great national staples which make up the bulk 
of commercial commodities ; and that a great step towards commer- 
cial and industrial independence is made by the nation which has 
planted a prosperous sheep-husbandry upon her soil. 



121 



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38 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



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40 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



WOOL FABRICS. 

CLASS 235. — Card-Wool Fabrics, — Yarns, Broadcloth, Doe- 
SKINS, Fancy Cassimeres, Felted Goods, Hat Bodies. 

In considering the different classes of the manufactured products of 
wool at the Exhibition, it would be inconvenient, if not impracticable, 
to observe the geographical arrangement pursued in discussing the 
raw material. The peculiar national distinctions are less marked than 
in the raw material, and the products of some countries exhibit 
nothing calling for particular remark. It would be interesting to 
give the statistics of production of the different countries exhibiting, 
but these were not obtainable from any sources at our command. 

The fabrics of the class now under consideration, with the excep- 
tion of yarns and hat bodies, may be properly designated as " cloths.*' 
The most marked impression made by an examination in detail of the 
cloths of different countries was the cosmopolitan character of the 
cloths of all manufacturing nations. Although there are marked 
distinctions in the kinds of cloths, these seem to bear the impress 
of the time, or the fashion of the time, rather than of the country of 
fabrication. 

This is especially true of the great mass of cloths for general con- 
sumption, which can scarcely be distinguished except by the degrees 
of perfection in their fabrication. It has been remarked that woolen 
cloths, by their universal use, have tended to obliterate the outward 
social distinctions of classes. It was observable at the Exhibition 
that they served to obscure the distinction of nationalities. This 
uniformity may be partially due to the supremacy of fashion, made 
more universal by modern facilities of communication, but equally to 
the identity of modern machinery, and the influence of the raw 
material upon manufactures. 

In the last and in the early part of the present century, scarcely 
any fabrics were known under the designation of " cloths," except 
broadcloths, and twilled fabrics similar in face to broadcloths, called 
" cassimeres.*' Each piece was uniform in color. Variety of color 
and shade was the only element which the manufacturers had at 
command to satisfy the taste for change or the caprice of fashion. 
The principal distinctions were in the fineness and perfection of finish. 

From the descriptions which remain of the methods of weaving 
broadcloths in the French convents during the fourteenth century, 
this fabric would appear to be now substantially the same made four 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 41 

centuries ago. The only change is in the fineness of the wools used, 
and the perfection of the face of the goods, due to better processes 
of shearing and pressing. This fabric will doubtless always occupy 
the first rank among woolen tissues. In this typical product of the 
woolen manufacture, the broadcloths from the West of England still 
occupy the eminent position accorded to them in all other Inter- 
national Exhibitions. The thickness and solidity of these cloths were 
not less conspicuous than their fineness and beautiful face. This was 
especially noticeable in the scarlet military cloths. All these cloths 
bear the designation of Electoral, signifying the kinc;! of wool of 
which they are made ; and, in fact, they are made of the highest- 
priced Silesian wool. The prices at which they were marked corre- 
sponded with their quality. The contrast of these goods with certain 
others made in England for export was remarkable. These fabrics 
are made chiefly for home consumption by the wealthy classes. For 
the class of consumers who use these goods, the competition among 
the manufacturers is in excellence rather than in cheapness. But the 
Judges had the proof within their own group that the skill required 
to produce these fine cloths is not an exclusive monopoly. One of 
our colleagues, Mr. Lang, who commenced the manufacture of broad- 
cloths in 1 8 14, exhibited, though not for competition, samples of blue 
and black broadcloths, made in 1853, at Vassalboro*, Maine. The 
wool was selected Silesian, costing, with duties and charges, about 
three dollars per pound. The cloth had one hundred and twenty 
picks to the inch. The cloth, in fineness and perfection of finish, was 
admitted to surpass even the West of England broadcloths. 

The comparatively low position of the United States in the manu- 
facture oi fine broadcloths cannot be denied. It was manifested by 
the absence of any notable exhibits, except by a single establishment, 
the Burlington Mills, of Vermont. Their exhibits showed that our 
apparent inferiority in this manufacture was not due to any want of 
skill or capacity, but to other causes. This mill produces annually 
some ^[300,000 in value of broadcloth, and it is known that another 
mill in Massachusetts, which did not exhibit, has shown equal proofs 
of its skill in this manufacture. The products of the mill first re- 
ferred to would undoubtedly suffer in comparison with the West of 
England standards, for the goods, beautiful in face and fineness, 
were lacking in weight. But they were intentionally made to con- 
form to the prevailing fashion of the higher standard of the German 
light weight goods, with which they bore a favorable comparison. 
It would be erroneous to make the position of the broadcloth 
industry a reproach against the American woolen manufacturer. 

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42 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The same apparent decline, though perhaps not in the same degree, 
is witnessed in most other manufacturing nations. Superfine broad- 
cloths are now used only by a limited class, and by that class rarely, 
except for dress coats, which last for years. The coats are made by 
fashionable tailors, who, as a rule, prefer foreign cloths. As the fine 
cloths are principally used by the easy classes, the duties upon the 
fine foreign cloths are no impediment to their consumption, while the 
specific or weight duty is less onerous upon them than upon common 
cloths. 

The capacity to manufacture the finest broadcloths in this country 
was proved, many years ago, by the celebrated Middlesex Mills of 
Lowell, Massachusetts, — in age, influence, and continuity of excellence 
standing at the very front of our cloth-mills. In ceasing to give promi- 
nence to the fine broadcloth manufacture, it has manifested no failure 
in skill, but simply an adaptation to the wants of the times. 

The diminution in the American manufacture of fine broadcloths 
has been attributed to the effect of the tariff of 1846. It has also 
been materially influenced by the constantly diminishing domestic 
supply of superfine wools, the Saxon wool-culture, as we have seen, 
having nearly ceased ; for it is well established that an abundant 
domestic supply of raw material is one of the most potent of the 
influences which give a special character to the manufactures of a 
country. But the principal cause of the decline referred to is the 
popular demand for other fabrics, hereafter more fully referred to. In 
a word, our manufacturers have ceased, as a rule, to make fine broad- 
cloths, because they find ample and more profitable employment for 
their looms in the production of the lower cloths which enter into 
general consumption. It has been observed that a similar decline, or 
more strictly speaking, diminution, of the fine-cloth manufacture is 
observed in other countries. Although a few excellent broadcloths 
and satins, or doeskins of remarkable beauty, were exhibited by Bel- 
gium and Germany, the Judges of large experience in dealing with 
woolen fabrics failed to find, in the exhibits of Belgium and especially 
of Germany, that competition for excellence in the production of 
superfine cloths which they had been led to expect from the former 
reputation of Belgian and German manufacturers. In the production 
of plain-faced goods of a lower grade, adapted for special uses, — such 
as blue and gray uniforms for soldiers, police officers, newsboys, and 
watchmen, — there were evidences of much progress, both in fabrica- 
tion and cheapness, on the part of American manufacturers. Our 
regular soldiers, wearing American fabrics, are declared by our army 
authorities to be better clothed than any in the world. The beauty 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 43 

of the uniforms of our volunteer troops, many thousands of whom 
were in procession on the Centennial Fourth of July, was specially 
noted by the foreign Judges. The production of blue police cloths 
has become an extensive branch of our manufacture, and the cloths 
are marked for their cheapness, durability of dye, and solidity of 
fabric. 

The period of 1836 was an epoch in the cloth industry of the world 
and of the century. It was the commencement of the change which 
has produced a character of the cloth fabrics, for general consumption 
throughout the world, which was one of the most conspicuous features 
of the Exhibition. 

In 1834, M. Bonjean, a prominent wool-manufacturer in Sedan, 
France, and an Hive of the Polytechnic School, conceived the idea of 
modifying the plain cloths hitherto universally made, by uniting upon 
the same stuff different tints or patterns of tissue. This he was able 
to effect by the Jacquard loom. It was evident that the variety of 
stuffs which could be thus made was as unlimited as fancy. Hence 
he styled his woolens fancy cassimeres. These cloths, put on the 
market, and displayed at public exhibitions, instantly struck the pop- 
ular taste, and were imitated, at first in France, and then in all other 
manufacturing nations. Their introduction into this country is an 
illustration of the benefits flowing from National Exhibitions. In 
1840 an American gentleman, arriving directly from Paris, visited Mr. 
Samuel Lawrence, then agent of the Middlesex Mills at Lowell, 
Massachusetts. In the words of Mr. Lawrence, " He had an over- 
coat woven in diamond figures, of great beauty ; said he saw it at an 
Exhibition, at Paris; Bonjean & Son, of Sedan, were the manufac- 
turers. He gave me a small bit from the inside of the collar.*' With 
this bit as an example of what was to be done, Mr. Lawrence applied 
to Mr. George Crompton to adapt machinery for this tissue, already 
devised in cotton fabrics; and the result was the invention of the 
Crompton loom, upon which fancy cassimeres have since been woven, 
not only in this country, but in Sweden, Germany, Austria, and Bel- 
gium. From this statement, it would seem that fancy cassimeres were 
first made in this country at Lowell. But it should be observed that 
the honor of the first introduction is also claimed by the New Eng- 
land Mills of Rockville, Connecticut. The new cloths were adapted 
to the natural change which had begun to take place in the culture 
of wools. They required soundness, length, and strength, rather 
than the softness and fineness which had been the essential qualities 
of clothing-wools. The more abundant supply of the intermediary 
wools has continued to favor the production of the fancy woven 

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44 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

cloths ; and from their great predominance at the Exhibition, and in 
the business suits commonly worn, it would seem that they comprise 
from three-quarters to nine-tenths of all the cloths made at the present 
day. 

In the class of fancy woven cloths, — including not only fancy 
cassimeres, but clothes for overcoatings and worsted coatings, — the 
manufacturers of Elbeuf and Sedan sustained at the Exhibition their 
long-established reputation for novelty of design and perfection of 
fabrication ; and Belgium was not far behind. The fine and thin 
cassimeres of Belgium, called " Batistes," made for consumption in 
tropical countries in the place of cotton and linen fabrics, were con- 
spicuous for their beauty. Among the British exhibits, — besides some 
fancy cloths exhibited by West of England manufacturers, woven by 
a novel process analogous to knitting, — certain solid and substantial 
fancy cloths, made in Ireland, of Cheviot wool, with double and 
twisted yarns, received special commendation, and are worthy of 
imitation here. 

The writer may be permitted to speak of the admiration and sur- 
prise expressed by the foreign Judges of this group, at the first inspec- 
tion of the American fancy cassimeres. The goods of our exhibitors, 
it may be remarked, were arranged with good taste, in costly but not 
obtrusive cases, which served to enhance their favorable impression. 
The Swedish Judge, Mr. Carl Arnberg, a practical wool-manufacturer 
of large observation, will pardon the repetition of his precise language 
addressed to the writer : "You know that the best fancy cassimeres 
in the world have been made at Sedan and Elbeuf in France. If 
these goods were placed by the side of the Elbeuf cassimeres, you 
could not tell one from the other, and the goods could not be bought 
at Elbeuf for the prices marked here." It was conceded by all the 
Judges that our fancy cassimeres, in material, fabrication, and design, 
had attained the highest standard of this fabric. No single mill or 
State could claim the palm ; for the honors were divided between a 
mill in Utica, New York, one in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, and three 
mills in Rockville, Connecticut, while other mills so nearly approached 
them as to make their special mention almost invidious. This favor- 
able impression of our foreign associates was confirmed by visits 
which they made to some of the mills which had exhibited. They 
shared the opinion expressed to the writer by Professor GLrothe, of 
Germany, author of the most complete modern treatise on the card- 
wool manufacture, that the American mills which he had just visited 
were in possession of the best and most recent processes, improve- 
ments, and machines known in Europe, and were admirable in their 

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GENERAL FEPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 45 

administration. It is due to our wool-growers to say that the cloths 
so highly commended were made generally of American wool. Aus- 
tralian wool being used in some cases, not from preference, but to eke 
out the short supply of the domestic stock. 

It is proper in this connection to depart from the strict arrangement 
of the classification to consider a class of fabrics which, though made 
of combed wool, are really cloths, and are directly allied with the 
card-wool fabrics just reviewed. The Exhibition showed that the 
most formidable rivals of the fancy cassimeres are the fabrics known 
as worsted coatings. Being woven in the fancy loom, either Jacquard 
or Crompton, and made for the same purposes and by the same man- 
ufacturers as the cassimeres. they differ from them only in the respect 
that the cassimeres are made of carded and the worsted cloth of 
combed wool. This fabric, created in France, in the introduction of 
its fabrication to this country affords another illustration of the benefit 
of International Exhibitions. Mr. E. R. Mudge, of Boston, being 
Commissioner of the United States at the Exposition of Paris of 1867, 
was impressed with this fabric then exhibited, and then much worn 
both in London and Paris, as a novelty. Seeing that it was made of 
combed Merino wool, he directed inquiries to ascertain if suitable 
wools for this fabric could be abundantly furnished by American 
fleeces. Satisfying himself affirmatively upon this point, he imported 
and introduced the requisite machinery for combing and spinning the 
wools at the Washington Mills, in Lawrence, Massachusetts, of which 
he is a leading director. This establishment succeeded so well in the 
fabrication of these stuffs, and they proved so popular when thrown 
upon the market, that the introducer soon found a host of rivals and 
imitators. A new industry at once sprung up, — that of combing and 
spinning the wools into worsted yarns, for supplying the many fancy 
cassimere-mills which desired to weave these fabrics. One of the 
most conspicuous displays at the Exhibition was that of the United 
Spinners* Association of Philadelphia, comprising eight distinct 
establishments, all exclusively devoted to making Merino combing- 
wool worsteds for worsted coatings and for suspenders and india- 
rubber goods, and producing an annual product of ;f 1,500,000. The 
perfection of the yarns was fully recognized by the experts in the 
group of Judges. They were made almost exclusively of American 
Merino wool, which the exhibitors declared to have proved pre- 
ferable for their purpose to even the best Australian wools, being 
"kinder, more elastic, and stronger.** Here was a new industry 
founded scarcely six years ago, and a palpable demonstration of new 
and unsuspected qualities of excellence in American wools, — a de- 
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46 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

monstration most gratifying to those who, twelve years ago, had 
pointed out these qualities to incredulous manufacturers. 

The American worsted coatings were extensively exhibited. The 
excellence attained in so short a period was a matter of surprise. 
While the fine diagonals of Sedan were not equaled, the American 
exhibit, as a whole, compared favorably with those from abroad. In 
the fabrics for overcoatings, Moscows, Kerseys, Castor beavers, and 
Elysians, there was the same general resemblance in the stuffs from 
different countries, already spoken of as forming one of the charac- 
teristic features of the woolen manufacture of the present day. All 
the kinds made abroad, with the exception of special novelties, — like 
the beautiful peau d'ours, a species of Moscow coating made at 
Dussen, in Germany, and the delicately soft Montagnac overcoatings 
of Sedan, — are made in this country ; and our fabrics did not suffer by 
comparison. 

The value of a manufacture is shown less in costly fabrics than in 
the common cloths combining utility and cheapness. Commendation 
was given to a mill established as an accessory to the largest iron- 
making establishment in Pennsylvania, in which the women and 
children of the operatives obtained employment, and which furnished 
cloths, marked for their soundness and cheapness, for the workmen. 
Many of the combinations of wool with cotton or union cloths were 
noticeable for cheapness and utility, such as the Kentucky jeans with 
cotton warps and wool filling, in much esteem for cheapness and 
wearing qualities in the agricultural districts in the Southern and 
Western States. The repellents, or water-proof cloths, show another 
union fabric. 

FELTED GOODS. 

The exhibits of felted goods, quite numerous and varied from the 
United States, were few and barely incidental from foreign nations ; 
and those which were seen were Oriental in their origin or affinities. 
They were incidentally seen in the national fez of Turkey, so en- 
during in fabric and pleasing as well as enduring in its madder-red 
color; in fils of exquisite softness to the touch, made of camel's, hiair, 
forming the ground for costly Turkish embroidery (a material de- 
serving more extensive use for this purpose) ; and the thick Russian 
felts made up into boots and gaiters, — ^the only foot-covering, accord- 
ing to Mr. Bielsky, the Commissioner for Russia, capable of resisting 
the cold of a Siberian winter. These articles also deserve imitation. 
It is believed that felted cloth was the most natural and the first stuff 
employed by man. We cannot reflect without pride that the first in- 
vention of primitive man in the textile arts, originating in Asia, the 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 47 

cradle of the race, and still in use among the ruder tribes of the East, 
remained without progress for centuries, until revised, amplified, and 
made tributary to domestic comfort and the arts in all civilized com- 
munities, by our own countrymen and in our own times. M. Koep- 
pelin. a French expert, speaks thus, in the Annales du Genie Civil of 
1869, of this fabric: " In spite of the simplicity of its fabrication, and 
in spite of the antiquity of its origin, felting was for a long time aban- 
doned to the lesser industries. It is only within thirty years that the 
mechanical fabrication of felted cloths has been essayed. Many fruit- 
less attempts in this direction were made in France and other coun- 
tries ; and it is only to the spirit of invention of two Americans, Wells 
and Williams, that we owe the processes now in use, and which have 
not been materially modified since the epoch of their discovery." 
Their processes, he says, were applied in France and England, and are 
used in the latter country for making printed felt carpets, exported 
in vast quantities all parts of the world,- and popular from their 
great cheapness. 

No other published notice of this interesting invention has come 
within the notice of the writer. He has fortunately come into pos- 
session of other facts in relation to the introduction of this im- 
portant fabric, creditable alike to American ingenuity and British 
enterprise, which seem worthy of a detailed notice, because not 
hitherto known to the public. The facts are derived from a personal 
communication by a gentleman hereafter mentioned. 

Thomas Robinson Williams, of Newport, Rhode Island, connected 
with the Hazard family of that State, so well known as wool-manu- 
facturers, invented the process of making felt cloth of commercial 
length, at Rhode Island, about 1820. About 1824, he went to Eng- 
land, for the purpose of introducing this invention, and also one for 
making hat bodies, in which he was associated with a Mr. Wells. He 
took out a patent in England in 1830. He succeeded in enlisting 
the co-operation of capitalists, who, about 1838, erected a factory in 
Leeds, with a capital and plant of ;^250,ooo. the designation of the 
proprietors being the Victoria Cloth Company. Meeting with imme- 
diate success in the fabrication, the enterprise created a great excite- 
ment in manufacturing circles, as it threatened to revolutionize the 
whole system of cloth-making. The principal editors of the London 
papers visited the establishment, and vied with each other in descrip- 
tions of the new art. The Queen gave extensive orders for the stuffs, 
and the Mistress of the Robes — the Duchess of Sutherland — fur- 
nished the grand staircase and vestibule of her London residence 
with a crimson carpet of the Williams felting, draping the windows 

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48 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

of the hall with a thinner fabric of the same make. In the full tide of 
its success, the vast establishment was destroyed by an incendiary 
fire. It was uninsured ; and Williams, whose whole property was in 
it, died from grief and disappointment. In the mean time, a patent 
for making felt cloths of a commercial length, by an entirely dis- 
similar process, had been taken out by Joseph Waite, of Leeds, the 
use of which in England was enjoined by the courts, as conflicting 
with Williams's patent. Mr. J. Burrows Hyde, of New York, our 
informant as to these facts, a gentleman of science and enterprise, 
bought both the Waite patent and the Williams patent in this country, 
and sold the rights to the Bay State (now Washington) Mills, at 
Lawrence, Massachusetts, about 1853. For many years this mill en- 
joyed nearly the complete monopoly of this fabrication in this coun- 
try, to its great profit. The exceptions to this monopoly were a 
fabrication of felt cloths, not of commercial lengths, conducted in 
Norwalk, Connecticut, under the Bishop patent, and the manufacture 
of hat bodies, conducted under the Wells patents. The Williams 
and Waite patents having expired in Europe and this country, the 
manufacture has attained the wide and vast extension of the present 
day. 

While few foreign exhibits of this fabric were noted, the American 
felts appeared in innumerable forms. They appeared as printed and 
embossed piano-cloths and as ladies' skirts ; as floor-cloths printed by 
a Philadelphia establishment, with highly artistic designs; as a material 
for sheathing roofs, vessels, and iron buildings ; combined with asbes- 
tos, as non-conducting envelopes for steam-boilers and hot-air pipes ; 
for lining rubber fabrics (being the only material which stretches 
equally in all directions) ; in soles for shoes and in gun-wads, in 
masses of several inches in thickness, for polishing wheels and buffers 
for jewelers ; in other forms, for polishing cabinet-work and marble ; 
and, in a high-cost material, for hammers of piano-keys. Conspicuous 
among these exhibits were the felts for polishing, made by Charles 
N. Bacon, of Winchester, Massachusetts, which possessed a thickness, 
compactness, and adaptation to special purposes which has never been 
surpassed. In the common felts the raw material is hair, or the cheap- 
est Mexican wool, and in the others, as before said, the finest wool 
from Silesia. These were interesting illustrations of the almost in- 
finite uses which may be derived from a single attribute of a fibre, all 
resulting from the serratures in the filament of wool and hair, which 
give them their felting power. 

Allied to these goods, though not strictly felts, are the feltings used 
in paper-making, which are woven fabrics highly felted. The enor- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 40 

mous extension of our paper-manufacture has of late years stimulated a 
supply from domestic sources of this indispensable material for paper- 
making, not long since obtained from abroad. Exhibits of paper felts 
were made by several mills. A letter from Messrs. Rice, Kendall, & 
Co., paper- manufacturers and dealers in paper- makers' supplies, — the 
head of the firm being the present Governor of Massachusetts, — ex- 
presses the general character of the American felts, although having 
in view the product of a special mill. ** We have introduced them," 
they say, ** into paper-mills making all the finer qualities of bond- or 
writing-paper; also best and ordinary book-, news-, Manila-, tissue-, 
straw-, and sheathing-paper; also printers' and woolen manufacturers' 
press-boards, leathers, and binders' boards, and wood-pulp; and have 
had many high recommendations from the manufacturers regarding 
their wear and suitable quality. . . . We feel confident that they (the 
American felt-makers named) are able to manufacture anything in the 
line of feltings used by the various manufacturers of paper; and, 
judging from our former experience as importers of felts, they have 
made many improvements in them." It is curious that the art ot 
joining the two extremities to make an endless felt is kept a secret 
by the fortunate possessors, for the use of which manufacturers pay a 
royalty. 

Although no hat bodies — another form of felted goods — were ex- 
hibited, several special machines for forming hat bodies were shown, 
illustrating how completely the handicraft had been substituted by 
machinery. There is hardly a process in the manufacture which is 
not now done automatically, a single establishment turning off eight 
hundred dozen of hats daily. The hatter, as a separate artisan, has 
disappeared. Fifty years ago there was one in every village. A 
hatter's bow having been recently required in a patent trial, a diligent 
search could not find one in the country. 

CLASS 236. — Plain Flannels, Dometts, Opera and Fancy. 

The flannel-manufacture, almost exclusively represented at the 
Exhibition by American exhibits, has attained an enormous develop- 
ment in the United States, as illustrated by the fact that an auction 
sale, in July last, by a single house representing 157 sets in different 
mills, netted $2,500,000. Flannel being the first stage in the manu- 
facture of plain cloth, it constitutes one of the principal products of 
the smaller mills in the new States; while, in the older manufac- 
turing States, mills employing from ten to fifty sets are exclusively 
engaged in its manufacture. The great domestic demand for these 
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50 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

that the masses of our population are liberal in providing themselves 
with the fabric so essential for personal comfort. Flannels find their 
consumption not only in men's garments, — for which purpose their 
use has vastly increased through better hygienic knowledge. — but 
in garments for children, linings for overcoats, blouses for workmen, 
fatigue uniforms for soldiers and police officers, and coats for summer 
wear. 

It is some twenty or thirty years since the American fabric excluded 
foreign flannels from our market, with the single exception of opera 
flannels, which no longer exist. The primary cause of the success 
in this manufacture has been the peculiar adaptation of American 
wools for this fabric. This adaptation consists in their spinning 
qualities, their soundness and elasticity, and the medium fineness, 
producing the requisite softness, without too much felting quality to 
cause an undue shrinkage of the goods. 

By an examination of a line or series of samples of different grades 
of English flannels, in comparison with a line of American flannels 
corresponding in grade and price, it was observed that the English 
flannels are more highly fulled, and less finished in the face, than the 
American goods. The American fabrics have the yarns more closely 
twisted, in order to prevent shrinkage, and the fabric is smoother and 
more sightly in face. The difference in intrinsic value could not be 
proven, the different styles being adapted to the tastes of different 
markets. A large exportation is now being made to Canada. 

With the command of their own markets, American manufacturers 
have adapted their fabrics to the wants of consumers. In 1835 the 
domett flannels, an original fabric composed of a cotton warp with a 
filling of wool, came into use as a substitute for the linsey- woolen 
stuffs, originally of household manufacture, worn by working women 
for under-petticoats. Having the merit of shrinking but little in wash- 
ing, it still holds its place as a characteristic American fabric. The red 
flannels have found a vast consumption among the working popula- 
tion, especially lumbermen and frontiersmen, the pliability of the 
fabric giving freedom to the limbs. Formerly the red color, less 
brilliant than now used, was given by a madder dye. subsequently by 
lac ; while at present the brilliant and fast scarlet of the cochineal is 
in almost universal use, the price of cochineal having been reduced to 
half of its former rate by the introduction of the aniline dyes. The 
consumption of blue flannels by the army and navy forms another 
important outlet for this class of fabrics. They form the under-gar- 
ments for all the men in both services, and the summer undress coats 
in the former. The regulations of the services require that these flan- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 51 

nels should have a twilled weave, and be both wool- and indigo-dyed. 
The regulations of the Government have tended to keep alive the skill 
in indigo-dyeing, which, from its costliness, threatened to disappear 
before cheaper processes. The excellence attained in the army and 
navy flannels led the way to a more perfected fabric. About 1859 
appeared, either through the Middlesex or Washington Mills, — for the 
honpr is claimed by both, and the products of both vie with each other 
in celebrity, — the blue flannel coating, indigo- and wool-dyed, and 
having a three-leaved twill. This fabric — sheared and finished like 
cloth, but retaining the lightness and pliability of the flannel texture, 
forming an admirable material for summer garments — is distinctly 
American in origin and character. It has a large domestic consump- 
tion, and has become an article of export to South America. 

Opera flannels — a name given abroad, from one of its original uses, 
to a light flannel more highly gigged and finished than the ordinary 
article, being piece-dyed uniformly, in many fancy colors, and hot- 
pressed — were first introduced into this country by the Bay State 
Mills. They have, however, gained their command of the American 
market principally through the fabrication of a manufacturer of 
Ware, Massachusetts, now deceased. He commenced the manufacture 
in 1858, making in that year four thousand pieces. . In 1871 his estab- 
lishment made and sold, of this single fabric, one hundred and twenty 
thousand pieces, or nearly two million yards. At this time foreign 
importations of this fabric had entirely ceased. The thorough 
cleansing of the fabric to receive the dye, and the requisite skill to 
give the numerous colors and shades desired, are the principal diffi- 
culties which the manufacturers have to encounter, single manufac- 
turers keeping all the time a hundred or more distinct shades and 
colors in stock. American opera flannels were abundantly and taste- 
fully displayed at the Exhibition by several mills. Nothing surpassed 
them in variety and perfection of hues and shades, except, perhaps, 
the masterpieces of the French dye-houses, — the exquisite merinos 
of Rheims and Paris. It is noteworthy that these fabrics Are made 
wholly of American wool, the quality known as XX being used for 
medium, and picklock (selected from choice flocks) for the finest 
grades. 

American flannels of a still higher grade exhibited were the all- 
wool gauze and silk-warped flannels. The credit of the introduction 
of the fine flannel manufacture belongs to the Ballardvale Mills, in 
Andover, Massachusetts, this mill being the first which made fine 
yarns by double spinning. In some of these fabrics, made expressly 
for the Exhibition, there were one hundred and thirty picks to the 

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52 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

inch. The yarns for fiUing were spun in such fineness that they 
attained 46,500 yards in length to the pound, the warps reaching 
34,500 yards. Among the uses of these fine flannels is their applica- 
tion for lining coffins and for burial shrouds. It is known that the 
wealthy classes in England, in the last century, rebelled against a 
law requiring all persons to be buried in flannels. Improvements in 
manufacture have caused a fabric, which was then obnoxious from 
its coarseness, to be now specially adapted for burial habiliments, 
through its softness and fineness. 

Another variety of flannel, which has wholly replaced the French 
fabfic formerly largely imported, is the fancy flannel still called French 
plaid. The fabrics of this variety consist of plaids, or broken plaids 
and checks, and are dyed in the wool. The great bulk consists in two 
colors combined, scarlet and white and blue and white. They are 
largely used for shirts and children's garments. The printed flannels 
for children, formerly in use, have almost wholly disappeared. 

CLASS 237. — Blankets, Robes, and Shawls. 

The last observation made under the preceding class also applies 
to the first article in this class. The American medium or grade 
merino wools are no less fitted for flannels than for blankets. They 
compose the raw material of the great bulk of the blankets which 
enter into our consumption, although noils, from carpet- and combing- 
wools, are used to some extent. The lowest grades of blankets, 
composed of shoddy, hair, and the cheapest wool, which are salable 
abroad, cannot be disposed of here. Even the lowest of our con- 
sumers, the savage Indians, — who are supplied with blankets by our 
Government, according to the statement of one of our colleagues, 
who is a member of the Indian Peace Commission, — are skillful 
judges of the quality of blankets. The standard Indian blankets 
shown at the Exhibition presented all the requisites of a substantial 
and useful article. 

Many mills are exclusively devoted to- the production of blankets, 
principally those of medium qualities for the consumption of the 
millions. Some Eastern manufacturers, who have made blankets for 
forty years, have a yearly production exceeding ;J 1,000,000 in value, 
and one establishment in Minnesota a production of nearly $400,000 
annually. The substantial quality of these medium goods, and in 
some the cleanness of the stock and freedom from grease, were 
especially noticeable. 

No wool fabrics at the Exhibition, of our own production, attracted 
so much admiration from the foreign Judges as the highest grades of 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 53 

American blankets. The credit of the introduction of this eminently 
characteristic fabric is due to the Mission Mills of California, estab- 
lished in 1858. Nothing comparable with these blankets in weight, 
thickness, softness, and perfection of face had ever before been 
attempted, and it is impossible to conceive of a more luxurious bed- 
covering. The beauty of the fabric was not less a matter of surprise 
to our foreign visitors than the luxurious tastes of a people which 
could make blankets costing from thirty to fifty dollars a pair salable. 
The California blankets of this grade are made with a filling of Aus- 
tralfan wool, the warps being of California wool. Blankets of no less 
beauty and perfection were exhibited by a Minnesota mill, and these 
were made exclusively of wool grown in that State. 

Totally different in style and material, but not less admirable, were 
blankets exhibited by Austria and the Netherlands. Those exhibited 
by a Netherlands manufacturer were especially noticeable. The wool 
was of a coarser quality than that used in the California blankets, and 
the pile of unusual length. They were woven in great variety of 
colors, and with tasteful designs, in the Jacquard loom, and are highly 
worthy of imitation by our manufacturers. 

An ample field for the application of color is found in the manufac- 
ture of rail-car blankets, and especially of carriage, railway, and lap 
robes. All the European styles of these articles have been adopted 
here, besides other articles of this class, of still more extensive use, 
such as the admirable horse-cloths and blankets not long since ex- 
clusively furnished by England, which find complete imitation, if 
not improvement, in our own manufactures. 

In the important class of shawls, we naturally observe those most 
nearly allied in material and texture to the fabrics which we have been 
considering. The manufacture of the all-wool plaid shawls — formerly 
known in this country as the Bay State Shawl, from the mill which 
introduced it — originated in Massachusetts about 1848. Favored by 
the easy application of the cassimere twill to this fabric, and the facil- 
ity with which the design is made and varied through the alternate 
concurrence of the warp and woof, and still further aided by the 
adaptation of medium American wools to this fabric, it at once 
attained perfection. The shawls of the Bay State Mills exhibited 
at the first International Exhibition, that of 1 851, were pronounced 
by French experts as *' quite remarkable for the lightness and soft- 
^ness of the stuff;" and shawls exhibited by the same mill at the 
Paris Exposition of 1867 were commended for the same qualities, 
as well as for their moderate price. This manufacture has now im- 
mense production. Still, the English and Scotch shawls, made of 

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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



coarser Cheviot wools, and of a thicker texture, would be preferred 
for many uses. 

No attempts to make the highest qualities of shawls have been 
made in this country, partly for the same reason that the French, who 
had perfectly succeeded in making the cashmere shawls, were com- 
pelled to abandon the manufacture, because the French ladies pre- 
ferred an inferior but genuine Indian shawl to a better article of French 
fabrication. Exquisite shawls, but of precisely the same texture as 
the Indian shawls, were exhibited by Lyons manufacturers. The 
material is the finest and most costly Electoral wool. The prices range 
from $10 to $150. The only rivals of the French in this class of 
shawls are houses in Vienna, whose products were also exhibited. 
None but the initiated could determine the difference between these 
two national products. The French, however, assert that the Austrian 
products are copied from their own, but that the delicacy of the origi- 
nals is lost, saying, ** One may transplant a tree, but not the soil and 
the air which give flavor to its fruits." It is asserted that the silky 
Mauchamp wool, previously mentioned, forms a material for the finest 
shawls, really surpassing the cashmere of the East. 

Admirable shawls made of wool or worsted, in India designs, have 
become celebrated under the name of Paisley shawls, from the place of 
their manufacture in Scotland. None of the Scotch shawls of this class 
were exhibited, but this style of fabrication was represented by shawls 
of India designs, made by Messrs. Martin Landenberger & Sons, of 
Philadelphia, the material being American combing-wool. These 
shawls, well made and in excellent taste, are woven in the power 
Jacquard loom, at prices so moderate as to insure a large popular 
consumption. 

CLASS 238. — Combed Wool Fabrics, Worsted, Yarns, Dress 
Goods for Women's Wear. Delaines, Serges. Poplins, Me- 
rinos. 

This class includes, with the exception of carpets, all the multi- 
tudinous fabrics recognized in England as the products of the worsted 
industry. It forms the second of the two grand divisions of the wool- 
industry. Through the variety of its products, the skill demanded in 
their fabrication, the capital and number of persons employed in the 
great manufacturing nations of Europe, and the rapidity of its develop- 
ment during the last century, this division has become the most 
important branch of the woolen manufacture. 

So important a dass could not fail to be largely represented in an 
exhibition of the products of the world; but the student of textile 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 55 

industry was obliged to regret an incompleteness in the series of these 
fabrics, especially from the two leading nations in this industry, — 
France and England, — and a deficiency in the labeling of many which 
were exhibited, so as to show their proper names and composition. 
We were disappointed in the expectation that the Exhibition would 
shed full light upon the difficult subject of the nomenclature and com- 
position of the infinite variety of worsted fabrics. We use the word 
" worsted" — which, although not strictly accurate, is the most con- 
venient English term — to designate the fabrics in question. 

To render our future remarks intelligible to unskilled readers, we 
are compelled to enter at once upon the subject of the names and dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of worsted fabrics, an inquiry demanded 
by the popular ignorance on the subject, which prevails to no little 
extent even among the dealers in the articles in question. In no de- 
partment of practical knowledge is there so much confusion in the 
meaning and application of names. The names of the fabrics have 
rarely any etymological signification. They are usually given arbi- 
trarily by the first introducer of the article, and, if they are success- 
ful, become applied to articles quite different from the original fabrics, 
and especially to imitations in cheaper materials. Fabrics substan- 
tially the same are constantly reappearing under different names. It 
is still possible, though difficult, to obtain some order out of this ap- 
parerit confusion, and to bring the different varieties of these fabrics 
into an arrangement which approaches a scientific classification. 

The leading basis of this classification is the character of the weave, 
or, as it is styled by the French, the ar?nure of the fabric, the word 
armure signifying the system of harnesses with which the loom is 
armed, or provided, to produce a definite issue. These armures con- 
sist of four fundamental or classical forms, from which all the varieties 
of simple tissues are derived. I. That of taffeta. In this, the most 
simple form of tissue, there are only two harnesses, forming a simple 
interlacement of the threads of the warp and weft. This is the weave 
of broadcloth, cotton shirtings and sheetings, and mousselines de 
laine. 2. The twilIed«or Batavia weave, produced by four harnesses. 
3. The serge tissue, produced by three harnesses. 4. The satin weave, 
produced by five or more harnesses, the effect of which is to bring 
the threads of the weft to the face. Different effects are produced 
from derivatives of these fundamental tissues. Thus, in the most 
simple, — that of cloth or taffetas, — varied effects are produced by the 
greater or less torsion of the threads, and the direction in which they 
are twisted ; by variations in the size of the threads of the warp or 
weft compared with each other; by making the same weft pass alter- 

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56 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

nately over two threads and one thread of the warp, making a " rep" 
or corded tissue. Still other variations are made by the different 
materials of the warp and weft, by having them of pure wool and of 
a single color, or mixed with silk, mohair, or China-grass, or by 
having the threads printed in different tints. The four fundamental 
regular interlacements before described, which form the base or ground 
of even the most complicated tissues, are further varied by having 
combinations of crossings of the threads which occur at variable 
places at each course of the thread across the web, forming figured, 
brocade, or damasked effects, which are produced by the Jacquard 
loom. Another variation is made by having two warps, one to form 
the ground of- the tissue, and the other made to pass over wires to 
form a loop, making the velvet or pile fabrics. There are still to be 
added the highly-important differences of character, equally obvious 
to the touch and the eye, produced by the character of wool used, 
whether fine and soft (like merino and cashmere), or hard and lustrous 
(like English combing-wool and mohair). 

These remarks will enable the reader more readily to understand 
the classification of fabrics condensed from M. Alcan (the highest 
authority upon this subject), and published in his treatise on working 
wools, in 1866. As the American importation of worsted dress goods 
is principally from France, the catalogue is not less valuable because 
limited to French fabrics. For the same reason the French names 
are retained. 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 



S7 



WORSTED STUFFS OF FINE WOOL. 



Namss of Stuffs. 


Armurb. 


Warp. 


Weft. 


Observations. 


Manteau 


Taffetas 


Wool carded.. 
Wool 


Wool carded.. 
Fine wool 

Wool 


Made of long-combed wool, 

and wide for furniture. 

Woven in checks and Scotch 

plaids, the warp having a 

serge armure of 2 anai, 

and the weft a sei^ge ar- 

1 mure of i and 2. 

( Made from 8 to 50 picks to 

< the centimetre. Its use 
( univers»al. Picce-dycd. 

The warp double. 

Poplins are either all wool, or 
with warps of cotton, silk 
chappe, or organ zine, or 
fancy printed. The poplin 
or corded effect produced 
by the size of the weft. 

Generally printed. 

j Differs from barege only in 

1 the materials. 

( The weft highly twisted and 

< eas serged ; a kind of close 
( Urige. 

' The same weave as the pre- 
ceding, but differing in 
material. 
The warp composed ot three 
threads, and is white, 
while the weft is violet 
blue, or black, which gives 
reflections to the stuff. 

The warps are printed or chinis. 

/ Characterized by its peculiar 
( finish. 

( The stuff has a peculiar elas- 
■< ticitv. due to the close 


Reps 




Turquoise 


Serge 




Merinos 


Batavia or twill on 
both sides. 

Twilled on one side. 
Taffeta 


Fine wool 

Wool... . 




Cashmere 


„ 


Drapd'ei^ 


<i 


Mousselines -.. 

MouUetons 


<( 


Satin 


(i 


Popeline or poplin... 
Barege 


Gauze or open taf- 
feta. 

Gauze and taffeta. .. 

tt It 
Taffeta 


Various ma- 
terials. 

Cotton 


• 
English wool. 

Merino wool.. 

English comb- 
ing-wool. 

Merino wool.. 

Mohair, r 
mixed with 
silk. 


Challis 


Silk grige 

Silk gr^e, or- 
ganzine, or 
cotton. 

Cotton 


Grenadine 


Mozambique 


Crape of Spain 

Llanos 


Silk grige 

Cotton 


Grisaille 


Cotton chappe 
or fancy. 

Cotton, sim- 
plcor double 
and twisted. 

Silk grige 

Cotton .double 
and twisted. 

Simple cotton 
Wool 


Toile dc Saxe 




« 


Circassianne 

Cretonne 




Mohair, r 
silk and mo- 
hair. 

Wool 






^^ 


j ( spinning of the warp. 
Carded wool..! 

- ; For rcligicuscs. 

Combed wool.' 


vtJdc ::::::."*::.*:::;.7 


•< 




<( 


Silk chappe .. 
Wool or silk- 
Wool 




Figured or fancy 

Taffeta 


Wool 


For furniture. 




«« 


A light flannel, made in gray 
ot in all varieties of colors. 

• 

1 


Alpaga 




Cotton 


Lincoln wool. 

Knit wool 

Merino wool.. 


Popeline satin 


„ 


Wool and silk 
^l^l\ 


Taffetas 


n 


J Biarets 


Corded or cannci 

Taffeta and corded.. 

Serge 2 and i 

Serge 


Merino wool.. 
Silk 


tpinglc 

Alpine 

Drap d'Alpes 

Anacosii 

Batavia 




<( 


.Wool 


«< 




KpcuKline 

Tamise reps 


Corded*.*.'.'.'.."!.!'..*."!!! 

;: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 


Silk 


Wool 




Drap d'Alma 

1 


Wool 





There are no means of obtaining the names of other French fabrics, 
or the new names of the same fabrics introduced since the above list 
was pubhshed, except from the dealers in these articles. We have to 

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58 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

thank Messrs. Hovey & Co., of Boston, for a series of samples of 
French fabrics, with the following names : 

Velours All wool. 

Empress All wool. 

Chambery gauze Silk and goat's hair. 

Mousse] ine de bege .... 

Cashmere de bege All wool. 

Merino tulle All wool. 

Pongee Silk and wool. 

Mohair glaci Goat's hair and cotton. 

Vigogne Silk and wool and all wool. 

Serge All wool. 

Basket All wool, fancy. 

Matelasse Silk and wool. 

Diagonals All wool and silk wool. 

Imi>erial silk serge Silk and wool. 

Algerine All wool. 

Armure Silk and wool. 

Turenne cloth Cotton and wool. 

Drap d'Alma Silk and wool. 

Sicilienne Silk and wool. 

Bombazine Silk and wool. 

Tamise ..*.... All wool. 

Chinchilla Camel's hair. 

Mexican cloth Silk and wool. 

-^ . , V I f Wool with irregular spots of different 

Knickerbockers < , . , 

t colors and materials. 

French camel's hair .... Cashmere goat's wool. 

Satine All wool, with satin weave. 

Australian crape Cotton and wool. 

Drap de Nationelle . . . .All wool. 

Pararaetta cloth Silk and wool. 

Henrietta cloth Silk and wool. 

Hemani . Silk and wool. 

T^ , (Wool, silk and wool, and wool and 

Damasks J ... .-- 

T» J K cotton, in mfinite varieties for fumi- 

Brocades 

I ture, woven on the Jacquard loom. 

Some of the general features of the French fabrication of dress and 
furniture stuffs may here be appropriately considered. The influence 
of the possession by France of Merino wool upon the character of 
her dress fabrics has already been referred to in this report. In the 
spinning of fine Merino wools, and weaving them into dress goods, 
France takes precedence of all nations. 

The most important contribution to this success was the invention, 
by Heilman, of Mulhouse, of a method of mechanical combing, adapted 
to the short fibres of Merino wool as well as to the long staple for- 
merly regarded as exclusively combing-wool. Mainly through this 
invention, France, to u.se Mr. Alcan's words, " marched, in the early 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, jq 

part of this century, with the step of a giant. The means of fabrica- 
tion were so ameh'orated, in the short space of a quarter of a century, 
that the spinning of Merino wools attained a fineness and regularity 
once impossible with the best hand-spinning. The machines turned 
out lengths of yarn of 200,000 metres to the kilogramme, from a kind 
of wool which, twenty-five years before, would scarcely have produced 
50,000 metres ; and the price of the unit of weight of an identical 
article had descended from eighty to fourteen francs, although the 
prices of labor had increased." Among the exhibits of the house of 
Auguste Seydoux, illustrating the material from which their famous 
merinos, cashmeres, and challis are made, were weft yarns of Aus- 
tralian combed wool of the fineness of 109,120 yards to one pound. 
It is unnecessary' to enlarge upon the beauty and perfection of the 
merinos, cashmeres d'Ecosse, and challis exhibited at Philadelphia. 
They are recognized throughout the world as inimitable, and as 
exhibiting the most perfect fabrics in the whole range of the textile 
industry. 

Another reason for the French success in these fabrics is the special- 
ization of different branches, and the fabrication of the same article, 
the spinning, weaving, and finishing forming the three great groups. 
This division of the fabrication into groups, according to Alcan, 
" facilitates the labor, concentrates the aptitudes, regulates the pro- 
duction, and contributes to ameliorate the results and the economical 
conditions. Specialization renders the industry accessible to all, — to 
moderate fortunes as well as heavy capital.** The adoption of this 
system is now taking place in Philadelphia, with marked beneficial 
results. Another cause must always give France the pre-eminence. 
The arbiter elegantiarum of the world in the* fabrics of taste, she can 
impose, by her imperial sway upon the followers of fashion through- 
out the world, the fabrics which she has created, leaving the other 
nations to supply imitations to the less fastidious masses. 

England, who did not do justice to herself by her display of worsted 
fabrics at Philadelphia, has attained success in another direction. She 
aims to supply the world with worsted fabrics adapted for the con- 
sumption of the million. In extent of production and cheapness of 
fabrication she leads all pther nations. It would be presumptuous to 
attempt, in the space allotted to this paper, even a sketch of her vast 
worsted-manufacture, while its characteristics, and the names of its 
principal fabrics, can be intimated, at least, under the head of our 
own worsted-manufacture, which is in the main copied from that of 
England. A feature of some of the higher classes of her worsted 
fabrics displayed at the Exhibition should not be pa«?sed without 

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6o INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

notice. With the fashions at present prevailing, there is an extremely 
limited application of the arts of design in fabrics destined for per- 
sonal wear. Even the printing of dress goods of wool and mixed 
materials, which offered a wide field for the application of art, has 
greatly declined, as the costumes of the present day obtain variety 
by the use of different hues of plain fabrics. An ample field for the 
application of art is found in stuffs for furniture, carpets, and hangings 
for rooms, — the furniture and curtain stuffs of worsted, or worsted 
and silk. The reps, damasks, and brocades showed the wonderful 
artistic progress effected by her schools of design and her teachers in 
practical art, such as Jones, Hulme, Morris, and Dresser. The dis- 
plays of the Royal School of Art Needlework showed that the high- 
est amateur taste of the kingdom is being brought into the service of 
the decorative arts, furnishing models and stimulus to the practical 
manufacturers. Through these influences, the designs for decorative 
fabrics have a style distinctly recognized as that of the ** English 
school," in which mediaeval motives are revived, plant-forms are con- 
ventionalized, while the natural treatment of foliage and flowers, and 
the artificial luxuriance of the Renaissance designs, are equally abjured. 
In the decoration of furniture stuffs of their own style the English are 
without rivals. 

Before proceeding to a sketch of the worsted-manufacture of the 
United States, which we shall give from purely original inquiries, it 
will be proper to refer to one of the most important steps in the 
progress of the worsted- manufacture in this country, to which our 
own industry owes its importance. All-wool mousselines de laine 
were perfected in France in 1831. In 1833 a fabric first appeared 
in France which was a copy of the wool mousselines. with the differ- 
ence that the warps were made of cotton. The English adopted 
this manufacture, at Bradford, in 1834-35. No event of the cen- 
tury has done more for female comfort and for the industry of wool 
than the introduction of the cotton warp. Cotton, instead of being 
the rival, became the most important auxiliary of wool, and has added 
vastly to its consumption. The generic name of cotton delaines, 
although now but little used, may be conveniently retained to ex- 
press the whole class of these fabrics. They are practically the same 
as a woolen fabric, being so covered with wool that the presence of 
cotton can be observed only by the closest inspection. Their cheap- 
ness and durability make their introduction an invaluable boon to 
women of moderate means. Their fabrication constitutes the chief 
feature of the manufacture of the great cities of Bradford, in England, 
and Roubaix, in France. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 6i 



THE PRINCIPAL COTTON WARPED, WORSTED FABRICS MADE IN 
BRADFORD AND THE UNITED STATES. 



Names. 


Wkavb. 


Wbft. 


Warp. 


Observations. 


Delaines 


Taffeta 


Medium wool 


Cotton. 


Printed. 

A gauze weave. 

Printed. 

Made in imitation of 

cashmeres d Ecosse, 

all wool. 
Weft originally made 

of alpaca. 
Usually black, the 

warps dyed before 

weaving. 

A corded effect pro- 
duced by the size of 
the warp. 


Bareges 


Gauze 




Rep?* 


Double-threaded taffeta... 
Twilled 


tt 


C •shmcres* 




1 Aloacaf 


Taffeta 


Long-lustre wool ... ... 


' Brilliantine 






t 
Lustres 


" 


An alpaca of lower grade.. 

Figured fancy weave 

A corded ground with a 
figure 


Fancy alpaca ... 
Brocade ..... 


« 


Poplin 


^^ 


Long'Combing wool. .. . 


Debaige 


" 


A fabric with weft of black 

and white wool mixed... 

The same plain 


Melange 

Italian cloths.... 


tt 








The first attempt to fabricate delaines in the United States was made 
in a mill at Ballardvale, in the town of Andover and State of Massa- 
chusetts, about 1844, by John Marland, agent of the company. It is 
worthy of note as illustrating (what will hereafter be more conspicu- 
ous) how naturally and by direct descent the new industry arose and 
spread, that the mill at Ballardvale had been organized to make fine 
flannels, being first to fabricate flannels in the country. The transition 
was natural to delaines, which, as first made, had much of a flannel 
character. About 1844 this establishment imported worsted ma- 
chinery from England and made some delaines for printing and others 
for dyeing. They also introduced hand-combers, and made their 
own warps. The wools for the printed delaines were all combed by 
hand. The goods were first printed by blocks at North Andover, 
and afterwards on the machines of the Hamilton Manufacturing Com- 
pany, at Lowell. The fabrication was very successful, although the 
goods were inferior to those now made. The principal difficulty 
encountered was that of introducing the fabrics into the American 
market, which was accomplished only by simulating foreign marks 
and disguising the boxes, to conceal the domestic source. This mill 
was subsequently leased to Mr. Jeremiah S. Young, who successfully 
continued the worsted-manufacture. 

The success at Ballardvale induced one of the oldest of the cotton- 



10 



* Called " Coburgs" in England. 

+ Same fabrics originally called in England ** Orleans." 
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62 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

manufacturing establishments — the Amoskeag Company, at Man- 
chester, New Hampshire — to try the new fabric. A mill owned by 
this company at Hookset, in New Hampshire, was devoted to an 
experimental trial, and Mr. Marland received an interest for conduct- 
ing the manufacture, which was commenced with about 200 looms. 
The goods were printed at Greenwich, in Rhode Island. The fabrica- 
tion was continued at Hookset for six or seven years, with a product 
of about 38,000 yards per week. The goods sold in the gray at about 
14 cents per yard; wool sorts, which now cost 60 cents, costing but 
36 cents, and cotton about 10 cents, per pound. 

About 1845, certain of the stockholders of the Amoskeag Company 
organized the company now known as the Manchester Mills, situated 
in the town of that name, purchased a site and power from the 
Amoskeag Company, and built an extensive factory expressly for the 
purpose of making delaines. The cotton warps were originally made 
at Hookset. The first delaines were made at Manchester by carding, 
the wool-combers not being introduced until 1855, the Noble comber 
finally taking the place of the inferior combers of American invention 
first used. This company continued to improve its machinery and 
enlarge its production, which now reaches 250,000 pieces annually, 
of fifty yards each, the products having a reputation equal to that of 
any in the market. 

The Hamilton Woolen Company, at Southbridge, Massachusetts, 
was originally established for the manufacture of cloths. About 
1845 th^ leading stockholders of this company, who had been selling 
agents of the Amoskeag Company, seeing the success at Hookset, 
resolved upon converting the mill at Southbridge into a worsted- 
factory. It met at first with little success, until its management was 
undertaken by Mr. Ballard, in 1846, who is still the treasurer of the 
company. The products of this mill, in printed delaines and reps, 
received deserved commendation at the Exhibition. 

The line of descent in our worsted-manufacture, which we have 
traced from the estabKshment at Ballardvale, was continued in the 
Pacific Mills, its first treasurer and the constructor of its works being 
Mr. Young, before referred to, a brother-in-law of Mr. Marland, who 
had gained his practical experience at Ballardvale. As this establish- 
ment is the largest in this country, and, as it is believed, in the world, 
where all the branches of the worsted fabrication are carried on within 
the walls of a single proprietorship, its exceptional importance will 
justify a somewhat extended notice of its history and operations. 

The Pacific Mills are situated in Lawrence, Massachusetts, on the 
Merrimac River, twenty-six miles from Boston. The enterprise was 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OP GROUP IX, 63 

started by the Essex Company, Mr. Abbott Lawrence being presi- 
dent and Mr. Young treasurer of the company. It was incorporated 
in 1853, under its present name, with a capital of ;f 2,000,000, for 
the purpose of making ladies' dress goods from wool wholly, from 
cotton wholly, and from wool and cotton combined ; and was pro- 
vided with all the appliances of manufacture, including print- and 
dye-works. The construction of the works having exceeded the 
amount of capital paid in, the establishment found itself, in the very 
first years of its existence, on the« brink of failure. This failure was 
arrested by the munificence of Mr. Abbott Lawrence, who, on his 
private responsibility, advanced several hundred thousand dollars to 
meet the emergencies of the mill, thus adding to his title for recogni- 
tion as one of the great founders of the manufactures of New Eng- 
land. A hardly less important work of Mr. Lawrence was securing 
for the treasurership of the mills, vacated through the declining health 
of Mr. Young, the services of Mr. J. Wiley Edmands, who had been 
educated in his house. Mr. Edmands took the treasurership and the 
responsible management of the mills in June, 1855. For the subse- 
quent two or three years, the establishment, although actually mak- 
ing money, was only sustained by borrowing largely. In 1857 the 
leading commission houses of New England succumbed unde;* the 
pressure of the well-known panic of that period. The Pacific Mills 
were compelled to ask an extension of credit for six months, to which 
every creditor assented. In 1858 the stockholders were called upon 
to furnish an additional capital of ;J500,ooo, of which all but ;Sl75,ooo 
was secured. The stock representing this amount, not secured, was 
sold at public auction, in 1859, at from ^1320 to $11/^2 per share, the 
par value being ;^iooo ; although, in 1857, two years previously, many 
shares had been sold at prices ranging from $'j^ to $2QO, During 
the first year of the war, i86i,the mills lost money, the product then 
being about 11,000,000 yards of dress goods, cotton and woolen. 
In 1870 the product reached 45,000,000 yards; and, for several years 
since that date, the annual sales, including the cloths purchased for 
printing, have reached about 65,000,000 yards. Of this, about sixty 
per cent, are stuff or worsted goods. Estimating our population at 
45,000,000, and that one-third of this population (15,000,000) consists 
of women and girls, the Pacific Mills, which have all their consump- 
tion at home, supply not less than four yards of dress goods to each 
person of our population wearing these fabrics. 

The following statistics of this establishment will give a better idea 
of the magnitude of its operations : 



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64 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Number of mills and buildings 

Acres of flooring in buildings 

Cotton spindles 

Worsted spindles 

Number of looms 

Pounds cotton used per week 

Pounds fleece wool used j>er week 

Yards of cloth printed or dyed per week, more than 

Printing-machines, — from two to sixteen colors 

Tons of coal used per year .... 

Number of steam-boilers in all (32,000 Jiorse-power) 

Number of steam-engines (1200 horse-power) 

Number of turbine-wheels (2000 horse-power) 

Cost of gas per year (5000 burners) . 

Cost of labor per month .... 

Average daily earnings, women and girls . 

Average daily earnings, men and boys 

Persons employed, women and girls, 3534 \ 

Persons employed, men and boys, 1766 / 

Number of houses for work-people . 



12 

41 

25,000 

4»S«> 

116,000 

65,000 

1,000,000 

24 
23,000 

50 

37 

II 

fcS.ooo 

^160,000 

98 cents. 

^1.40 

5»3oo 
275 



To this it may be added, that the raw materials for dyeing and 
printing require an annual expenditure of ^00,000; the consump- 
tion of potato starch is 500 tons a year, or the product of 125,000 
bushels of potatoes; the wool consumed requires the fleeces of 10,000 
sheep each week ; while to all these are to be added the food and 
clothing of 5300 operatives, and their dependants (at least twice as 
many more), and the items of transportation of raw material and 
manufactured products. 

The company has never ceased its care for the welfare of its opera- 
tives, and their improvement morally and intellectually. It early 
founded a library, with reading-rooms, which contains nearly seven 
thousand volumes, and is open to the work-people and their families, 
and has actually ^n average of seven hundred daily readers. It has 
established a relief society for work-people temporarily ill, to which 
the operatives and the company contribute, as well as a " Home," or 
hospital, provided with physicians and matrons, where those seriously 
ill can be better provided for than in the boarding-houses of the com- 
pany, or even in their own homes. As the result of this recognition 
by the company of its moral responsibilities, there has been no dispo- 
sition on the part of its operatives to organize strikes, all difficulties 
which have arisen having been amicably arranged. This moral work 
of the company was suitably recognized at the Paris Exposition of 
1867, by the tribute to the company of one of the ten awards granted, 
among five hundred contestants, to the individuals or associations 
" who in a series of years had accomplished the most to secure har- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 6$ 

mony between employers and their work-people, and most successfully 
advanced their material, intellectual, and moral welfare." 

This mill has been selected as illustrative of our highest achieve- 
ments in the department to which it belongs. We would by no 
means have it inferred that its products are superior to those of mills 
of less magnitude. The Manchester Mills, with an annual product 
of dress goods of 250,000 pieces of fifty yards each ; the Hamilton 
Woolen Company, with a product of 800,000 pieces, and the Wash- 
ington Mills, with a product of 2,000,000 pieces, manufacture worsted 
fabrics of no less excellence. It is due to the last establishment to 
say, that it was the first in this country to manufacture certain all- 
wool dress fabrics formerly obtained exclusively from France. Some 
of these fabrics which it was the first to introduce, such as the all-wool 
matelasses, are made not only by this establishment, but by Messrs. 
Martin Landenberger & Co. and Thomas Dolan & Co., of Philadel 
phia, and have high repute in our markets. 

A very important class of dress fabrics was not undertaken in this 
country until 1872, — that of black alpacas, mohairs, and brilliantines. 
It was. not long since, believed that these goods could not be success- 
fully made elsewhere than in Bradford, England. The Arlington 
Mills, of Lawrence, Massachusetts, were the first in this country to 
overcome the difficulties of this fabrication, and have since made a 
specialty of this branch of manufacture; these goods forming a large 
part of their annual production of five million yards. The black 
alpacas, mohairs, and brilliantines exhibited in great variety by this 
company, as well as by the Farr Alpaca Company, of Holyoke, were 
fabrics equal in all respects to the productions of the best manufac- 
turers in the old-established seats of the worsted-industry in Europe. 

Reference must be made to other worsted fabrics not included in 
the category of dress goods. 

The manufacture of lastings, which are made from long-combing 
wools of English blood, has until recently been regarded as an exclu- 
sive English monopoly, and the English lastings at the Exhibition 
well sustained their traditional reputation. All attempts in this 
country failed until after 1867, when the Lowell Manufacturing Com- 
pany first successfully achieved the fabrication of this article. They 
were followed by the Peacedale Manufacturing Company, of Rhode 
Island, and others ; and at present the American shoe-manufacturers 
are largely supplied by lastings of domestic production. 

Before the late war, English bunting, made like lastings of long- 
combing wools, formed the sole material for our national flags. The 
United States Bunting Company, of Lowell, first successfully achieved 

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66 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

the manufacture of bunting. Its exhibits at Philadelphia showed not 
only excellent fabrics in bunting and moreens, but a marked improve- 
ment in the construction of the national flags. 

In tapestries and upholstery stuffs of worsted or worsted mixed 
with cotton and silk, there was but one prominent American exhibi- 
tion, — that made by Messrs. Kelty 8c Co., of New York; but this, in 
tastefulness of design and excellence of fabrication, Was encouraging 
as to our future success in this attractive department 

CLASS 239. — Carpets, Rugs, etc. — Brussels, Wilton, Tapestry 

Brussels, and Velvets, Axminster, Venetian, Ingrain, Felted 

Carpets, Druggets, Rugs, etc. 

Among the surroundings of our homes there are none which bring 
so palpably before our eyes the arts of design of remote centuries and 
distant peoples as carpets. Originating in Persia at a period almost 
on the verge of history, and among a people of the ancient Aryan 
stock, among whose descendants in the centre, south, and east of that 
country are found the present chief seats of the textile industry of 
Persia, the carpet-manufacture was carried from thence to India, and 
to Arabia and Turkey. Carpets were introduced into Europe by the 
Crusades. Their manufacture in Europe was first undertaken in 
France, under the patronage of Henry IV. ; and the manufacturing 
of carpets, under royal patronage, was founded at Beauvais, by Col- 
bert, and still exists. Carpets in Europe, like china or porcelain, 
descended to the homes of the people from palaces, and the influence 
of original designs for royal establishments may still be seen in the 
gorgeous patterns of French carpets. 

There were ample opportunities at the Exhibition for studying this, 
the most attractive department in the whole range of the textile in- 
dustry, as it is the only one in which the arts of design have still un 
restricted sway, and where the value of the fabric is controlled mainly 
by artistic considerations. Persia, India, Turkey, France, Germany, 
Austria, England, Scotland, and the United States, each exhibited its 
characteristic fabrics, and no important national product or variety of 
fabric in this department was without representation. We will briefly 
refer to the different national products, arranging them in the order of 
t'heir origin, and availing ourselves of the artistic suggestions of Red- 
grave, Dresser, and Major R. Murdock Smith, under the light of 
whose illustrations they were observed. 

The carpets of Persia first claim notice, specimens of which were 
supplied by Messrs. Sloane, of New York, our observation having 
been enlarged by a study of Persian carpets and rugs directlyiniported 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 67 

by them, making a museum of Persian art in this department not 
surpassed by the collection at Kensington. 

The Persian carpets, or rather rugs, are made chiefly in Kurdistan, 
Khorassan, Feraghan, and Kerman (our principal authority for these 
statements being the notes on Persian art by Major R. Murdock 
Smith, R.E.), each district producing a distinctive kind in texture and 
style. The finest are those of Kurdistan. In these carpets the pattern 
does not represent flowers, bouquets, or other objects, thrown up in 
relief from a uniform ground, like so many of the inappropriate de- 
signs of Europe, but looks more like a layer of flowers strewn on the 
ground, or a field of wild-flowers in spring. The borders are always 
well marked, and usually of brighter colors than the centre. 

Besides the ordinary " Kali," or pile carpet, others called " Do-ru" 
are made at Kurdistan. These are smooth, without pile, and alike on 
both sides, and are used in traveling for spreading upon the ground. 

The carpets of Feraghan resemble those of Kurdistan in style, 
although the texture is looser and the pattern simpler. They are, 
consequently, cheaper and in more general use. Fine Kurdistan 
carpets cost from three to four pounds per square yard. The Fera- 
ghan carpets cost from fifteen to eighteen shillings. 

The Khorassan carpets are somewhat superior in texture to those 
of Feraghan, but the patterns are usually more realistic. Kerman 
carpets are next in value to those of Kurdistan, but the designs are 
usually still more realistic than those of Khorassan. Besides flowers, 
figures of men and animals are not uncommon. 

According to Major Smith, the carpets of every description are 
made without even the simplest machinery, the loom being simply a 
frame on which the work is stretched. The woof consists of short 
threads woven into the warp by the fingers, without a shuttle. When 
a row of the woof is thus completed, a sort of comb is inserted into 
the warp and pressed or hammered against the loose rows of woof 
yarns until they are sufficiently tightened to the rest of the web. 
The pile is formed by merely clipping the ends of the woof until an 
even surface is obtained. The weaver sits with the reversed side of 
the web towards him ; so that he depends solely upon his memory 
for the formation of the pattern. 

The Persian carpets are usually somewhat long and narrow, — a 
form adopted because more easily woven, while it is adapted to the 
usual narrow dimensions of the Persian houses. The space for car- 
pets on the floor of these Persian apartments is still further narrowed 
by the habit of laying strips of felt at the upper end and along the 
sides of the room, the narrow carpet occupying the middle space. 



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68 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The spreading of Oriental rugs upon plain felt carpets, now some- 
what in vogue, is an unconscious adoption of Persian fashions. 

In an artistic point of view, the Persian carpets show an excellence 
so marked that the educated observer cannot have a moment's doubt 
as to their superiority over all other Oriental products of their class. 
They are distinguished by their subdued tones and the harmonies of 
their various colors. Various as they are, there are certain forms 
repeated in all designs, so that the national characteristics are clearly 
marked to those familiar with them. 

Indian carpets (some beautiful specimens of which were shown in 
the Exhibition) are made in large single pieces adapted for covering 
floors of considerable space. Those exhibited, remarkably illustrated 
the characteristics of design pointed out by Mr. Redgrave. They 
had a great variety of colors, but so evenly distributed, and each so 
well balanced by its complementary and harmonizing hue, that the 
general effect was rich and agreeable. The effect at a distance was a 
somewhat foxy tone, in consequence of the free admission of warm 
neutrals, as brown and brownish purple ; white and yellow are but 
sparingly introduced to define the geometrical arrangement of the 
forms. The forms consisted largely of highly conventionalized flowers 
and plant motives, all geometrically constructed. These carpets were 
much more agreeable in tone than the real Turkey carpets at present 
so much in vogue. 

The Turkish or Smyrna carpets, which were well illustrated, in the 
best specimens are generally designed with a flat (that is, without 
perspective) border of flowers of the natural size, and with a centre 
of larger plant-forms conventionalized, often to such an extent as to 
obscure the forms. The colors are negative shades of a medium or 
half tint, as regards light, and tending rather to dark, with scarcely 
any contrast, and therefore a little sombre in character. Three hues 
largely pervade the surface, — green, red, and blue. These are not 
pure, but negative, so that the general effect is cool, though rich. 
These remarks refer to the best types of the Smyrna carpets. There 
are others, especially such as are now so extensively imported and 
sold at auction in our principal cities, which are marked by violent 
contrasts, — a predominance of yellows and harsh violets. This de- 
terioration may be accounted for by the fact that many carpets are 
now made in special manufactories, and that the modern carpets do 
not exhibit the traditional and inherited taste found in the ancient 
household fabrication. 

It is certain that by far the best specimens of the pure Turkish style 
are found in what are called the Smyrna styles, made in large estab- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 69 

lishments in Germany and the Netherlands. Among them, the large 
carpets and smaller rugs made by the Royal Carpet Company of 
Deventer, Netherlands, were conspicuous for the taste of their designs, 
and chasteness as well as richness of color. Nothing more fitting for 
the repose of a library could be desired than one of these carpets. 
As they are made by hand, the high price of labor in this country 
will not admit of their fabrication here. In looking at the best types 
of all the Oriental carpets, we cannot fail to be struck with the wisdom 
displayed by the Orientals in adopting negative tones for decorating 
the floors of their apartments. No people exhibit greater richness of 
upholstery and costume than those of Persia and India. In the sub- 
dued colors of their carpets, they have adopted the best means for 
enhancing and supporting the splendors of their furniture and the 
richness of their personal decorations. 

The French carpets were represented by magnificent Axminsters, 
woven for large rooms, in a single piece. The most conspicuous was 
one representing a wonderful exuberance of tropical forms, in birds, 
flowers, and foliage ; this fabric admitting the employment of an un- 
limited variety of hues, tones, and shades. The spectator, however, 
could not fail to be impressed with the thought that it was better fitted 
to be hung, as it was, as a drapery for a vast hall, than to be seen 
horizontally, and trodden under foot. This same impression was 
given by the Aubusson carpets, than which no fabric of wool can be 
intrinsically more perfect as works of art. They are, in fact, but 
tapestries for floors, and are fitted only for palaces or rooms decorated 
and furnished in the luxurious style of the Renaissance, Even here 
they would seem to detract from the splendors of paintings and deco- 
rations adorning the walls. It seems difficult to eradicate the old 
ideas of florid decoration from French designers. It is a curious fact 
that the English now find in France the readiest sale for carpets 
designed under the influence of the modern English schools of art. 

It would be useless to describe what is so well known, — the char- 
acter of English and Scotch Jacquard Brussels, Wilton tapestry, and 
Axminster carpets exhibited, and it would be presumptuous to praise 
them. It is enough to say that they, as a matter of course, proved 
themselves to be, in texture and design, the worthiest models for our 
own manufacturers to imitate, and, if possible, to surpass. The ob- 
server could not fail to be amused by the singular mistake made by 
some of the largest English exhibitors, in displaying fabrics designed 
for adaptation to their own conceptions of American tastes. They 
seem not to have been aware that representations of lions, tigers, archi- 
tectural panels, and huge bouquets are as offensive to the American 

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70 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

as to the English educated eye. Recognizing this mistake, an eminent 
English carpet-manufacturer remarked to one of our own at the Ex- 
hibition, " We seem to be playing at cross-purposes ; while we are 
manufacturing for the supposed American taste, you manufacture for 
our own." 

The carpet-manufacture of the United States has become so charac- 
teristic a feature of the American textile industry, that this report 
would be incomplete without a brief sketch of the steps by which it 
has reached its vast development. In the middle of the last century, 
a carpet was regarded as a curiosity in our most luxurious city of that 
period, Philadelphia; but, as early as 1791, a carpet-manufactory was 
established by Mr. William Sprague, which attracted so much atten- 
tion as to induce Mr. Hamilton, in his famous report on manufactures, 
of that date, to recommend a duty on imported carpets, as an encour- 
agement to home industry. The census of 1 8 10 has been referred to 
as an authority for the statement that, in that year, 9984 yards of 
carpet and coverlid, worth JI7500, were made in Philadelphia. The 
value indicates either the small proportion of carpets made or their 
very low value. No exact dates ae to the further extension of this 
manufacture appear until 1825, at which time it seems that Mr. Alex- 
ander Wright, a native of Scotland, — who with others had previously 
started a small establishment for making carpets in Medway, Massa- 
chusetts, — visited a small carpet-factory in Philadelphia to learn the 
mysteries of the art. Meeting with no success, he went to Scotland, 
where he purchased looms, with which he returned to this country, 
accompanied by Glaude and William Wilson, who were employed by 
him to aid in operating his machinery, and who subsequently made 
considerable improvements in the Jacquard attachments to carpet- 
looms. The location of the works not being favorable, the property 
was sold to Mr. Frederick Cabot and Mr. Patrick T. Jackson, well 
known as among the founders of the cotton-manufacture of New Eng- 
land. In 1828, Messrs. Cabot & Jackson sold the mill and machinery 
at Medway to the Lowell Manufacturing Company, which had been 
recently organized for the manufacture of carpets and cotton goods, 
the carpet machinery in the mean time being kept in operation until 
the mill at Lowell was completed. It should be observed that carpet- 
weaving at Medway, as well as tliat first undertaken at Lowell, was 
done on hand-looms. 

It is within the personal recollection of the writer, that at about 
this time the manufacture of ingrain carpets was undertaken at Great 
Falls, in New Hampshire, by power, the apparatus for making the 
figure automatically being a large cylinder or drum, upon which pins 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, yi 

or blocks were placed corresponding to the pattern to be woven, the 
cylinder operating like that of a music-box. This apparatus was also 
used at Little Falls, in New Jersey. This, as well as other automatic 
devices tried elsewhere, was finally abandoned, as operating less favor- 
ably than the hand-loom. In 1844 the hand-loom, both in Europe 
and this country, was universally used for making carpets. 

The system was revolutionized by an American invention, which 
marks the period of its introduction as the most important epoch in 
the whole history of the carpet-manufacture. Mr. E. B. Bigelow, of 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1842, conceived a series of devices for 
making the carpet-loom automatic, so that the costly labor of men 
might be dispensed with, and the whole process of weaving might be 
conducted by women or boys. After applying in vain to several par- 
ties engaged in the manufacture for the pecuniary means necessary 
for the costly experiment which he proposed, he succeeded in gain- 
ing the attention of Mr. George W. Lyman, treasurer of the Lowell 
Manufacturing Company, through whose influence the construction 
of an establishment with the newly-invented machinery was under- 
taken by the company, at a cost of many hundred thousand dollars. 
Mr. Bigelow was also seconded by Mr. Wright, the superintendent of 
the company, in the practical details of the adaptation of the inven- 
tion. In 1845 the successful weaving of ingrain carpets by power 
had been demonstrated at Lowell, and its ultimate general use had 
become a fixed necessity of the manufacture. 

Since this successful experiment at Lowell, the manufacture of 
ingrain carpets in this country has been marked by a constantly 
extending development. The inaportant establishment at Thomson- 
ville, Connecticut, now known as the Hartford Carpet Company, which 
used hand-looms concurrently with the Lowell Company, adopted 
Mr. Bigelow's invention. Each of these two is unsurpassed by any 
in the world making similar products, in the amount of production 
and excellence of fabrics ; while many more recent and smaller estab- 
lishments have their special excellences of fabric. 

The patents for the inventions of weaving Jacquard Brussels and 
Wilton carpets, although offered to the Lowell Company, were not 
accepted, and it became necessary, finally, for Mr. Bigelow to utilize 
his own inventions. The result was the establishment of a factory at 
Clintonville, now Clinton, Massachusetts, in 1848, which was operated 
with success; and ultimately, of the organization, in 1854, of the 
Bigelow Carpet Company, which became the possessor of the works 
and franchise of the concern just mentioned. This establishment, the 
growth of more than a quarter of a century, is now the largest in the 

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72 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

world for the manufacture of Jacquard Brussels and Wilton carpets, 
m which the several processes of worsted spinning, dyeing, and 
weaving are united in one concern. 

The American claim to the honor of this achievement of inventing 
the power-loom for, weaving Jacquard Brussels and Wilton carpets is 
fixed by foreign recognition. The supplementary report of the jury 
at the World's Fair in London, 185 1, where the inventor's carpets 
were exhibited, says, — 

" The specimens of Brussels carpeting exhibited by Mr. Bigelow, 
woven by a power-loom invented and patented by him, are better and 
more perfectly woven than any hand-loom goods that have come under 
the notice of the jury. This, however, is but a small part of their 
merit, or rather that of Mr. Bigelow, who has completely triumphed 
over the numerous obstacles that presented themselves, and succeeded 
in substituting steam-power for manual labor in the manufacture of 
fine-frame Brussels carpets. Several patents have been taken out by 
different inventors in this country [Great Britain] for effecting the 
same object. But as yet none of them have been brought into suc- 
cessful or extensive operation ; and the honor of this achievement, 
one of great practical difficulty as well as of great commercial value, 
must be awarded to a native of the United States." 

Axminster carpets, adapted only for the most luxurious use, until 
recently made exclusively in France and England, arc still woven in 
those countries on hand-looms. A patent for weaving these carpets 
by power, the invention of Alexander Smith and Halcyon Skinner, 
of New York, was granted in 1856. On account of the civil war, 
and the destruction by fire of the establishment where the invention 
was first applied, it did not come into considerable use before 1867, 
when the factory was rebuilt and the machinery set at work. The 
product of the establishment under the proprietorship of Alexander 
Smith & Sons is about 200,000 yards ^ year, — an amount believed to 
be equal to the entire annual production of the same kind of goods 
in France, and more than is made in Great Britain. One of these 
power-looms, attended by one competent woman, will produce in a 
day an amount equal to the product of ten English or French hand- 
looms, attended by as many men. The loom is not adapted for weav- 
ing the wide, single-piece carpets made in the foreign hand-looms; but 
this inconvenience is almost wholly obviated by the perfect selvage 
and matching of the figures of the narrow pieces, which may also be 
applied to floors of any dimensions. 

Tapestry carpets, known as tapestry Brussels and tapestry velvets, 
form a very important branch of the carpet-manufacture of England 

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. GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 73 

and the United States. This style of carpet, of quite recent inven- 
tion, is particularly adapted to the popular demand for brilliant effects 
at moderate prices, for there is no form of carpet in which so good 
an appearance can be secured at so low a cost. In all other carpets 
the yarns are dyed. The principle of the fabrication of these carpets 
consists in printing the colors upon the warps in such a manner that 
when the warps are woven they form the desired figure. In this 
style of carpet the room for the application of color and design is 
unlimited. 

The method of printing the warps, which constitutes the essential 
feature of the tapestry carpets, was the invention of Mr. Whitock, 
of Edinburgh, Scotland, about 1838. The invention met with little 
success until the right to apply it in England was secured by Mr. 
John Crossley, of Halifax, England, about 1842. With his charac- 
teristic energy and skill he made the fabrication a perfect success, and 
the establishment founded by him still makes the largest production 
of this fabric of any in the world. 

In 1846, Mr. John Johnsori, an Englishman, educated in Crossley's 
establishment, and who had himself put up the first machinery for 
this branch of fabrication at Halifax, came to this country,.and estab- 
lished the manufacture of tapestry carpets at Newark, New Jersey, run- 
ning about twenty-five hand-looms. He was facilitated in his enterprise 
here by the fact that Whitock had taken out no patents in this coun- 
try. Mr. Johnson subsequently removed his establishment to Troy, 
New York, where the manufacture was carried on for two or three 
years under his direction, though not in his name. In the autumn 
of 1855 the machinery was purchased by a company, of which Mr. 
M. H. Simpson was the principal stockholder, and removed to Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts, in 1856. The great inventive power of Mr. 
Simpson, seconded by the experience of Mr. Johnson, has secured for 
the Roxbury Carpet Company the prominence in this manufacture 
displayed by its beautiful fabrics at the Exhibition. This company 
has by no means the monopoly of this manufacture in this country. 
Its claims for excellence are contested by Messrs. Higgins & Co., of 
New York; Alexander Smith & Sons, of Yonkers ; Stephen Sanford, 
of Amsterdam, New Jersey; Messrs. Dobson, of Philadelphia; and 
others. 

The progress made in the manufacture since its first introduction is 
remarkable. The product of the first hand-looms was but five yards 
per loom per day. In 1856 the product of the Roxbury Carpet Com- 
pany for each loom per day was sixteen yards. At present the aver- 
age product of each of the one hundred and fourteen looms employed 

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74 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

is forty-nine and a half yards per day. This is largely due to the in- 
vention of the power-loom of Mr. Bigelow, the principles of whose 
inventions are applied in weaving these fabrics. 

Particular reference has hitherto been made only to the carpet- 
manufacture of New England and New York, which is characterized 
by its few vast establishments. The city of Philadelphia, alone, sur- 
passes all other parts of the country combined in the extent and 
variety of the carpets which issue from its looms. A prominent 
characteristic of the Philadelphia manufacture is the diffusion of 
the industry in small establishments. Philadelphia, with its cheap 
homes, its abundant and cheap market, and the faculty which it seems 
to possess above all other cities of appropriating the talents of the 
artisans who resort to it, is the paradise of the skilled workman. 
There, as nowhere else in this country, the loom of the handicraft 
carpet-weaver still finds abundant occupation through the smaller 
manufacturers, who employ his skill, and furnish the raw material to 
be worked up by the weaver and his family in their own houses. The 
carpet-manufacture of Philadelphia is distinguished for its success in 
making sightly and useful carpets out of cheap materials, adapted for 
the most modest homes, and its carpet-makers are among the few 
American manufacturers who have been able to profitably export 
their products. 

While small establishments form the rule in the carpet-manufacture 
of this city, there is one under an individual proprietorship of compara- 
tively recent foundation, — that of Messrs. John & James Dobson. — 
which employs between two and three thousand workmen, principally 
in carpets. There are also notable exceptions to the general rule 
of manufacturing the cheaper products, Messrs. McCallum, Crease, & 
Sloane having exhibited ingrain carpets of the highest class (which, 
in design and fabrication, compared favorably with the best in the 
Exhibition), and the Messrs. Bromley, Venetian carpets illustrating the 
best merits of that class. 

We have not attempted, in any other department, to exhibit the 
present amount of production; but the carpet- manufacture is so prom- 
inent a feature of our textile industry that we have taken pains to 
obtain, from original sources, the amount of production in 1875. 

The Carpet Association of Philadelphia has furnished Mr. Lorin 
Blodgett, for his work on the industries of that city, the statistics of 
its carpet- manufacture in 1875. The report for 1875 claims the total 
value of the carpets manufactured in that city to be $ig<ooo<ooo, and 
that the increase of machinery since 1869, in the form of mills, steam- 
power looms, etc., was more than one hundred per cent. Returns 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. y^ 

furnished to us by the following establishments outside of Phila- 
delphia, viz., the Bigelow Carpet Company, the Hartford Carpet Com- 
pany, E. S. Higgins & Co., the Lowell Manufacturing Company, and 
the Roxbury Carpet Company, show that the actual value of carpets 
made by these companies was $11,126,168. We feel authorized in 
estimating the product of other mills out of Philadelphia, not 
enumerated, at $2,000,000. 

RfeSUMfe OF AMERICAN PRODUCT IN 1875. 

In Philadelphia |il9,ooo,ooo 

Other mills enumerated , 11,376,168 

Not enumerated 2,cxx),ooo 

Total value of American production of carpets in 1875 • 1^32,376,168 

The principal exhibitors of American carpets, by displaying them 
together in a series of alcoves, made their united exhibits in this de- 
partment unusually imposing, and the proofs of our attainments in 
this manufacture were observed with no little surprise. It was mani- 
fest, from the absence of rival foreign exhibitors, that, in respect to the 
carpets of the cheaper and medium qualities, up to two- and three-ply 
ingrains, the competition is confined to our own manufacturers. Even 
rival English manufacturers generously admitted that, in the produc- 
tion of Jacquard Brussels, tapestries, Wiltons, and narrow Axminsters, 
we have nothing to learn from them either in design or fabrication. 

CLASS 240. — Hair, Alpaca, Goat*s Hair, and other Fabrics, 

MIXED OR unmixed WITH WoOL. 

Of the materials other than wool proper composing fabrics, but 
ranked with it because possessing the same general properties, the 
first in value is the product of the goat of Thibet, commonly called 
the Cashmere goat,— a distinct variety inhabiting the elevated regions 
north of the Himalayas. This variety, whose origin is obscure, has 
affinities with the Angora race. Its size is quite large. The horns 
are flattened, straight, and black, and slightly divergent at the ex- 
tremities. The ears are large, flat, and pendent. The exterior fleece 
or hair, which is long, silky, and lustrous, is divided on the back, and 
falls down upon the flanks in wavy masses. Beneath the hair, there 
is developed in autumn a short and exceedingly fine down, called 
pusAm, from which the cashmere shawls are fabricated. The quan- 
tity of pushm obtained from a single animal is quite small, never ex- 
ceeding one hundred and eight grammes, and usually much less, to 
the individual. The separation of the kemp or coarse hair from the 

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76 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

pushm, which is indispensable for making the shawl-yarns, is a work 
of great Ubor. The raw or unprepared pushm, it is said, costs in 
India about seventy-five cents per pound ; but the labor of separating 
the kemp, at the low rate of four cents a day, is so great as to bring 
the cost of the pure pushm up to seven or eight dollars per pound. 

Well-arranged specimens of the pushm, as well as magnificent 
samples of the shawls fabricated from this material, were shown in 
the India collections. One in the Exhibition, imported by an English 
house, was valued at J5i 137. The prices of shawls, actually of Indian 
fabrication, descend as low as $20. The inferior shawls are made 
in Kerman, in Persia, as well as in India, from the material called 
" koork," proceeding from a particular kind of white goat, distinct 
from the Thibetian animal. Numerous flocks of these goats are kept 
at Kerman. They are cultivated in the same manner as the Merinos 
formerly were in Spain, being transhutnant, — or feeding in the valleys 
in winter, and on the distant mountain-plateaus in summer. A large 
part of the Kerman koork is annually exported to Upper India, where 
it is manufactured into false India shawls. It is the koork, and not 
the pure cashmere pushm, as is commonly supposed, which forms the 
material of the richest of the Persian carpets, a magnificent specimen 
of which is in the collection of the Boston Art Museum; and an 
inferior one from Khorassan, now in Messrs. Sloane's warehouse in 
New York, although but six feet by four in size, is valued at ^275. 

The fabrication of cashmere shawls in Europe has been attempted 
only by the French. The peculiar Indian texture called ** espouline" 
was perfectly achieved in Paris in 1834, four thousand workmen being 
employed, while some four hundred goats were imported from Thibet. 
But it was found that the raw material, expensive as it is, formed not 
more than one-tenth of the cost of a shawl ; that the French workman 
could not compete with the Indian weaver, working at less than one- 
fifth of his wages ; and that ladies of fashion would pay twice as much 
for a genuine India shawl as for a French article really superior in 
texture and design. The manufacture has, therefore, been abandoned. 
Since the monopoly of the East India Company has ceased, the French 
have reconciled themselves to the loss of this manufacture by making 
Paris the principal entrepot in Europe of the India shawl trade. The 
inferior pushm or koork, from which the kemp is not separated, is at 
present largely used by the French in the fabrication of cashmere 
dress fabrics. 

The next analogous material, in value and importance, occupying 
the place of wool, is mohair, — the product of the Angora goat. As 
this material could not be properly discussed under the head of wool, 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 77 

in the first part of this report, — while it is rapidly becoming an im- 
portant object of American production, — it may not inappropriately 
receive consideration in this connection. 

The Angora goat (descended, as proved by modern naturalists, 
from a distinct wild species of Thibet, — the Falconer's goat, Caprus 
FaUoneri), it is supposed, was carried by the migration of pastoral 
tribes from Thibet, in the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, to the 
country in Asia Minor near Angora, — the ancient Ancyra, — where 
they principally abound, and from which the recent diffusion has 
taken place. Their existence was not made known to Europe until 
1655, and the first full description of them was given by the celebrated 
botanist Tournefort, the master of Linnaeus. But so little was popu- 
larly known of them, that some of the old dictionaries define mohair 
as the hair of a Turkish dog. The chief supply for commerce still 
comes from Asia Minor, the country being in the Turkish territory. 
The superbly mounted specimens of these animals in the Turkish 
department must be remembered by all visitors at the Exhibition. 

The many attempts made to acclimate the Angora goat in various 
parts of Europe have met with signal failure, the generally prevailing 
moist climate being unlike that of their native habitat. The first im- 
portation into the United States, consisting of eight animals from 
Asia Minor, was made in 1849, by Dr. J. P. Davis. Other importa- 
tions were made by Mr. Diehl. These and their descendants were 
distributed principally in the Southern States. Mr. Winthrop W. 
Chenery, of Belmont, Massachusetts, an eminent merchant and stock- 
raiser, imported about three hundred pure-blood animals, and intro- 
duced the first full-blooded animals of this race into California. Mr. 
A. Eutichides, a native of Greece, came to this country from Asia 
Minor in 1869, bringing a flock of Angora goats with him. A part 
of this flock was sent to California; the rest of the flock, numbering 
fifty-four, in 1875, is now in the possession of Mr. F. S. Fulmer, of 
Spring Mills, Appomattox County, Virginia, and has been kept per 
fectly pure. A flock of several thousand pure and grade animals of 
this race is upon an island in California, and several thousand are 
stated to be scattered through Oregon. The acclimation of the race, 
so difficult elsewhere, has been perfectly accomplished in the compara- 
tively dry climate of this country, especially in the high regions of the 
South and the interior. The only obstacle to success is the greedi- 
ness of breeders, who are too apt to sell grade animals for breeding 
purposes. It is only by the constant use of absolutely pure bucks 
that merchantable mohair can be procured. For further information 
on this subject the reader is referred to a monograph on the Angora 
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78 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

Goat, its Origin, Culture, and Products, by the writer, published in vol. 
xi. of the Proceedings of the Boston Natural History Society, and in 
vol. vi. of the United States Reports of the Exposition at Paris, of i86y. 
Mohair, the fleece of the Angora goat, is not a mere substitute for 
wool, but occupies its own place in the textile fabrics. It has the 
aspect, feel, and lustre of silk, without its suppleness. It differs ma- 
terially from wool in the want of the felting quality; so that the stuffs 
made of it have the fibres distinctly separated, and are always bril- 
liant. On account of the stiffness of the fibre, it is rarely woven 
alone ; that is, when it is used for the filling, the warp is usually of 
cotton, silk, or wool, or the reverse. The distinguishing qualities of 
the fibre are lustre, elasticity, and wonderful durability. The qualities 
of lustre and durability, particularly, fit this material for its chief use, 
— the manufacture of Utrecht velvets, commonly called "furniture 
plush,'* the finest qualities of which are composed principally of mo- 
hair, the pile being formed of mohair warps, which are cut in the 
same manner as silk warps in velvet. Upon passing the finger lightly 
over the best Utrecht velvets, the rigidity and elasticity of the fibre 
will be distinctly perceived. The fibre springs back to its original 
uprightness when the pressure is removed. The best mohair plushes 
are almost indestructible, and are now in general use by all the prin- 
cipal railroads, as the most enduring of all coverings for railroad 
seats. The English have attained the greatest success in spinning 
mohair, and the French and German manufacturers use English yarns. 
In the manufacture of Utrecht velvets, the city of Amiens, in France, 
holds a marked precedence, and the plushes exhibited by her manu- 
facturers, in Philadelphia, of all hues, plain and figured, well sustained 
her reputation. Another analogous application of mohair is for form- 
ing the pile of imitation seal-skins. Some of these fabrics, exhibited 
by manufacturers of Huddersfield, England, were of special beauty, 
the resemblance to real fur being quite striking. Admirable imita- 
tions in mohair of the Astrakhan lamb-skin furs were exhibited by 
the same manufacturers. Similar goods, made by one of our asso 
ciate Judges, Dr. Weigert, — who, by his position, was precluded from 
an award, — received high commendation. Mohair forms an essential 
material in the best carriage and lap robes, with a long and lustrous 
pile. Some exhibited were made to resemble the skins of tigers, 
leopards, and other animals ; and others were printed. Among the 
last, some made by a manufacturer in Sandford, Maine, were con- 
spicuous for excellent texture and design. Another application of 
mohair is for the fabrication of braids for binding, which have the 
lustre of silk, but far greater durability. Excellent specimens of this 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, yg 

fabrication were exhibited by T. M. Dale, of Newark, New Jersey. 
Still another important application of this material is in the fabrication 
of black dress goods, resembling alpacas, the mohair being woven 
with cotton warps. They are called mohair lustres, or brilliantines. 
Beautiful exhibits of this admirable fabric were made by the Arlington 
Mills and the Farr Alpaca Company. Mohair is also used in France 
in the manufacture of laces, which are substituted for the silk laces 
of Valenciennes and Chantilly. These, however, do not come within 
the consideration of this group. 

The soft fibre of the vicuna of South America, composing fabrics 
which are peculiarly agreeable in feel, was exhibited in very pleasing 
shawls made by English and California manufacturers. But the most 
interesting of the new fabrics were the cloths made of camel's down, 
which have recently come into extensive use in Russia. 

The Roumianstoff Cloth Manufactory of General Siloverstoff, situ- 
ated in the Volga Province of Russia, exhibited beautiful plaids, 
blankets, and other tissues, adapted for the most luxurious consump- 
tion, manufactured from picked camel's hair and goat's down. These 
products find a ready sale in Paris. More interesting still was a stout 
and leather-like, though soft, cloth, without nap, made from a mixture 
of Merino, Russian, and Kirghese wool, with camel's down, called 
" half-merino." This is dyed a pale yellow tint, and finds an exten- 
sive sale among the Asiatic tribes under the name oi jeltiak. These 
tribes, from time immemorial, have dressed in yellow cloth made 
exclusively of undyed camel's hair. The appearance of a dyed cloth 
in which the camel's hair was mixed with wool, acquiring greater 
strength, yet having the same color, has caused the Asiatics to sub- 
stitute the jeltiak for the original camel's-hair fabric. This cloth has 
now great repute among the Caucasian Armenians, and the Persians 
living on the coasts of the Caspian Sea. The success of this manu- 
facture is in a measure due to the invention of a particular apparatus 
by means of which the soft and downy parts are separated from the 
fleeces of coarse Siberian and Kirghese sheep and goats, the down of 
the Siberian goat producing stuffs remarkable for their softness and 
lightness. 

The celebrated Montagnac coatings, first made in France about 
twenty years ago by processes patented by the inventor whose name 
they bear, had beautiful illustrations at the Exhibition, from Sedan. 
They are sometimes called cloth-velvets. The pile of the surface is 
usually furnished by fibres of cashmere wool, incorporated in the 
yams of the fabric, and they are straight and perpendicular to the 
surface, the cloth having the aspect of a silk-velvet, but with a softness 

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8o INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

peculiar to the cashmere fibre. The pile is developed on the surface 
by battage^ or beating the moistened cloth with elastic rods. 

Formerly, only the long hair of the cashmere goat and camel were 
used, besides wool, for making pile fabrics. In 1850, Mr. Benjamin 
Crosland, of Huddersfield, England, invented or rediscovered a process 
by which the short hairs of the cow and calf could be used in the 
manufacture of imitation seal-skins. The mean feature of his process 
consisted in boiling the fabrics for a long time in water, which devel- 
ops the lustre of the fibre. These fabrics were for a long time im- 
ported into the United States under the pretence that they contained 
no wool, being thus subjected to a less duty. A rigorous microscopic 
examination by the National Academy of Sciences, made quite re- 
cently, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, seems 
to have established the fact that the short hairs of the cow and calf 
are spun with at least enough wool to carry the fibre, — a successful 
spinning seeming otherwise impracticable. The cow-hair seal-skins, 
which are an important specialty in England, were illustrated by beau- 
tiful specimens at the Exhibition. 

Another animal product, which is not strictly a textile fibre, because 
it cannot be spun like those above referred to, must be considered in 
this connection, — that is, horse-hair, the material of the fabric ordi- 
narily known as " haircloth." This material, as a covering for furni- 
ture, a century ago was held in high consideration. The wife of 
Benjamin Franklin, describing the furniture of her mansion in Phila- 
delphia, says it was covered with black haircloth, "as handsome as 
padisoy* (Padua silk). Modern fashion has driven this material from 
fashionable drawing-rooms, but its durability still causes it to be re- 
tained in unambitious apartments. There were two conspicuous ex- 
hibits of this material. Ranking first in elegance was an exhibit made 
by Edward Webb & Son, Worcester, England. These haircloths were 
woven in stripes of rich blues, scarlets, and crimsons, with whites, and 
in simple but rich colors, brocaded and figured. They possessed all 
the elegance which could be given to this material, and for certain 
purposes, as for summer apartments and houses in tropical regions, 
possess adaptations found in no other upholstery materials. 

The Pawtucket Haircloth Company, of Rhode Island, made an 
exhibit of this fabric, the peculiarity of which was that it is the result 
of the first successful weaving of haircloth by power, the hand-loom 
being, so far as known, used by all other manufacturers of this fabric 
at home or abroad. The success of the company referred to is due 
to their achievement of the work of picking up, and applying auto- 
matically, each individual hair which is to compose the texture of a 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 8 1 

hair filling, interlaced by a warp of cotton thread. This is accom- 
plished by a little machine which could be packed in a box two inches 
square. This machine, which is detachable for repairs, is attached to 
a loom, both the machine and loom being operated by power, and it 
forms the pivot upon which the whole manufacture turns. It is essen- 
tial that the machine should pick up but one hair at a time. To ac- 
complish this, the picker in the machine has a groove or slit invisible 
to the naked eye, so that the whole of this manufacture turns upon 
a point which can only be seen with a microscope. The loom is so 
adjusted that the movement of the web is arrested until the picker 
lifts up its hair. The end of the hair is seized by a rod, the end of 
which operates like a thumb and finger, and is carried transversely 
between the warps. This little apparatus is attached to four hundred 
distinct looms in the establishment of the company. One girl tends 
ten looms, and this one girl, by means of this machinery, does the 
work requiring twenty operatives on hand-looms. By means of these 
appliances, this single establishment, employing only 150 work-people, 
produces 600,000 yards of haircloth per annum, each loom weaving 
five yards per day. It consumes annually 450,000 pounds of horse- 
hair, equivalent to the tails of 600,000 horses. The large exhibit 
showed the unquestionable superiority of the machine-made goods to 
the ordinary hand-loom fabrics. 

All the classes assigned to the Judges of this group, in the depart- 
ment of wool, have now been considered, except that of wool ma- 
chinery. While all the varieties of wool fabrics were well illustrated, 
the wool machinery exhibited but very few of the modern appliances 
by which the fabrics are made. The fullest description of the ma- 
chines exhibited would give but a faint idea of the improved machines 
now in use. To describe even those exhibited would require space 
and means not at our disposal, and would be unsuited to the popular 
object of these reports. 



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82 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

SILK AND SILK FABRICS. 

BY JOHN L. HAYES. 

Silk with its fabrics, by the value of the raw material, correspond- 
ing to an equal weight of silver, its tenacity equal to that of iron, and 
its lustre surpassed only by that of the precious metals and stones ; 
by the splendor of its fabrics, their relations to the decorative arts, 
their influence upon painting, heraldry, and the ceremonies of the 
church, their place as a means of exchange in early commerce, and 
the correspondence of their production in Western Europe with the 
decline of Oriental power, — would seem to claim a more extended 
notice than we have given to the homelier fibre and fabrics which 
have thus far occupied our attention. But the popular interest attach- 
ing to silk and its fabrics has made knowledge of the subject so 
general that we could hope to add little to the common stock of in- 
formation as to the sources of this fibre or the history of its Oriental 
and European fabrication. Besides, we do not forget that the prin- 
cipal source of the popular knowledge of this subject in this country 
is the exhaustive report prepared by Mr. Cowdin, the Chairman of 
this group, in his former official position as an American Commis- 
sioner at the Paris Exposition of 1867, and that it would be vain to 
expect to glean from a field which had been so thoroughly reaped 
and harvested. 

The writer will confine himself, in this portion of his report, to a 
brief sketch of the more general impressions made by the foreign 
exhibits of fabrics of silk, — omitting notices of the raw material, and 
not attempting any analysis or minute comparison of foreign fabrics, 
— and to a notice, more extended, of American products. 

Before proceeding with these sketches, it is but an act of duty for 
the writer to refer, as he can without indelicacy, to the character of 
the work performed by the subdivision of the Judges of Group IX. 
intrusted with the examination of silk. They consisted of Mr. Gustav 
Gebhard, a practical manufacturer of Elberfeld, Germany, one of the 
most celebrated and extensive fabricants in Europe, whose facility for 
work in this department was aided by his rare command of all the 
Continental languages ; Mr. Louis Chatel, an eminent manufacturer 
of Lyons, who, confined to his chamber by an unfortunate accident, 
still insisted upon having samples of all the fabrics under examina- 
tion submitted to him in his chamber; Mr. Hayami Kenzo, an accom- 
plished Japanese gentleman, the Government Director of silk-reeling 
establishments in his own country; Mr.. August Behmer, an Egyptian 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 83 

gentleman, familiar with the production of raw silk; Mr. John G. 
Neeser, a Swiss gentleman ; and Messrs. Cowdin and Le Boutillier, 
Americans, — the latter three of very large experience in the silk trade. 
All the exhibits were carefully inspected in the cases by the Judges 
of the subdivision, and submitted to subsequent examination and tests 
through samples. The sewing-silks and twists exhibited were sub- 
mitted to rigorous tests by machines and otherwise, to determine their 
smoothness and tenacity; careful notes being taken of these experi- 
ments. Brief as the awards are in this subdivision, their value is 
greatly enhanced by the high character of the Judges and their con- 
scientious and rigorous examination. To American exhibitors in this 
department, especially, will the high awards they have received from 
foreign manufacturers, from whom even mention is praise, be of 
peculiar value. The writer, instructed, as he could not fail to be, by 
daily intercourse with his accomplished associates, and guided in his 
observations by their direction, has less diffidence in offering the notes 
which follow. 

FRANCE. 

France, as occupying the first position among the silk-manufacturing 
nations, having had a production in 1874 of J[ 116,000,000, and an 
export of ;$95,ooo,ooo, — a production three times as great as Germany, 
which next follows her, — commands the first notice. The principal 
French display of silks, being in a somewhat secluded court, was 
made more pleasing from the exclusion of other objects, and the 
brilliancy of the fabrics was enhanced by the extreme simplicity of 
the cases inclosing them. No section of the Exhibition was more 
attractive than this court, displaying as it did the models of perfection 
in the most luxurious department of the textile industry, and the 
most brilliant and artistic products which the weaver's art can create. 
In this court were gathered the substantial proofs of that aspiration 
for ideal excellence in the material, fabrication, and artistic form of 
her products, which has given to France the crown of industrial glory. 
With all the pleasure conveyed to the eye and senses by graceful 
designs and infinitely varied colors, by gorgeous decoration and unex- 
pected combinations of material or color, perhaps the chief satisfac- 
tion derived from the inspection of the products of this court resulted 
from the consciousness that they were the best results hitherto attain- 
able by human effort in one great department of industry. Another 
vivid impression made by this court was that the industry it displayed 
was the product of an aesthetic culture, general and special, without 
example in the world, and of influences such as have existed in no 
other nation. The industry was planted by the royal foresight of 

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84 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

King Henry of Navarre, and sustained by the political economy of 
Colbert. It grew up in the genial atmosphere of the most splendid 
courts of Europe. The chemistry of Berthollet and Dumas furnished 
dyes for its fabrics ; the traditions of the Renaissance and the pencil 
of Watteau gave it designs ; and Chevreuil imparted to it the secrets 
of harmonizing and contrasting colors. While, in later periods, the 
protective influences of the Government (whether empire or republic) 
have never been wanting, the pre-eminence of the silk-manufacture 
of France has been sustained by a working population who have 
inherited the traditions and secrets of manipulation from generations 
of artisans, and by art schools for workmen, which Lyons was the 
first city in the world to inaugurate. 

The visitors at the Exhibition, whose imagination had been excited 
by the learned researches of Michel upon the precious stuffs of the 
Middle Ages, or the splendidly-colored plates of the characteristic 
silken tissues of every period recently published in Paris, might have 
experienced some disappointment at the comparatively small display 
of the figured brocades, damasks, and velvets so conspicuous in the 
personal costumes of the earlier periods. Mainly, as is asserted, 
through the influence of the Franco-Prussian war, which plunged 
France into mourning, the figured and brocaded stuffs were replaced 
by plain fabrics in personal costumes, although now beginning to 
reappear. It may not be generally known that it is in the perfect 
fabrication of the plain stuffs, especially the plain black silks, that the 
highest art of the manufacturer consists, as no inequality of thread 
or unevenness of tissue or dye can be concealed by the figure. Of 
the plain tissues of this description in this section recognized by the 
expert Judges as of incomparable excellence, it is useless to attempt 
a description. To be appreciated, they must be seen or worn. 

There was no lack of fabrics whose beauty was due to design and 
color. Conspicuous among them were printed foulards, upon which 
the arts of design and of impression would seem to have been ex- 
hausted. The miraculous power of the Jacquard loom to produce 
the most complicated designs was most tastefully and appropriately 
shown in a woven representation in silk, upon a background of tissue, 
about two feet long and as many broad, of the mulberry in leaves and 
fruit, with the silk-worm and moth in every stage of development; 
the colors exquisitely shaded, the mulberry branch being intertwined 
with a ribbon bearing the significant motto, vestit, ornat, ditat. 

Although decoration is sparsely used in stuffs for dresses, it still 
finds an infinite field for application in stuffs for upholstery, and 
especially in fabrics for church vestments. Antiquarian learning seems 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 85 

to have exhausted itself in seeking examples and authorities in the 
past for forms and colors of ecclesiastical vestments. Silk, gold, 
silver, and jewels glitter on the copes, the chasubles, the mitres, the 
stoles, and altar-cloths, of the church more prodigally, and combined 
with higher skill, than they could have done in the most splendid pe- 
riod of mediaeval history. It is said that in some of these tissues the 
workman can weave not more than an inch in a day, and the prices 
sometimes attain the enormous sum of three hundred dollars per 
yard. The most brilliant display of these fabrics, as well as those for 
upholstery purposes, was made by Messrs. Tasiman & Chatel; the 
latter being a Judge, the exhibit was precluded from an official award. 
Their magnificence equaled all that the imagination could conceive. 
An interesting feature of some of these fabrics was a reproduction of 
Oriental types, illustrating the views maintained by the learned M. 
Michel, that the figures on heraldic coats of arms were derived from 
silk-stuffs of the East, of which the representation of animals — such 
as lions, leopards, eagles, griffins, etc. — formed the ordinary ornament. 
On one of the fabrics exhibited by Mr. Chatel, with a background 
of gold and red, was interwoven, so as to cover the surface, repeated 
figures of elephants, horses, falcons, cocks, dogs, deer, and mounted 
horsemen ; all designed conventionally, or in heraldic style. 

To illustrate the extent and variety of the silk products and pro- 
ducers of France, as well as to pay a deserved tribute to the typical 
silk-manufacturers of the world, we subjoin a list of the principal 
French exhibitors, with the products : 

Black silks C. J. Bonnet*s Sons & Co., Lyons. 

Black silks Jaubert, Audras,& Co., Lyons. 

Black silks Tapissier Son & Debry, Lyons. 

Black silks Gourd, Croisat Son, & Dabost, Lyons. 

Black silks Antoine Guinet & Co., Lyons. 

Black and colored velvets . . . Gaiitier, Bellon, & Co., Lyons. 

Black velvets and colored silks . . J. P. Million & Servier, Lyons. 

Black velvets Font, Chambeyron, & Benoit, Lyons. 

Black silk velvets C. J. Servant & Co., Lyons. 

Black dyed silks Gillet & Son, Lyons. 

Dress silks and novelties . . . Poncet, Senior & Junior, Lyons. 

Colored silk goods .... Faye & Thivenin, Lyons. 

Silk goods Sev^ne, Barral, & Co., Lyons. 

Damask silks and novelties . . . Bresson-Agn^ & Co., Lyons. 

Colored failles and gros-grains . . Bardon & Ritton, Lyons. 

Striped and fancy silks .... Mauvemay & Co., Lyons. 

Siciliennes Audibert, Monin, & Co., Lyons. 

Poplins J. Drogue & A. Monnord, Lyons. 

Foulards A. L. Trapadoux & Co., Lyons. 

Foulards Jandin & Duval, Lyons. 

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86 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

Foulards Gondard, Cirlot, & Martel, Lyons. 

Hatters' plushes Huber & Co., Paris. 

Black and colored satins . . . Brosset-Heckel & Co., Lyons. 

Hatters* plushes . . . , . J. B. Martin, Tarare. 

Crapes ....... Montessuy & Chomer, Lyons. 

Umbrella silks Alex. Giraud & Co., Lyons. 

Velvet ribbons F. Brioude, St. Etienne. 

Velvet ribbons Giron Brothers, St. Etienne. 

Sewing-silks Benoit, Tabard, & Co., Lyons. 

Silk gauzes and bolting-cloth . . . L. Demon, Lyons. 

Bolting cloth L. R. Gascon, Montauban. 

Raw and sewing-silk .... Joseph Puydebart, Lyons. 

GERMANY. 

Germany, although ranking second in the production of manufac- 
tured silk, — having had a production of the value of ;J38.ooo,ooo in 
1874, — was represented by few exhibitors, awards having been made 
but to four exhibitors ; viz., to Escales & Hatry, of Saargemiind, for 
silk plushes for hatters* use, of remarkable perfection in color and 
finish; to Gressard & Co., of Hilden, for foulards of high excellence; 
to Carl Mez & Sons, of Freiburg, Baden, for sewing-silks of great 
beauty in color and finish ; Massing Brothers & Co., Piittlingen, for 
hatters* plushes of high excellence. 

But the paucity of exhibitors from Germany was atoned for by the 
beauty of exhibits made by Mr. Gustav Gebhard, of Elberfeld, who, 
on account of his position as Judge, was precluded from an award. 
In the absence of the notes promised by Mr. Gebhard, we are com- 
pelled to trust only to our own memoranda and impressions. The 
products of the establishment represented are understood to be fur- 
nished by the labor of some four thousand persons, not employed 
(as with us) in a single establishment, but working hand-looms in 
their own houses. The goods, exhibited in two very large cases, and 
most tastefully arranged, consisted of figured velvets, satins, and bro- 
cades, many of them executed in silver and gold. A striking feature 
of the exhibit was the designation by cards of the markets for which 
the several fabrics were specially destined. India, Siam, Batavia, 
Constantinople, had each their special fabrics, in which the character- 
istic features of the native productions of different Oriental countries 
were reproduced, doubtless with cheaper materials, but with attractive 
effects. 

INDIA. 

The reference to copies of Oriental fabrics leads us naturally to the 
original fabrics of silk which were exhibited from the East The 
India Museum's most attractive and instructive exhibit contained 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 87 

beautiful specimens of India silks. Conspicuous among them was a 
brocade long scarf, or Kincob, from Benares, in which, from silver 
leaves placed on a dark or deep-red ground, spring gold flowers with 
black centres. Another brocade, of wonderful beauty and exquisite 
texture, is composed of a gold ground, varied or shaded by delicate 
shades of silk, in low tones of blue and red. The figures in these 
brocades are all conventionalized. Still another attractive fabric was a 
fine silk gauze, embroidered with gold in flattened or hammered scales. 
More instructive to the student of textiles than the few large and 
brilliant samples of fabrics was the collection, made under the direc- 
tion of the East India Museum, of the splendid volumes, albums, and 
framed samples of all the textile fabrics of India, in which the won- 
derful variety and perfection of the native silk fabrics of India are ad- 
mirably displayed. The expense of a series of these samples (about 
two thousand dollars) forbids their possession by individuals; but 
none of our industrial or art museums should fail to have these 
admirable models of industrial art-work. 

NETHERLANDS COLONIES. 

Among the silk fabrics shown at the Exhibition, there was nothing 
surpassing the scarf-like brocades from Sumatra and Java, exhibited 
in the collection of the Netherlands colonies. They belong to the 
native princes, and were lent for the purpose of exhibition in Phila- 
delphia. They were all of native production. A model of a rude 
loom was exhibited, upon which they are said to have been woven. 
But it seems inconceivable that such fabrics could have been produced 
by such rude mechanism. The ends of the scarfs are fringed with flat 
tassels of silver, rudely made and unpolished. The fabric is of silk 
of a dull red tone, shot with gold thread. The terminal borders are 
well marked and broad. The designs are arabesques of a geometrical 
construction, — no figures of flowers or animals being introduced, — 
but of a most subtle and ingenious character. Although the texture 
is nearly covered with gold, it is scarcely apparent; and the general 
tone of the fabric is low and subdued. This subdued effect is pro- 
duced by the neutral tone of the silk, and the manner in which the 
design is made to spread all over the texture. 

CHINA AND JAPAN. 

Japan and China, although leading all other nations in the supply 
of raw material, and in silken embroideries unequaled, were inferior 
in the artistic character of their woven goods to India and Java. The 
plain colored satins of China were of excellent manufacture; and 

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88 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

a fine exhibit consisted of colored and figured silks, which were 
declared by the Judges to be marked improvements over former 
productions of that country. Among the exhibits from Japan, the 
most conspicuous for excellence were the silk crapes, white, dyed, 
and printed ; the dyed cherries and scarlets being notable for the per- 
fection and brilliancy of their hues, while others were most skillfully 
shaded. Productions of silk from cocoons of worms feeding on the 
walnut, and others from worms feeding on the oak, were interesting. 
The most curious of the Japanese fabrics were brocades of great ap- 
parent richness, on account of the gold woven in the tissue; gold 
flowers and leaves being intermingled with scarlet flowers upon an 
indigo-blue ground. The threads of gold forming the warp, upon 
close examination were found to consist of exceedingly narrow or 
thread-like strips of paper, gilded, but only on one side ; the gilded 
side being invariably brought to the surface in the tissue. It was ob- 
served by experts that this effect could only be produced in hand- 
looms. 

TURKEY, EGYPT, TUNIS. 

The less remote Oriental nations — Turkey, Tunis, and Egypt — 
showed that they had not lost the arts of silk fabrication which they 
once enjoyed in supreme perfection. The damasks and brocades, 
woven in silk alone, or mixed with gold and silver, though Oriental 
and characteristic in design, in many cases exhibited excellent taste 
and workmanship. 

RUSSIA. 

Russia, combining Oriental sentiment and traditions with the art 
and technical skill of Western Europe, made exhibits of silk fabrics 
which worthily attracted universal admiration. We refer particularly 
to the damasks and brocades of silk, gold, and silver, the latter liter- 
ally " cloths of gold and silver.'* made in Moscow and St. Petersburg, 
and the sacerdotal vestments in gold and silver tissues made in the 
same cities. These tissues, vying with the best productions of Lyons 
in execution, have a characteristic interest and beauty, derived from 
the traditional splendors of the Greek Church. Some of the rich 
fabrics were especially noticeable from the pure Byzantine character 
of the design, employing religious symbols, which Ruskin has pointed 
out, in his Stones of Venice, as characteristic of the earliest Chris- 
tian or Byzantine decoration. The notable exhibitors of these mag- 
nificent stuffs were A. & W. Sapojinkoff, Moscow; John Sytof, St. 
Petersburg; Mosjookhin & Sons, Moscow; and F. A. Jevargeif, St. 
Petersburg. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OP GROUP IX. 89 

The ordinary silk fabrics exhibited by Russia were of high excel- 
lence. Among those deserving special mention are Sergius Zoobkof, 
of Khomootovo, Moscow, for rich colored failles; Alexis Fomitchef, 
Moscow, for rich figured failles and silk cashmeres; Kondrashef 
Brothers, Grebenevo, Moscow, for plain black and colored failles 
and upholstery damasks ; Emilianoff & Rochefort, and Zolotaref & 
Ribakoff, Moscow, for silk and wool dress goods ; Shelaief Brothers, 
Moscow, for black and colored satins. 

Mr. A. Neboltine, a Russian statistician, says, "We commenced in 
the last century to manufacture silk in Russia ; but it is only during 
the present century, and above all since 1830, under the influence of 
a protective tariff, that this fabrication has become developed, or ac- 
quired any considerable importance." He shows that in 1872 there 
were 460 silk-factories, 15,800 workmen, and an annual production 
of 10,300,000 roubles, including the production of trans-Caucasia, 
which is more of a domestic than manufacturing character ; and that 
the importation of foreign silks in 187 1 was of a value of 6,293,935 
roubles, or a little more than half that of the national fabrication. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Returning to the more prosaic regions of the European silk-manu- 
facture, we find that Switzerland best represents the fabrication adapted 
to the ordinary commercial demands of modern times. Zurich, the 
chief centre of the fabrication, occupies the same position in the 
silk-manufacture that Bradford does in the worsted and Verviers in 
woolen industry. She manufactures for export and for the million. 
Economy of production is the first object. Although provided with 
very cheap labor, Switzerland has led other nations in the application 
of labor-saving machinery, and she has chiefly furnished the models 
for the best machinery used in this country, both in the manipulation 
and dyeing of silk. She excels in the combination of cheaper mate- 
rials, such as cotton with silk ; the silk being thrown upon the sur- 
face, and the cotton forming the back, as in cotton-backed satins and 
marcelines. Although producing the higher classes of dress silks, 
black and colored, in great perfection, as evinced in the beautiful ex- 
hibit of Baumann, Aelter, & Co., of Zurich, the characteristic of the 
Swiss manufacture is the adaptation, for popular consumption, of 
fabrics which are made attractive by taste in design, excellence in 
execution, and reasonableness of price. An interesting evidence of 
the confidence of the Swiss manufacturers in folding their own ground 
against foreign rivals is the circumstance that the Swiss Commis- 
sioner, alone among foreign representatives, caused a series of albums, 

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(jQ INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

most beautifully arranged, containing samples of all the silk-products 
exhibited by his country, to be presented to the principal industrial 
museums and associations of this country. One of these albums the 
writer has now before him. In this album there are no rich brocades, 
damasks, or velvets, and nothing conspicuous in an artistic point of 
view. The fine gros-grains and failles, black and colored, exhibit 
great regularity and perfection of execution. The figured silks are 
marked for the simplicity and delicacy of their designs ; the fine 
stripes, so difficult of execution, being perfect. The few brocades are 
tasteful, but not showy. The marcelines and the satins, with either 
cotton-tram or chain, are very effective, especially in the materials 
for cravats. We must not omit a product in which silk, ordinarily 
ministering only to luxury, contributes to the first of necessities. It 
forms the material for bolting-cloth used in the manufacture of wheat 
flour. In the manufacture of this fabric the Swiss have attained 
the utmost perfection. The leading exhibitors, with their products, 
were: 

Black and colored failles and taffetas . Adlischweil Silk Goods Factory, Adlischweil, 

near Zurich. 

Black and colored gros-grains and failles . Beaumann, Aelter, & Co., Zurich. 

Black and colored failles . . . . S. Rutschi & Co., Zurich. 

Marcelines Ryffel & Co., Staefa and Zurich. 

Colored and figured dress-silks . . . Emil Schaerer & Co., Zurich. 

Colored failles and changeables . . J. Schwarzenbach - Landis, Thalweil, near 

Zurich. 

Plain, striped, and check dress-silks . . Joh. Stapfer's Sons, Hprgen, Zurich. 

Cotton-back satins Stunzi & Sons, Horgen, Zurich. 

Dress-silks ...*.. Baumann & Streuli, Horgen, Zurich. 

Low-priced cravat materials . . . Jansen, Bodek, & Hertz, Reisbach. 

Black and colored gros-grains and brocades William Schroeder & Co., Zurich. 

Silk bolting-cloths Meyer Brothers, Zurich. 

Silk bolting-cloths Heidegger, Wegmann,& Co., Seefeld, Zurich. 

Silk bolting-cloths Ruff Huber, Zurich. 

Silk boiling- cloths Egli & Sennhauser, Zurich. 

Silk bolting-cloths Homberger Brothers, Wetzikon. 

AUSTRIA. 

Austria, which more properly should have been considered in con- 
nection with Germany, exhibited black silks well adapted from their 
low price to a large consumption, cotton-back velvets, and silk velvets, 
black, colored, and white, of excellent manufacture. The prominent 
exhibitors were : 

Black silks S. Trebitsch & Son, Vienna. 

Cotton-back velvets Carl Hetzer & Sons, Vienna. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, pi 

Fancy silks C. G. Hornbostcl & Co., Vienna. 

All-.silk velvets F. Reichert's Sons, Vienna. 

Hatters' ribbons J. Swartz & Son, Vienna. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Great Britain failed to make any adequate representation of her 
manufacture, although it counts by millions of pounds sterling in 
value. There were only four well-marked exhibits. Pin Brothers & 
Co. did high credit to Ireland, by a splendid display of their black 
and colored hand-woven plain silk poplins, which are celebrated 
throughout the world, and by furniture damasks of fine effect. Nor- 
ris & Co. made an excellent display of upholstery silks, which were 
.specially noticeable for admirably executed designs, in great variety, 
all conceived in the spirit of the modern English school. Admirably 
executed figured and emblematical ribbons were exhibited by Thomas 
Stevens, of Coventry, as well as an excellent silk loom of quite origi- 
nal construction. There were two excellent exhibits of sewing-silks. 

ITALY. 

Italy, who, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, supplied all 
Europe with the richest fabrics of silk, equally disappointed the vis- 
itor at the Exhibition by her display of fabrics in this department; 
only a single exhibit of figured velvets from Milan being noticeable. 
A series of rich antique stuffs in the Castellani collection, however, 
gave the visitor some conception of the ancient splendors of the silk 
fabrication of Italy. 

SPAIN. 

The political condition of Spain prevented her from making the 
display of which she would have been otherwise capable. Spain is 
still a treasure-house of the splendid stuffs of the past, most of the 
richest ornaments of the Kensington Museum having been obtained 
in that country. We are assured that many of the traditionary arts 
of silk-weaving have been preserved, particularly in the religious 
houses. Black silks of good manufacture, and black cashmere silks 
in fine grades, well made in every respect, were exhibited ; also cur- 
tains, furniture damasks, and brocades in good colors ; effective stuffs 
for cravats and fichus, and hand-made figured silks in old Moorish 
and Oriental styles. The principal exhibitors and products were : 

Black silks Antonio Pascual & Co., Reus, Tarragona. 

Black cashmere silks .... Farriols & Son, Barcelona. 

Curtain and furniture damasks . . . Benito Malrehy, Barcelona. 
Silk cravats and fichus .... Eduardo Reig & Co., Barcelona. 
Valencia silks in old Moorish styles . . Fernando Ibanez Palenciano, Valencia. 

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g2 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

PORTUGAL. 

Portugal surprised us by the excellence of several exhibits of gold 
and silver damasks for church purposes, and of rich brocades and 
brocatelles for furniture and curtains, as well as well-made dress silks ; 
all evincing an unexpected progress in that country towards industrial 
independence. The leading exhibits were as follows : 

Gold and silver damasks .... David Jos6 da Silva & Son, Oporto. 
. Gold and silver cloths .... Viuva Ferreira Campos & Co., Oporto. 

Upholstery stuffs National Silk-Weaving and Spinning Co., 

Lisbon. 
Gold and silver galloons and gimp . . Custodio Lopez da Silva Guimaraes, Pena6el. 
Black and colored failles and brocatelles . Ramires & Ramires, Lisbon. 

In observing, as we do in this slight sketch, the high attainments 
made in silk fabrication by countries regarded as barbaric, as well as 
those possessing all the modern inventions, we perceive that there are 
no conditions in any country, where civilization has dawned, prevent- 
ing the appropriation of this industry. The raw material, unlike wool 
and cotton, from its nigh intrinsic value, compared with its weight, 
being almost as transportable as the precious metals, is almost equally 
available to every country. Where traditionary skill, which still nour- 
ishes the manufacture in the declining countries of the East, is want- 
ing, or favorable circumstances, like the exodus of silk workmen into 
England from the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, do not exist, 
the encouragement of governments and the enterprise of the people 
must give the impetus to a manufacture which every self-dependent 
nation aspires to plant upon its soil. What these influences have 
accomplished we shall now attempt to trace in the history of the silk 
fabrication in our own country. 



SILK-CULTURE AND FABRICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The exhibits of American .silks at Philadelphia were, without 
question, the most triumphant trophies of achievements in the textile 
industry within the last two decades displayed by any nation or de- 
partment of textile fabrication. The brief period within which our 
silk-manufacture has reached its high position tempts us to describe 
the steps of its progress. But a detailed history would be unsuited 
to the general plan of this report, while any attempt at original his- 
torical research in this department is rendered unnecessary by the full 
" particulars in relation to silk and the silk-manufactures, chronologi- 
cally arranged, prepared by Mr. Franklin Allen, Secretary of the Silk 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 93 

A^sociation of America," published in the United States Industrial 
Directory of 18^6 ; and by the exceedingly well-written and carefully- 
executed History of the Silk-Industry of America, prepared for the 
Centennial Exposition by L,P. Brockett, M.D., and published under the 
auspices of the Silk Association of America. These works will be 
freely drawn upon without further acknowledgment. The writer 
will add that he has verified the observations of Mr. Allen and Dr. 
Brockett, as well as his own impressions and notes at the Exhibition, 
by a recent personal visit to most of the representative silk-manu- 
facturing establishments in this country. 

The Silk-Culture. — We will first notice the growth and extension 
of the silk-culture in this country. The production of the raw material 
was attempted in the earliest periods of our colonial history, in the 
Southern colonies, where the conditions of climate were most favor- 
able for the growth of the mulberry and the raising of silk-worms; 
but the more profitable culture of tobacco and rice, and subsequently 
of cotton, together with the incapacity of the only working popula- 
tion of the South, the negroes, to perform the delicate operation of 
reeling, caused the silk-culture, in that section, finally to wholly dis- 
appear. It was more successful in Connecticut, where the conditions 
of climate were less favorable, but where the necessities of the people, 
and their habits of thrift, had developed an active household industry. 

Through the influence of Dr. Stiles, afterwards President of Yale 

College, a State bounty was given, in 1763, for the culture of the 

mulberry and the production of raw silk. In 1766, half an ounce of 

mulberry-seed was sent to every parish in the State. The domestic 

culture of silk was very general in the State during and subsequent 

to the Revolution. It became a fixed industry, however, only in the 

town of Mansfield, where it had been introduced by Dr. Aspinwall, in 

1766. This town became noted for the production of silk grown 

and reeled in the households. " Mulberry orchards," of the hardy 

native white mulberry, were distributed throughout the township, and 

rows of this tree shaded the highways and fringed the cultivated 

fields. The production of silk in a single family sometimes amounted 

to one hundred and thirty pounds in a season, and most of the labor 

was performed by women and children. The silk, very imperfectly 

reeled, was spun on a hand-wheel into a roughly-made sewing-silk 

(dyed in the household), which was usually sold in barter to the 

country stores. The floss, waste, and pierced cocoons, being mixed 

with wool, cotton, or flax, were made into coarse stuffs for every-day 

wear. The domestic production of this town from 1820 to 1 83 1 was 

of an annual value of not less than ^50,000. In this domestic manu- 
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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



facture, as we shall hereafter see, were the germs of the present silk- 
industry of America. 

From 1780 to 1820 the domestic culture and fabrication of silk was 
also pursued to some extent in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and parts 
of New York, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, but without any 
results bearing upon the extension of the manufacture, as in Con- 
necticut. 

About the period of 1825, with the growing sentiment which then 
prevailed for the extension of American industry, the public atten- 
tion was attracted by means of congressional reports, messages of 
State governors, and publications by enthusiasts in the press, to the 
field for American industry which lay open in the silk-culture and 
fabrication. Among the individuals most prominent as writers and 
practical experimentists, though with no results profitable to them- 
selves, were Mr. Duponceau, of Philadelphia, and Judge Cobb, of 
Dedham, Massachusetts. Their appeals found a response in the 
public mind, dictated by the natural desire to appropriate the most 
attractive and luxurious of the textile arts, together with a new 
product for our soil. But the means by which the much-desired 
industry should be planted were not yet made clear. At an unhappy 
moment. Dr. Felix Pascalis made known to the public the remarkably 
rapid growth and supposed excellent qualities of the Morus multicaulis, 
first planted in the United States in 1826. In place of the old method 
of planting the well-known and hardy, but slow-growing, mulberr}*^ 
trees, it was proposed to secure leaves fit for feeding from trees of a 
single season's growth, which seemed possible through the extraor- 
dinary luxuriance of growth of the multicaulis variety. The public 
were taught that every farm should be a nursery for the young trees, 
that every house should have its cocooneries, and that silk would 
become as cheap as cotton. At first gradually, and then more and 
more rapidly, the excitement in regard to the multicaulis grew, until 
it reached a speculation, whose extent and folly, and the ruin it 
brought in its collapse, in 1839, are too well remembered to need any 
further notice. With the subsidence of the multicaulis fever, there 
came a general decline of interest in the silk-culture, except in Mans- 
field, which had so thoroughly tested the value of the white mulberry 
as to partake but little of the prevalent excitement. There, however, 
the mania for speculation, which seems to have been an epidemic of 
the times, was transferred to the white mulberry. The fever had its 
course and its reaction. Silk-culture sank into disfavor in the town 
to which it had given prosperity for nearly seventy years. Finally, 
in 1844, a blight of a general character, to which even the hardy 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. gj 

white mulberry yielded, gave the finishing blow, and silk-culture in 
America ceased to exist. 

But the silk-culture, humble as it was and brief in duration, was 
the means of developing a knowledge of the fibre, of its uses, and 
manipulations ; it drew attention to the possibilities of the fabrication, 
and created a passion for working it. The silk-culture was the humble 
larva from which was developed the winged and perfect insect, bril- 
liant with gold and color, to which the perfected silk- manufacture may 
not unaptly be compared. 

Fabrication of Machine- and Sewing-Silk. — Proceeding to a his- 
tory of the organized manufacture of silk in this country, we find that 
two of the most important branches of the manufacture, that of sewing- 
silk and spun silk, were direct offshoots from the domestic silk-culture 
of Connecticut. Attempts were made at Mansfield in 1810, 18 14, and 
1 82 1, by Rodney Hanks, to manufacture sewing-silk by power, but 
without success. His grandsons are now successful manufacturers. 
In 1829 a company, consisting of seven individuals, most of whom 
subsequently became identified with numerous enterprises in the silk- 
manufacture, was incorporated under the name of the Mansfield Silk 
Company. Their first successful machinery was made by Mr. Lilly, 
the promoter of tht enterprise, in accordance with the descriptions 
and rude drawings of Edmund Golding, a young English " throwster," 
who came to this country at the age of seventeen, expecting to find 
employment in his art. But the machinery proving inadequate for 
the manufacture of American silk, as it was then reeled, raw silk for 
the first time was imported from England and used in the manufacture 
of sewing-silk, which proved superior to the hand-made skeins. From 
that first successful attempt, the manufacture of sewing-silk, by power, 
has been uninterruptedly continued, though with successive improve- 
ments in machinery, as well as in the quality of the goods made. 
This company, having unwisely entered into the culture of silk, was 
finally dissolved. Several members of the disbanded company started 
the manufacture of sewing-silks in other places, and contributed to 
the spread of the new industry. An ingenious mechanic of Mans- 
field, named Rixford, made improvements in the machinery for wind- 
ing, doubling, and reeling, which were adopted in a mill started at 
Florence, near Northampton, out of which the now celebrated Nono- 
tuck Company's establishment sprung. So that in the humble domestic 
silk-culture of Mansfield may be clearly seen the source of the present 
manufacture of sewing-silks and machine-twists in this country, 
amounting in 1875 to over six million dollars in value. 

This is, at present, the characteristic department of New England 

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^ INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

in the silk-manufacture, and the few details which we are able to offer 
in relation to this branch of silk fabrication can be most appropriately 
given in this connection. So numerous have the establishments be- 
come (twenty-five in Connecticut and Massachusetts, besides those in 
other States), and necessarily so active is the rivalry between them, 
that it would be invidious to specialize the several contributions which 
they have made to the high advancement of this great branch of the 
silk-manufacture. 

The first object sought by the early sewing-silk manufacturers was 
to rival and replace in our markets the Italian sewing-silks in universal 
use ; and the sewings, at first, were put in packages with Italianized 
labels, simulating Italian sewings. Although dealers had the usual 
distrust in American productions, our early manufacturers were aided 
by the long voyages between this country and Europe, which often 
caused temporary deficiencies in the supply of Italian sewing-silks. 
By filling up these gaps, our manufacturers got their first hold upon 
the American markets. At first, only colored silks were attempted ; 
competition with the superior black sewings of Italy being considered 
hopeless. Advancing in the fabrication, and attaining a permanent 
black dye, through its introduction in 1838 by Messrs. Valentine & 
Leigh, who had been practical dyers in England,*— one of whom. Mr. 
Leigh, still survives, — they undertook a fabric in greater demand, — 
black sewing-silks in skeins, for tailors* use. The sewing by the hand, 
and the simple needle then in sole use, demanded a far less perfect 
thread than that now required for machine-sewing. Illustrations of 
the solidarity of the industries are perpetually recurring. The Amer- 
ican invention of the sewing-machine was the inauguration of the 
sewing-silk manufacture of America, in the forms and proportions 
which it now holds. The sewing-machine required that silk for its 
use should be put upon spools, and be of a special manufacture. The 
proprietors of an establishment in Massachusetts, now famous, know- 
ing the difficulties attending the use of silk thVeads, as then made, 
upon the newly-invented sewing-machine, devised the plan of twisting 
the silk in a direction opposite to that of common or skein sewing- 
silk. Winding a pound of three-cord silk, thus twisted, upon spools 
containing one-hajf ounce each, they submitted it, in 1852, to Mr. 
Singer, who was then experimenting upon his newly-invented sewing- 
machine, with which he met difficulties that he could not overcome. 
We cannot so well describe this important step in the manufacture of 
sewing-silks as in the language of Mr. Lilly, a proprietor in the estab- 
lishment referred to. The silk was handed to " Mr. Singer with the 
request that he would try it. He put a spool upon his machine, 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. gj 

threaded up, and commenced sewing. After sewing sufficiently to 
enable him to judge of its merit, he stopped, and, after examining 
the work it had done, exclaimed, * Can you make any more like this ?* 
(addressing the agent, who stood watching the result with great in- 
terest :) ' I shall want all you can make,* — a prophecy literally fulfilled. 
The new fabric assumed the name of * machine-twist;* and from that 
time to the present the amount of silk consumed upon sewing-machines 
is marvelous. A new enterprise was born, which created an industry 
giving labor to many thousands." 

Although, in this first experiment of machine-twist, the invention 
was complete, the manufacturers still found great trouble in its pro- 
duction ; for the machine required a thread which, to be moved auto- 
matically, must be absolutely perfect, like the machine itself. It was 
by gradual improvements in machinery, and manipulations generally 
too minute to warrant description, that they succeeded in the result 
they have now so completely attained, — that of placing upon spools 
a definite weight of silk thread, of continuous length, entirely free 
from slugs, knots, and uneven places, and perfectly adapted to the 
machine which is to apply it. We may, however, mention as Amer- 
ican inventions, which have contributed to the advancement of this 
manufacture, new mechanical patented devices for spooling the thread 
and weighing it ; and especially a machine in general use for stretch- 
ing the thread after it has been twisted, which has the effect of length- 
ening the thread about fifteen per cent., and of making it even 
throughout. As the manufacture advanced, the standard of excel- 
lence, both on the part of the producer and consumer, grew higher. 
In the earlier stages of manufacture, the black silks were heavily 
weighted by chemical means ; greatly diminishing the tensile strength 
of the thread, — a system then invariably pursued by the makers of 
foreign sewing-silks. Certain American manufacturers then intro- 
duced goods of strictly pure dye ; and, to insure the consumer against 
fraud, also introduced measuring and strength-testing machines, by 
means of which the buyer might inform himself of the actual value 
he had in each pound of twist. In time, the makers placed upon the 
goods their own names and brands or trade-marks, like the well- 
known designations, "Nonotuck," ** Corticelli,'* " Lion," "Eureka,*' 
etc., which are absolute guarantees, to the consumer and dealer, of 
the quantity and quality of the goods sold. The direct tests to which 
the American sewing- and machine-silks are subjected, in this coun- 
try, by the ready-made clothing manufacture, unequaled by any other 
in the world in the extent and systematical character of its operations, 
has contributed greatly to the perfection of this Branch of the silk- 

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gS INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

manufacture. That the United States may now challenge the world 
in the fabrication of sewing-silks was fully demonstrated at the 
Exhibition, as here before said. All the sewing-silks exhibited 
were subjected to the most severe tests by the expert Judges. A 
result of these careful tests was the conclusion of the Judges, 
that certain American sewing-silks exhibited surpassed, in all the 
qualities which make up the sum of excellence, any displayed by 
foreign nations. 

The statement of the aggregate production of sewing-silks and ma- 
chine-twists in this country fails to show the large scale upon which 
this manufacture is conducted, and the activity of enterprise in this 
department. A better conception may be formed from the facts, that 
in a single establishment not less than six hundred operatives are 
constantly employed, and its consumption of raw reeled silk in the 
present year is one hundred and three thousand pounds of raw silk, 
of a value of about twelve dollars per pound. As an illustration of 
the rapidity with which this manufacture has been expanded, it may 
be stated that a firm of manufacturers who commenced the sale of 
sewing-silks in 1856, with a capital of twenty-five dollars, in 1876 
consumed no less than three thousand pounds of raw material in their 
own manufacture, gave employment to one thousand hands, and sold 
a value of about eight hundred thousand dollars. 

Before leaving this branch of the silk-manufacture, we must not 
omit to notice the machinery in actual operation at the Exhibition, 
illustrating the methods in use in this country for fabricating sewing- 
silk. A description furnished by an expert correspondent of the New 
York Times is better than any we can oflfer. The machinery in 
operation was exhibited by the Nonotuck Company, of Florence, 
Massachusetts, and the Danforth Manufacturing Company, Paterson, 
New Jersey. The writer from whom we quote says, — 

•*To begin with, the skeins of raw silk, just as they come from 
China or Italy, are strung upon winders, for the purpose of being 
wound on to bobbins. This is a very simple process, and done on 
very simple machinery; the only mechanical aid of any consequence 
being a reciprocating cam, which gives a lateral motion, and dis- 
tributes the strand of silk equally over the bobbin. These bobbins 
are then transferred to the 'doubling' machine, on which any number 
of threads, from three up to ten, are wound together. But this ma- 
chine involves one or two very pretty movements. As in the case of 
the winder, the equal distribution of the combined thread on the bob- 
bin is regulated by a reciprocating cam ; but a very neat attachment 
also stops any one bobbin the moment one of the threads, making the 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. gg 

combined thread, snaps. Immediately under the bobbin on which 
the threads are jointly wound there is an arm rising from a balance- 
frame. Should one of the threads snap, the guide, through which it 
runs, and which is only supported by its tension, falls back against 
the balance-frame. Its weight is sufficient to displace the frame and 
bring forward the arm ; and the arm, having an elevation, raises the 
bobbin and unships it, at once stopping its revolution. By this inge- 
nious arrangement, the main thread is kept of one continuous size 
without any trouble, because it cannot run on without the companion- 
ship of all the minor and component threads. On being taken from 
the doubling-machines, the bobbins are placed on the * spinner,' which 
gives the various threads a sufficient spin to make a strand in the 
process of unwinding. The bobbins then go to the 'twisting* ma- 
chine, on which the threads from three of them are firmly spun and 
twisted together to make what is called machine-twist silk, but from 
only two bobbins to make sewing-silk. Both kinds of silk are twisted 
twice, but with this great difference: machine-twist is first twisted to 
the right, and then to the left ; while sewing-silk is first twisted to the 
left, and then to the right. The silk is then rewound into skeins, 
and, after being washed in strong soap-suds, is dried and stretched. 
The length of these skeins is regulated with great nicety by an inge- 
nious adjustment. An eccentric drives a ratchet-wheel with a dog on 
it, and the adjustment causes the dog to strike the shipper and stop 
the winding-machine the moment the desired length of silk has been 
wound into the skein. The silk is now ready for the dyer, and, after 
being dyed, is again wound in bobbins preparatory to 'spooling.' 
The spooling-machine has a feed-shaft, with a right and left hand 
thread on it, and a half-nut on either side. This arrangement gives 
an easy and regular direct and reverse lateral motion to the guide, the 
spool remaining stationary ; the length of silk wound on to the spool 
is regulated by a binder and a strap attached to a weight, both being 
governed by a treadle. The operator knows exactly how many times 
the guide should travel right and left to fill the spool. By pressing 
the treadle the weight below the shaft is raised, and releases the strap 
from the shaft; while at the same moment, and equally governed by 
the treadle, the binder (which is a small wheel) presses the belt against 
the shaft, causing it to revolve. The moment the spool is full, the 
operator ceases to press the treadle, the binder releases the belt, and 
the strap, attached to the weight below, falls on the shaft and stops it 
instantly. The same arrangement enables the operative to stop the 
revolution of the shaft in case of accident to the spool or thread, as 
the machine cannot run unless the foot is pressing on the treadle; 

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lOO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

and, the moment the pressure ceases, the machine comes to an instan- 
taneous stop. One of these spooling-machines will wind one hundred 
and ten dozen of spools a day ; and some conception of the extent of 
the Nonotuck Company's business may be gained from the fact that 
they have no less than sixty of these spooling-machines in constant 
operation in their factory, where they employ over six hundred hands. 
Only one thing has to be done to render the spools ready for the 
silk ; it is to stamp their two ends with the brand and the name of the 
company. This is done by one of the prettiest and most perfect little 
pieces of machinery in the hall, and the stamping of the colors into 
the wood obviates the falling off of printed labels, as is sometimes the 
case with cotton spools from insufficient gumming in the labeling- 
machine. The spools are fed from a trough, through a hollow post, 
into the stamping-machine ; an arm pushing them one by one, as they 
come out at the base of the post, into a groove, where they are caught 
and held in position by a small weight, the spool at the same time 
pushing back a spring. Two spools are in the grooves at one time, 
the one receiving its first and the other its second stamping simulta- 
neously. At either end of the spools are two dies, one inked with red 
and the other with blue ink. These dies press upon the spools simul- 
taneously, impressing the name of the company in one color, and, on 
the second impression, the brand in the other color. The outer spool 
is then released by the momentary rising of the weight, and the spring 
against which it was pressing kicks it out into a basket. The groove- 
bed revolves, bringing the inner spool to the outside and a new spool 
into the place of the inner one ; the operation being repeated ad in- 
finitum. As the dies spring back from the spools, they take a quarter 
turn upward, which brings them under the inking-rollers; the rollers 
being inked and moving in a similar manner to those in a job-printing 
press. There are four composition rollers to each ink reservoir, and 
pair of dies. The whole stamping-machine is divided into two parts, 
each the counterpart of the other, and turns out the stamped spools 
at the rate of one hundred and twenty a minute. One machine will 
stamp seventy thousand to eighty thousand spools a day, sufficient to 
fill ten ordinary flour-barrels. When wound on the spools, the silk 
is ready for the completion of orders, or to go into stock in the 
warehouse." 

The Fabrication of Spun Silk. — It was in the silk-culture that 
the largest and most celebrated of our manufactories of silk goods, 
that of the Cheney Brothers, had its bifth. As this establishment is 
wholly without rivals in its special department, and one of the most 
characteristic in the whole range of the American textile industry, 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. jqi 

it commands a special mention which would be invidious in other 
branches of the silk fabrication. 

The sons, eight in number, of a farmer in South Manchester, after 
the custom of the town had cultivated mulberry- trees and raised silk- 
worms in their boyhood. Some remained at home, while others were 
scattered, but only to return. For four Qr five years previously to 1838. 
four of the brothers had been raising silk-worms and producing silk, 
like their neighbors. In that year they started a small silk-mill at 
South Manchester, for the purpose of making sewing-silk. Their 
increasing interest in the silk- culture, however, led them to suspend 
the operations of the mill for a time, when three of the brothers re- 
moved temporarily to Burlington, New Jersey, where they established 
nurseries and cocooneries, and published a magazine known as the 
Silk-Grower's Manual. Their energy having, however, been mainly 
devoted to planting nurseries of the multicaulis, and their plans having 
been frustrated by the explosion of that bubble, in 1839 they returned 
to their forsaken mill at South Manchester, and resumed the work of 
making sewing-silk from imported raw silk. Subsequently, they were 
rejoined by others of the family, who had established mulberry plan- 
tations in Florida and Ohio. We do not propose to follow the steps 
by which this establishment reached its present vast expansion. Suc- 
cess came slowly, and after many discouragements, and with it an 
enlargement of their operations. In 1854 a mill was built in Hart- 
ford. Buildings were added at South Manchester, new machinery and 
methods invented and imported, while new branches of manufacture 
were added to that of sewing-silk. The main feature of the manufac- 
ture in time came to be the working into every conceivable fabric that 
form of silk known here as spun silk, and on the Continent of Europe as 
chappe. This is silk spun from pierced cocoons, floss, and waste, and 
whatever cannot be reeled. The fabrics from this material, though 
wanting in the high lustre of those made from reeled silk, are remark- 
able for their wearing qualities, their beauty actually increasing with 
wear. The extensive use of this material for dress goods and ribbons 
is quite recent; but these fabrics, as now made by Messrs. Cheney 
Brothers, are recognized as cheaper and better than any goods of 
their grade in the market. The leading articles produced in this es- 
tablishment are black and colored gros-grain silks, which have ob- 
tained a wide-spread reputation for their cheapness and good wearing 
qualities, as compared with imported goods of corresponding grades 
and weight. Ribbons of all colors and widths, which are among the 
most popular brands in the market, and a great variety of silks for 
the millinery and trimming trade, — for parasols, and ^or hat and fur 

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I02 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

linings. The expert Judges at the Exhibition recognized in their 
award to Messrs. Cheney Brothers the " high degree of excellence 
of the piece goods and ribbons exhibited, and the perfect manipula- 
tions of the spun silk in every form." 

But the proud distinction of this establishment is not so much the 
unequaled character of the fabrics in its peculiar line, its army of 
fifteen hundred workmen, or its production exceeding two millions 
in annual value, as the manner in which it has solved the highest and 
most difficult of problems, — the securing commercial success, with 
the harmony of interest between the employer and the operative. It 
would seem that neither taste nor social science could devise happier 
adaptations for the wants of a manufacturing population than are 
found in the village of South Manchester. In a highly-kept park of 
seven or eight hundred acres, without a single inclosure, are scattered 
the beautifully-appointed factories and warehouses, the handsome resi- 
dences of the proprietors, the churches and public halls, the con- 
venient boarding-houses, and the two hundred dwellings of the work- 
men, each isolated, with a pleasant garden-plot, and provided with 
water, gas, and perfect sewerage. The large farm of the proprietors, 
near the village, furnishes a supply of milk and vegetables at moder- 
ate prices; and an extensive bakery contributes to the public con- 
venience. The intellectual wants of the workmen are provided for 
by a first-class school, a library and reading-room, and a commodious 
hall for lectures and public entertainments. The dream of an ideal 
community seems here to be as completely realized as is possible with 
the inexorable conditions of labor and capital. It is gratifying to see 
that the enlarged views of the proprietors have been productive of 
commercial success. An obvious result of their system has been to 
secure and retain the best class of workmen. There has never been 
a strike in this establishment ; a strike being held, in the words of 
one of the proprietors to the writer, ** as disgraceful to the employer 
as to the operative." 

Woven Goods of Reeled Silk. — To observe the American fabri- 
cation of silk in its most luxurious forms and in the utmost variety, 
we must leave New England, and seek a district in New Jersey and 
New York, comprising the city of Paterson, its chief centre, and out- 
lying establishments in Brooklyn, Hoboken, and New York City. In 
this district, and particularly in Paterson, lying about twenty miles by 
rail from the great metropolis, may be seen, in successful activity, 
nearly every form of silk fabrication pursued in Europe. It is a law 
of the development of industries that they spring from some obscure 
germ, as the tree grows from its seed. Like the sewing-silk and the 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 103 

spun-silk manufacture, the magnificent industry of Paterson grew out 
of the silk-culture of Connecticut. It was founded by Christopher 
Colt, Jr., whose father was a president of a Connecticut silk-manufac- 
turing company, which existed from 1835 to 1839, ^"^ ^"^ enthusiast in 
the silk-culture. An uncle of Christopher Colt, Jr., was the inventor of 
the celebrated revolving-pistol, and had built a large factory in Pater- 
son, then a town of about seven thousand inhabitants, for the man- 
ufacture of his pistols. He offered the fourth story of his mill, with 
power to drive machinery, to his nephew Christopher, for the estab- 
lishment of a silk-mill. It was supplied with machinery and started; 
but at the end of three months it was closed, and the stock, machi- 
nery, and fixtures offered for sale. Happily at this time, namely, in 
1839, John Ryle, of Macclesfield, England, who had learned the arts 
of the silk-manufacture in his native town, was attracted to this coun- 
try by the glowing statements sent abroad by the promoters of the 
Moms multicaulis excitement, then at its height. He visited North- 
ampton and Connecticut, witnessed the collapse of the multicaulis 
bubble and the extinction of the silk-manufacturing establishments 
which had embarked in the speculation, but only to be more vividly 
impressed as to the field which lay open in this country for silk-man- 
ufacture. Imparting his enthusiasm to a Mr. Murray, a capitalist, 
whom he fortunately met at Northampton, the latter was induced to 
buy out Colt's machinery and place Mr. Ryle in charge of the first 
successful silk-mill in Paterson. 

In 1843, Mr. Ryle having become a partner with Mr. Murray, the 
firm employed fifty hands, and consumed eight thousand pounds of 
raw silk per annum, in the production of tram, sewing-silk, and twist. 
In 1846, Mr. Ryle was assisted by his brothers in England to buy out 
Mr. Murray's interest, and, being sole owner of the establishment, set 
some looms at work, and produced several pieces of dress silks. But 
this fabrication was not continued. In 1857-58 he employed from 
four to five hundred operatives, and consumed two thousand pounds 
of raw silk per week. For twelve years he was without any com- 
petitor in Paterson. His first successful rivals were Messrs. Hamil & 
Booth, who commenced business in Paterson as throwsters, in 1854, 
with twenty operatives, but who now give employment to nine hun- 
dred. Even as late as 1862, the manufacture of silk at Paterson was 
mainly restricted to the making of machine-twists, sewing-silks, and 
tram-silks, for the use of manufacturers of silk trimming located in 
other cities. Efforts were made, in the years 1846, 1849, and 1864, 
to introduce the weaving of broad silks; but the experiments were 
only successful in demonstrating the skill of manufacturers. In 

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104 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

1862-63 material improvements were made by the machinists of 
Paterson in the construction of the silk-spinning machinery required 
for the fabrication of fine trams and organzines, the yarns necessary 
for weaving broad silks ; and a greater uniformity was attained in 
assorting the various sizes of yarns required for weaving, which was 
effected by the introduction of the processes known as deniering and 
draining. 

In the mean time, the command of the domestic market, assured 
by the tariff of 1861, encouraged manufacturers in Baltimore, and in 
Williamsburg, New York, to embark in the weaving of ribbons, scarfs, 
neckties, etc. The establishment at Williamsburg was transferred, in 
1867, to Paterson; and, under the name of William Strange & Co., 
now employs eight hundred operatives, turning out an annual product 
of ribbons of the value of over a million of dollars. There are now 
eight ribbon-manufacturers in Paterson, and the production of this 
single city is over one hundred thousand pieces of ribbon per month. 

The permanent establishment of broad-silk weaving in Paterson 
dates from the period of 1866. It was first successfully effected there 
by the Phoenix Manufacturing Company, and was made successful 
through the production of the yarns before referred to. This estab- 
lishment now employs nine hundred operatives, and is distinguished 
for its perfection in Jacquard weaving. At first, eighty per cent, of 
the broad silks made was used for ladies* ties. In 1872 other firms 
entered into broad-silk weaving. The increase in the number of 
looms was followed by variety in production, until, as at present, there 
is scarcely a product of European looms in millinery, and even the 
highest class of dress-silks, which does not find its rival in the Paterson 
factories. 

The command of skilled labor, the admirable water-power, the 
vicinage to the metropolis, and, above all, the well-known advantages 
of centralizing the manufacturers in a special department of a textile 
industry, have led several important silk-manufacturers, first located 
in Boston, Williamsburg, Schoharie, New York, and New York City, 
to transfer their establishments to Paterson. 

A prominent advantage of centralizing manufacturing establish- 
ments is the opportunity given for specializing certain departments 
of industry. This is shown at Paterson in the great success attained 
in an essential branch of the silk-manufacture, — that of dyeing. The 
concentration of silk-manufactures at this place has produced the 
largest and most perfectly appointed dyeing establishment in the 
country, in which a large part of the fabrics produced in Paterson are 
dyed on commission. The proprietors of this establishment, Messrs. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 105 

Weidmann & Greppo, educated in Europe, and related to eminent 
dyers in Lyons and Switzerland, have introduced the best processes 
and machinery known abroad. One group of machines just intro- 
duced for stringing and shaking the yarns, for the purpose of straight- 
ening and stretching them after being dyed, does with three or four 
men what formerly required the severe labor of sixty stout men. 
Their relations with Lyons and Zurich keep them promptly informed 
as to the latest improvements and fashions. Their exhibit of dyed 
silks was one of the most attractive, and that of black weighted silks 
was one of the most instructive, at the Exhibition. Four years ago 
the dyers of Paterson held that it was impossible to perfectly dye 
pure black silks in their establishments, on account of supposed 
defects in the water of the place. A dye is now given in black dress- 
silks fully equal to the celebrated black dyes of St. Chaumond, near 
Lyons. The American dyers of black silks refrain from the repre- 
hensible practice of European manufacturers of heavily weighting 
their black silks by means of chemicals. It is said that the average 
of French black silks are weighted as high as one hundred per cent. 
The weighting may be carried, without detection by the eye, as high 
as three hundred per cent. ; but very brief wear reveals the deception. 
It is by no means claimed that there is higher morality on the part 
of American manufacturers. But the sins of the producer for a 
domestic market fly back to him so promptly and certainly, in the 
form of reclamations, that interest compels honest fabrication. 

** Dyeing," said the immortal Colbert, " is the soul of tissues, with- 
out which the body could scarcely exist." This is especially true of 
silks: the attainment of the arts of perfect dyeing is the overcoming 
of the last obstacle to a successful manufacture. Fashion, constant 
only in change, is perpetually varying her den:]and for new colors, 
hues, and tones. She is inexorable even as to the most delicate 
shades. A ribbon or dress-silk may become absolutely unsalable, at 
any moment, by a change of fashion. Hence the advantages which 
Paterson enjoys in the perfection of her dyeing establishments, and 
of a taste instructed by a vicinage to the great metropolis. The taste 
of the present times, it may be observed, demands the almost exclu- 
sive use of aniline dyes in colored silks. They are more vivid and 
enduring on silk than on any other raw material, and, though still 
comparatively fugitive, are no more so than the fashions. Black, 
brown, and drab are almost the only colors for which anilines are not 
used. 

To recur to the more general features of the silk-industry of 
Paterson. Its importance is shown by the facts obtained from the 

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I06 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

report of its Board of Trade of 1 876: number of operatives, 8000; 
amount of silk used each week, 9000 pounds ; number of ribbon- 
manufacturers, 8; number of broad-silk factories, 6; and about 150 
hand- looms, worked by men in their own homes. Most of the spin- 
ners use their own silks. The average wages of men weavers per 
week, $1$) women and boys, $y. The value of the total production 
yearly is about |l6,ooo,ooo. 

We have dwelt at length upon the silk-industry of this city, because 
it is representative of its class. Important manufactories of woven 
silks, broad goods, and ribbons are found in West Hoboken and 
Union, in New Jersey, and in New York City : such as those of Her- 
man Simon, in Union; Givernaud Brothers, in W«st Hoboken; John 
N. Stearns & Co., and J. Silbermann & Co., in New York City, eta 
All the silk-manufacturing establishments of New York and New 
Jersey, including those of Paterson, may be said to be manufacturing 
appendages of the city of New York. The manufacturers nearly all 
have their warehouses and partners in the city, or visit it daily, and 
the goods are dispatched each day to the city sale-rooms. Some 
were originally importers of silk goods; others still continue import- 
ing in connection with their manufacturing operations. Thus a 
knowledge of the wants of the trade, of the changes of fashions, of 
the coming styles, is secured, which would be unattainable except 
through the influences of a great metropolis. 

A few words may be given to some of the improvements made in 
the silk fabrication, which may be observed in the centre of manufac- 
ture now under review. Machinery for throwing has recently been 
introduced at Paterson, by which a spindle which formerly made three 
thousand five hundred revolutions per minute now makes seven thou- 
sand, doing its work as well as that more slowly revolving. It is 
claimed that these machines, some of which contain nearly seven 
hundred spindles, are capable of producing double the amount of 
work per spindle than can be done with the largest European frames ; 
and that they can be managed by two attendants, one on each side. 
Winding, which ten years ago cost by piece-work one dollar per 
pound, costs now forty-five cents ; the girls earning more than at old 
prices before the improvements. A new Swiss machine, just intro- 
duced, reduces the cost of warping from ten cents to five cents. The 
old machines, moved by hand, contained eighty bobbins; the new 
one, moved automatically, contains three hundred. A new loom for 
weaving hat ribbons makes two hundred and fifty shots in a minute ; 
each loom is independent, making from thirty-six to fifty yards per 

day, and one girl tends eight looms. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 107 

But the most notable improvement is the absolutely successful 
achievement of weaving the very highest class of dress gros-grains, 
black and colored, by power. This has been accomplished by the 
Messrs. Simon, at Union, New Jersey, about fifteen miles from Pater- 
son. Mr. Simon, educated as a civil engineer in the technical schools 
of Europe, has combined the various improvements observed by him 
abroad and in this country into an automatic loom ; upon which, with 
the attendance of a boy of twelve or fourteen years old, sixteen yards 
of broad gros-grain silks may be woven per day, — the cost being 
eleven cents per yard. The production of eighty looms in this estab- 
lishment has this average. We are assured that no first-class goods 
are woven abroad by power. These goods can therefore be made 
more cheaply here than at Lyons. These looms, with their products, 
won the admiration of our associate. Mr. Gebhard, who remarked 
"that he had never seen such goods made upon power-looms, and 
had no idea that such work could be performed automatically." 

Silk Braids, Trimmings, and Laces. — This department of the silk- 
manufacture employed in 1876 two thousand seven hundred and fifty- 
three operatives ; more than three-fifths were women. The founder 
of this branch of industry in the United States — if, indeed, he may 
not claim to be the pioneer of the industry as a whole — was William 
H. Horstmann, who, having learned the trade of silk-weaving in 
France, established himself in Philadelphia, in 1815, as a manufacturer 
of silk trimmings. In 1824 he introduced from Germany the use 
of plaiting- or braiding-machines; and, in 1825, the use of the first 
Jacquard loom employed in this country. By means of the various 
improvements introduced by him and his successors, his sons and 
grandsons, the house of William H. Horstmann & Sons has become 
one of the largest in the silk-manufacture now existing in this coun- 
try. Its vast warehouses and sale-rooms in Philadelphia bewilder 
the eye with the number and variety of fabrics; including, indeed, the 
whole range of narrow textile fabrics. — ^bindings, braids, fringes, dress 
trimmings, coach and military equipments, theatrical goods, gold and 
silver laces, and embroideries. Two other large houses in Philadel- 
phia, viz., J. C. Graham and Homer, Colladay, & Co., vie with the 
older house in the production of this class of goods. Their houses 
were established about 1850. These manufacturers have most con- 
tributed to give Philadelphia its reputation as the chief seat of the 
general manufacture of trimmings in the Ignited States. In New 
York, the present house of J. Maidhoff & Co. was established in the 
manufacture of dress trimmings in 1849. ^" ^^^ ^*fy» Louis Franke 
is also prominently identified with the manufacture of silk fringes, 

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I08 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

cords, and tassels. In Connecticut, Tobias Kohn, of Hartford, now 
president of the Novelty Weaving and Braid Works, established the 
manufacture of gimps, fringes, and tassels as early as 1848. An ex- 
pert in this department of the silk fabrication observes that "the home 
manufacturers so fully supply the demands for the dress-trimming 
trade that there are very few colored dress and cloak trimmings im- 
ported. The variety of patterns for sale at the trimming-stores is so 
great that ladies find no difficulty in perfectly matching the color of 
their dresses. While thus meeting all the requirements of taste, the 
American fringes and trimmings are in general of the best material. 
Being made of pure silk, they will usually outlast the garment they 
ornament. They contrast in this respect with imported goods of 
similar appearance, but made from inferior silk, and hence apt to fade 
by exposure, or to wear out and fall off. Greater care in the processes 
by which they are made has also contributed to the notable superi- 
ority of American trimmings." 

The manufacture of silk laces by means of the most modern and 
approved European machinery has been undertaken on a large scale, 
with high success, by A. G. Jennings, of the Nottingham Lace- Works, 
Brooklyn, New York; the machines made in England having cost 
over one hundred thousand dollars. The products of the works are 
principally silk guipure laces, and black thread and silk blonde laces 
for trimmings, Brussels spot-net and grenadine veilings, silk purling 
for trimmings, and silk-lace ties and scarfs. It is claimed that the lace 
goods are superior to those ordinarily imported, from being made of 
pure silk. The exhibit of these goods at Philadelphia received an 
award for excellent fabrication, and for " illustrating an important 
manufacture just introduced into the United States by the exhibitor." 

General Observations. — Having considered the characteristics of 
the three leading departments of the silk-manufacture in this country, 
our remaining observations must apply to the industry as a whole. It 
is believed that, as a whole, American silk machinery, in efficiency, is 
equal, and in some respects superior, to that abroad. As to our fabrics, 
first in acknowledged excellence are our machine-twists and sewing- 
silks, articles of first necessity in the manufacture of boots, shoes, and 
clothing, and in the household economy of every home. The machine- 
twists are produced of such quality and at such prices as entirely to 
prevent the importation of foreign twists, and sewing-silks are im- 
ported only to satisfy the lingering prejudice against domestic pro- 
ductions. Our spun-silk fabrics have no foreign rivals, in quality and 
prices. In ribbons, we supply two-thirds of the demand of our own 

market, and in plain goods can fairly compete in quality with the 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 109 

products of St. Etienne. In trimmings, even with their infinite diver- 
sity, there is no article made abroad which is not or.may not be repro- 
duced here. In broad silks, each of the last five years has seen the 
achievement of some new fabric, advancing from millinery to dress 
silks, overcoming all the difficulties of Jacquard weaving, and thence 
to brocade and damask silks. Our manufacturers have in the last 
year seen accomplished, on a large scale, the fabrication of colored 
and black gros-grain dress-silks, which are pronounced, not by the 
makers, but by rival manufacturers, to be absolutely equal in quality, 
while cheaper in price, to the very best imported silks. We are still, 
however, far from the position in the silk-manufacture to which we 
should aspire. In the higher fabrics, we are wanting in originality 
and a national character of design. The widest field for artistic 
work, that of the fabrication of upholstery stufTs, is almost wholly un- 
explored. We have made no bolting-cloths, have done nothing in 
velvets, and still allow the silk plushes for hats (so enormously con- 
sumed here) to be made abroad. With all the excellences of our 
machinery, we are too dependent upon foreign workmen for skill in 
manipulation. Technical and art schools, which shall develop native 
taste and skill, can alone give a national character to the higher fabrics 
of this industry. 

These general observations cannot be more appropriately closed 
than by a summary of the American production, as furnished by that 
model industrial institution, the Silk Association of America : 



VALUE OF PRODUCTS, CLASSIFIED BV ARTICLES, MANUFACTURED IN 
THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1876. 



Tram . 

Organzine . 

Spun silk . 

Fringe-silk . 

Floss-silk . 

Sewing-silk 

Machine-twist 

Dress goods 

Millinery and tie silks 

Women*s and men's scarfs 

Handkerchiefs . 

Foulards 

Ribbons 

Laces . 

Coach laces 

Veils and veiling 

Silk hose . 

Braids and bindings 

13 «93 



Pounds. 


Value. 


369,132 


12,768,490 


184,567 


1,614,961 


140,000 


805,000 


33.862 


203,172 


5,488 


35^28 


82,895 


951,460 


468,916 


6,301.059 




1.350,535 




1,679,166 




119,946 




927,000 




472.000 




4,526,556 




220,000 




24,500 




16,518 




3,200 




315.000 



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no INTERNATIOh 

Military trimmings .... 
Upholstery trimmings .' . . . 
Ladies' dress trimmings 


TAL EXHIBITl 

Pounds. 
1,144,860 
140,000 


'ON, 1876. 

Pounds. 


Value 
128,000 
526,036 
3,705,076 


Total products, 1876 . 

Reeled silk consumed . 
Spun silk consumed 


. 1,284,860 

Value. 
111,874,570 
805,000 


26,593,103 


Total silk threads 
Consumed in sewings and twist . 


1,284,860 
551,8" 


12,679,570 
7,252,519 


"2,679,570 


Consumed in weaving . . . . 


733,049 


15,427,051 


^13,913,533 



The American Exhibits of Silk. — Although much material fur- 
nished by the Exhibition has be6n incorporated in the preceding 
pages, the features of the display of products of the silk-industry at 
the Exhibition demand a special notice. 

The position accorded to the American silk exhibits was an ex- 
ceedingly advantageous one. Instead of being thrust on one side or 
into a corner, it had the post of honor at the east end of the Main 
Building, on the central aisle ; and thus naturally attracted the first 
attention of the visitors who made a systematic survey of the Exhi- 
bition. The show-cases in which the goods were displayed exhibited 
the good taste so peculiarly requisite in this industry. Although 
various in construction and ornamentation, there was a general resem- 
blance, which gave agreeable unity to the display. Inside the cases 
some of the goods (as those of spooled silk) were arranged in archi- 
tectural devices, giving the effect of towers, domes, and arches. In 
others, the richness of fabrics alone sufficed to give brilliancy to the 
displays. The arrangement of the dyed silks, so as to give prismatic 
effects, was peculiarly attractive. No visitor could fail to feel that, if 
this exhibit had been wanting, the American display of textiles would 
have lost its chief charm, and American patriotism one great source 
of its complacency. In Machinery Hall, and in the Women's Pa- 
vilion, different processes of the silk-manufacture were illustrated, on 
a large scale, by several different manufacturers. The actual operations 
of reeling, twisting, spooling, and weaving — in some cases by the 
Jacquard attachment — gave delight and instruction to curious throngs. 
The newest American machinery — especially the "two-decker'* spin- 
ning-frame, constructed by the Danforth Locomotive & Machine 
Company, containing winder, doubler, spinner, and reeler in one — 
attracted the admiration of experts. 

These exhibits were equally surprising to foreign visitors and to 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX. m 

our own people. High tributes have already come back to us from 
abroad: the French publicist, Jules Simonin; the Swiss Commis- 
sioner-General at the Exhibition; and a well-instructed writer in 
a paper published in Macclesfield, the headquarters of the English 
silk-industry^, — having pointed out the exhibits at Philadelphia as 
proofs of the competition which their countrymen must expect in this 
country. 

Having given the names of the principal foreign exhibitors in this 
department, we cannot do less for our own countrymen. In describ- 
ing the exhibits, to avoid any possibility of error, the writer has 
adopted substantially the language of the official awards. The ex- 
hibitors are grouped according to the departments they pursue, and 
are named irrespectively of merit, — no numerical scale of excellence 
being admitted by the rules of the Exhibition : 

J. H. Hayden & Son, Windsor Locks, Conn. 

Slack and medium twist, of great brilliancy, strength, and regu- 
larity. 

M. Heminway & Son, Watertoivn, Conn, 

Machine- and sewing-silks, perfect in quality of material, color, and' 
workmanship. 

Holland Manufacturing Co.. Willimantic, Conn, 

Machine-twist and sewing-silks ; highly meritorious for the excellent 
quality of raw material, and the preparation for the various purposes. 

Seavey, Foster, & Bowman, Boston, Mass. 
Sewing-silks, of great uniformity and general excellence. 

Belding Brothers & Co., RockvUle, Conn. 

Machine- and sewing-silks, of good color, strength, smoothness, and 
quality. 

AuB, Hackenburg, & Co., PhiladelpJda, Pa. 

Sewing- and embroidery-silks, meritorious for great beauty and 
brilliancy of color ; button-hole twist and saddler's silk highly com- 
mendable. 

Nonotuck Silk Co., Florence, Mass. 

Sewing-silks and machine-twist ; great superiority as to strength 
and regularity, evincing extreme care in the manufacture. 

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£12 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

S. M. Meyenberg, Paterson^ N. % 

Millinery silks and upholstery satins, of superior quality and finish ; 
ladies* scarfs, of excellent color and design. 

John N. Stearns & Co., New York, N. K 

Brocade silks, of superior styles and quality; twilled silks, well 
made, and meritorious in every respect 

Dexter, Lambert, & Co., Paterson, N. % 

Millinery silks, well made, and of good colors; brocade silks, of 
excellent manufacture. 

Cheney Brothers, Hartford and Sojith Manchester^ Conn, 

Spun silk, in every form, perfectly manipulated ; piece goods and 
ribbons made thereof, evincing a high degree of excellence. 

New York Woven Label Manufacturing Company, New York, N Y. 

Woven silk labels and facsimile of signature of Declaration of 
Independence, of good execution. 

Frederic Baare, Paterson, N, y. 

Black figured silks, made in an improved and superior manner; 
millinery goods, of good manufacture. 

Hamil & Booth, Paterson, N. y. 

Figure, dress, and millinery silks, plain satins, serges, and silk 
ribbons, of excellent manufacture and material. 

Werner, Itschner, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa, 

Faille, fancy, and Jacquard ribbons, of very good manufacture both 
as to color and combination of material. 

B. B. Tilt & Son, Paterson, N y. 

Brocade silks and handkerchiefs, of superior quality and workman- 
ship. 

William Strange & Co., Paterson, N. y 

Plain and fancy ribbons, of good materials, well made in every 
respect; silk and millinery ribbons, of great beauty and superior 
quality. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, uj 

Louis Franke, New York, N. K 

Silk fringes, dress trimmings, and tassels, of the best material, 
excellent in style and manufacture. 

SuTRO Brothers, New York, N, Y. 
Braids of great regularity and excellent manufacture. 

Dale Manufacturing Company, Paterson, N. % 

Silk and mohair braids, fancy cords and trimmings, of great beauty 
and excellent workmanship. 

William H. Horstmann & Sons, PhUadelphia, Pa. 

Dress, carriage, and upholstery trimmings, of g^eat excellence and 
beauty in style, material, and execution. 

A. G. Jennings, Nottingham Lace Works, Brooklyn, N Y, 

Guipure, cashmere, and other lace and trimmings and net goods, 
of excellent fabrication. 

Wei DM ANN & Greppo, Paterson, N. y. 

Black and colored dyed silk ; compares well with the production of 
the best European establishments. 

Exhibits of American Cocoons and Raw Silk. — ^Although we 
have waived the consideration of the foreign products of raw silk, the 
only two American exhibits of this material were so interesting and 
instructive that they deserve an extended notice. While the silk-cul- 
ture has ceased in all the older States, it has recently been attempted, 
with sanguine hopes of success, in California and Kansas. 

The planting of mulberries for the feeding of silk-worms was first 
undertaken at San Jose, California, in 1856, by M. Prevost, a botanist 
from Normandy, France ; but the public attention was then so occu- 
pied with gold mining that the trees were unsalable, and M. Prevost 
abandoned their culture. A small number of trees was also planted 
by a Swiss gentleman, — M. Mueller, of San Jose, — who, in 1861. im- 
ported a few silk-worm eggs. The worms raised were fed upon the 
trees before planted, and the results obtained were so excellent as to 
revive the interest of M. Prevost, who recommenced the planting of 
mulberries and raising of silk-worms, which he continued until the 
time of his death, in 1869; he having in the mean time distributed 

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H4 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

silk-worm eggs, gratuitously, to persons in various parts of the State. 
The interest in sericulture thus became so general in the State that 
the Legislature of California provided by law that a bounty of $2^0 
should be paid for every 5000 newly-planted mulberry-trees, and ^300 
for every 100,000 cocoons produced in California. The object of the 
law was defeated by the planting by speculators, for the bounty, of 
several millions of the worthless multicaulis mulberry, and the law 
was repealed. In 1866, Mr. Joseph Neumann, of German birth, im- 
ported machinery for the fabrication of silk, and invented a reeling- 
machine for winding the raw silk from the cocoons. In 1867 he 
reeled the first skein of raw silk produced in California. In 1869 he 
produced 130 pounds of raw silk, and made from it two large flags, — 
one of which he presented to the State, and the other to the National 
Government. Meeting, like most pioneers, with but little commercial 
success in his attempts to manufacture silk, he finally abandoned the 
fabrication for the production and reeling of raw silk. His very large 
exhibit of cocoons and raw silk, and his exhibition of worms feeding 
and in different stages of growth, attracted great interest, and received 
from the expert Judges the following award : " A very good collec- 
tion of cocoons and raw silk, of a variety of races, highly commend- 
able for the successful attempts in the introduction of this important 
branch of industry." 

The statements made by Mr. Neumann to the Judges, in regard 
to inducements for sericulture in California, were so interesting and 
important that they deserve a wider publication. 

He regards California as better adapted for the silk-culture than 
almost any country in the world. He said, in regard to climate, that — 

** The mulberry-trees in most parts of the State grow ten months in 
the year (from February to the end of November) ; so that worms can 
generally be fed uninterruptedly. Spring, summer, and fall are un- 
commonly dry, consequently the food of the worms is dry. The 
mulberry-tree throws out new branches and leaves four times a year, 
and worms can be fed from the fifteenth day with branches. In some 
localities in California trees five years old surpass those of fifteen 
years in Europe. The leaves are much larger, also, and one can 
gather six or eight times as much as in Europe in the same time. 
Thunder-.storms do not occur during the feeding-season, and the 
worms consequently are not disturbed. The dryness of our atmo- 
sphere prevents the remains of the leaves which the worms do not 
consume from decaying, and the beds need not be cleaned more than 
twice in a season. We have proved that the cocoons enlarge from 
year to year.'* 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP IX, 115 

In Kansas, sericulture has been attempted by E. V. de Boissiere, a 
French gentleman of means, who has set his heart upon surrounding 
his chosen home with a colony of operatives employed in the silk- 
culture and manufacture. He has built a mill for the manufacture of 
silk goods, and is confident that the silk to supply it will be produced 
in his neighborhood. His exhibits of raw silk and cocoons at Phila- 
delphia were conclusive as to the favorable influences of the soil and 
climate of Kansas for sericulture. The remarkable character of the 
cocoons exhibited by M. de Boissiere so much impressed Mr. Le Bou- 
tillier, one of the American Judges of silk in Group IX., that he re- 
quested Mr. Hayami Kenzo, of Japan, a member of the group specially 
expert in raw silk, to give him his personal observations. Mr. Kenzo 
thus replies, in a note to Mr. Le Boutillier, now before the writer : 

" Having examined the cocoons from Kansas, we marked them as 
good as the best cocoons from France, Italy, and Japan. Having a 
doubt as to the correctness of our judgment, I looked them over again 
with great care, and came to the same conclusion as we had before. 
I suppose the mulberry-trees are cultivated in very rich soil, and, 
being not so old, are especially suited for feeding silk- worms. The 
chrysalids are large and healthy, and several have been almost en- 
tirely transformed into butterflies. The best silks in good weights 
will be obtained from these cocoons." 

It is obvious that a protective duty on raw silk for the general en- 
couragement of sericulture in this country would not be justified. 
The culture offers no prospects of success, except in a few favorable 
localities ; and a duty on the raw material would be oppressive to the 
manufacture. The question of encouraging the silk culture by legis- 
lative provisions addresses itself only to the governments of the States 
which are specially adapted by soil and climate to this culture. The 
American Judges in Group IX. were so impressed by the exhibits 
and facts presented by Mr. Neumann and M. de Boissiere, that they 
were prepared to indorse memorials which might be addressed by 
these gentlemen to Legislatures of their respective States, asking 
for bounties on silk productions. The members of the group, how- 
ever, separated without taking more definite action in this matter. 

In concluding the report on wool, we gave the yearly production 
throughout the world. We cannot do less for the more costly mate- 
rial. The following statement, prepared by Mr. Franklin Allen, is 
believed to be a near approximation to the yearly production of raw 
silk in the several silk-producing countries of the world at the present 
time : 



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Il6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Chyia and Chinese Empire $92,928,000 

Japan ■ . . . 19,800,000 

Persia, Turkistan, etc 6,250,000 

Syria and Asia Minor 8,500,000 

Italy 59,250,000 

France 31,246,800 

Turkey in Europe 7,920,000 

Spain and Portugal 1,884,000 

Greece 1,087,000 

Morocco 300,000 

Austria- Hungary 3,087,600 

India 35,200,000 

America 100,000 

$267,553,400 



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REPORTS ON AWARDS. 



GROUP IX. 



I. M. Q. Diena, fa Jacob, Spilimberto, near Modena, luly. 

SILK COCOONS AND RAW SILK. 

Report, — ^A veiy fine exhibit of cocoons ; also very elastic and clear grdges of great beauty. 



2. £. Meyer & Co., Milan, Italy. 

RAW SILK. 

Report, — Raw and thrown silks, of remarkable quality, both as to regularity, purity, and 
elasticity. 



3. Ibrahim Bogdanof-Teregoulof, Tiflis, Russia. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report, — ^A variety of silk cocoons, principally of new races, showing great care, and 
worthy of commendation for successful efforts in introducing this new branch of industry. 



4. E. V. de Boissiere, Williamsburg, Kansas, U. 8. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report, — Commended for successful attempts to raise silk-worms, and for cocoons of 
good quxdity. 

5. Baumann Aelter & Co., Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILKS. 

Report. — Commended for a high degree of perfection as to texture, regularity, beauty, 
and finish in fine goods. 

6. Antonio Pascual & Co., Reus, Tarragona, Spain. 

BLACK SILKS. 

Report, — Black silks of good manufacture, color, and finish. 



7. Sons of Ofiate, Valencia, Spain. 

RAW SILK AND COCOONS. 

Report, — An excellent assortment of silk cocoons and raw silk, entitled to the highest 
commendation. 



8. Faustino Martinez, Seville, Spain. 

RAW SILKS. 

Report, — A very good show of cocoons; also excellent raw silk of great purity and 
elasticity. 



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n8 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

9. Bmelianof & Rochefbrt, Moscow, Russia. 

SILK AND WOOL DRESS GOODS. 

Report, — A fine assortment of fancy dress goods, silk and wool, in rich qualities and 
tasteful combinations. 

10. Zolotaref & Ribakof, Moscow, Russia. 

WORSTED AND SILK DRESS GOODS. 

Report. — ^A great variety of fancy dress goods of worsted and silk, in very tasteful styles 
and at moderate prices. 



II. A. & W. Sapojnikoff, Moscow, Russia. 

DAMASKS OF SILK AND SILVER AND GOLD. 

Report, — ^A superb display of the richest silk and gold and silver brocades, unrivaled in 
cveiy respect. 

12. Sergius Zoobkof, Khomootovo, Moscow, Russia. 

PLAIN SILKS. 

Report, — G^lored failles of rich quality, excellent material, and great brilliancy; high 
degree of merit. 

13. Alexis Fomitchef, Moscow, Russia. 

SILKS. 

Report, — Rich figured failles and silk cashmeres of great beauty and taste. 



14. Pokrovsky Sisterhood of Charity, Moscow, Russia. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report, — ^A good display of silk cocoons of fine quality. 



15. Kondrashef Brothers, Grebenevo, Moscow, Russia. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report, — G}mmended for plain black and colored failles, excellent in color ^d manu- 
facture ; also for very well made upholstery damasks. 



16. J. H. Van Bellingen & Max Suremont, Antwerp, Belgium. 

BLACK SILKS. 

Report, — Commended for superiority of manufacture, fast colors, and splendid effects. 



17. Woldemar Wimmer, Annaberg, Germany. 

GOLD AND SILVER BRAIDS. 

Report, — A very creditable assprtment of silk and gold braids and galoons. 



18. Escales & Hatry, Saargemiind, Germany. 

BLACK SILK PLUSHES. 

Report, — Hatters' black silk plushes of remarkable perfection in color and finish 



19. Gressard & Co., Hilden, Germany. 

SILK FOULARDS. 

Report, — A superb assortment of well-finished foulards and handkerchiefs. 

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GROUP IX. 119 

20. Carl Mez & Sons, Freiburg, Baden, Germany. 

SEWING SILK. 

Report, — ^An assortment of colored and black sewing silk, of great brilliancy in color 
and finish. 



21. Farriols dt Son, Barcelona, Spain. 

BLACK SILKS. 

Report, — ^A great variety of black cashmere silks in fine grades, of excellent manufacture 
in every respect. 

22. Benito Malrehy, Barcelona, Spain. 

SILK DAMASKS AND BROCADES. 

Report, — ^A great variety of curtain and furniture silk damasks, brocades, and trim* 
mings, of good colors and excellent manufacture. 



23. Eduardo Reig & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

SILK CRAVATS AND FICHUS. 

Report, — Good assortment of silk neck-handkerchiefs, well made, and very effective for 
the price. 

24. S. Riitschi 9l Co., Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report, — Black and colored fabrics at very moderate prices, showing great care in the 
manufacture ; the satin du chene particularly well made. 



25. Ryffel dt, Co., St«fa and Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILKS. 

Report, — ^The marcelines (satinets) exhibited are superior in texture, color, and finish, and 
can scarcely be excelled. 

26. Emil Schserer & Co., Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILKS. 

Report. — Commended for good taste in style and coloring, and for stripes which are 
very regular in the manufacture, and show great progress. 



27. J. Schwarzenbach-Landis, Thalweil, near Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILKS. 

Report, — Colored failles and changeables of great regularity and beauty, at moderate 
pric^, well adapted for the best markets. 



28. Job. Supfer*8 Sons, Horgen, Zurich, Switzerland, 

SILKS. 

Report. — An exhibit of great merit, evincing considerable progress in the manufacture of 
plain, striped, and checked silk goods of perfect taste, at low prices. 

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I20 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

29. StlLnsi Bl Sons, Horgen, Zurich, SwitserUnd. 

8ILK GOODS. 

^<»^tfr^.— Cotton-back satins, which in price compare favorably with the best products 
of other countries. 

30. Jansen, Bodek, & HerU, Riesbach, near Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report, — Good styles of cravat materials at low prices. 



31. Y. Tamamura, Ishi-i-mura, Shimodsuke, Japan. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — ^Veiy good specimens of raw silk of excellent quality, carefully prepared. 



32. M. lyiarunaka, Kanaxawa, Kaga, Japan. 

RAW SILK. 
Report, — ^Very superior raw silk. 



33. Yo. Suzuki, Yamura, Kai, Japan. 

PLAIN SILKS. 

Report. — Plain, colored, and checked silks, well woven and of good appearance. 



34. Yamamoto Kinu, Susakamura, Shinano, Japan. 

SILKS. 

Report, — ^Two productions of silks made from the cocoons of new silk-worms feeding on 
the native walnut; highly interesting. 



35, Y. Nakagawa, Kiyoto, Japan. 

SILK CRAPES. 

Report, — Excellent specimens of white silk crapes, perfect in color, and of great solidity. 



36. 8. Nishimura, Kiyoto, Japan. 

SILK CRAPES. 

Report, — Dyed and printed silk crapes, excellent in color and execution, principally the 
shaded specimens. 

37. Y. Shibata, Hakata, Chikusen, Japan. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report, — Silks for ladies' scarfs, of perfect manufacture. 



38. 8. Tomiu, Kiyoto, Japan. 

GAUZES. 

Report. — ^Well-made silk gauzes, commendable for their low pnoe. 



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GROUP IX, 121 

39. Captain Luiz Ribeiro de Souza Rezende, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

RAW SILK AND COCOONS. 
Report. — A variety of specimens of cocoons and raw silk, of great beauty and excellence, 
both as to the nature of the silk and its preparation, and meriting high commendation for 
the introduction of this important branch of industry. 



40. Antonio Luiz dos Santos Reis, Piratinim, Brazil. 

RAW SILKS. 
Report. — Commended for successful experiments in raw silks. 



41. H. Kono, Chikuma- Ken, Japan. 

SILKS. 

Report. — Samples of silk, natural color, from the silk of the worm feeding on the oak ; 
new and very remarkable. 

42. Dr. Nicolau J. Moreira, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report. — A highly curious specimen of a new silk-worm feeding on forest trees. 



43. David Josi da Silva & Son, Oporto, Portugal. 

DAMASK OF SILK AND GOLD. 
Report. — Gold and silver damasks, for church purposes and upholstery, of good design 
and excellent manufacture. 

44. Viuva Ferreira Campos & Co., Oporto, Portugal. 

GOLD BROCADES AND MILITARY TRIMMINGS. 

Report. — Gold brocades, and silk and silver cloth, in good taste and of excellent manu- 
facture ; gold and silver military trinmiings in great variety, and well made. 



45. Jacintho P. Valverde Miranda Vasconcellos, Oporto, Portugal. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — Raw silk of excellent quality in every respect. 



46. F. Cabral Paes & Sons, Vizeu, Portugal. 

RAW SILK AND COCOONS. 

Report. — ^Very fine silk cocoons, and silk spun thereof; quality and preparation highly 
commendable. 



47. Josi Antonio Reis, Moncorvo, Bragan9a, Portugal. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — Raw silk of great fineness, excellent spinning, and general effect. 



48. SimSo Ribas, Guarda, Portugal. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — A fine exhibit of very well spun tram, of great pureness and tenacity. 

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1 2 2 REPOR TS ON A WARDS, 

49. Antonio de Sa Pereira, Sta. Maria, Bragan9a, Portugal. 

RAW SILK. 

Report, — Raw silk of excellent quality, as to the natural tenacity, and of very regular 
preparation. 

50. National Silk Spinning and Weaving Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

RAW COCOONS AND SILK UPHOLSTERY GOODS. 

Report* — ^A very fine show of silk cocoons ; also raw silk of excellent quality and silk 
upholsteiy goods of good manufacture and excellent design. 



51. S. Trebitsch & Son, Vienna, Austria. 

BLACK SILKS AND CRAVATS. 

Report, — Black silks and silk cravats, well made, of good color and appearance, and 
from their low price adapted for a large consumption. 



$2. Carl Hetser & Sons, Vienna, Austria. 

SILK VELVETS. 

Report, — Black and colored silk velvets, cotton back, made two pieces together, of 
good manufacture and excellent result. 



53. C. Q. Hombostel & Co., Vienna, Austria. 

SILKS AND SILK AND COTTON GOODS. 

Report, — Fancy silks and mixed fabrics of good design and effect. 



54. F. Reichert's Sons, Vienna, Austria. 

SILK VELVETS AND SILK GOODS. 

Report, — Colored and black velvets and silks of excellent manufacture; specialty of 
white velvet of great purity. 

55. Pilippo Dalla Pozza, Vicenza, luly. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — Very fine and well-spun raw silk, very clean, and of great tenacity and elasticity. 



56. Ugolino Chiericoni, Messina, Italy. 

SILK COCOONS. 
Report, — Silk cocoons of great beauty and superb quality. 



57. I^opoldo Cagliani, Milan, luly. 

SILK VELVETS. 

Report, — Silk colored velvets of good color and very creditable manufacture. 



58. Alberto Keller, Milan, Italy. 

RAW SILK. 

Report, — Raw silk of great superiority in every respect. 

206 



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GROUP IX. 123 

59. Brede Salomon Sinigaglia and Lattes, Turin, Italy 

RAW SILK. 

Report, — ^An excellent show of raw silk of remarkable purity, perfect in preparation. 



60. Madame Blbis, Constantinople, Turkey. 

SILK EMBROIDERY. 

Report. — Curiously-wrought silk embroidery, showing great skill and taste. 



61. Nicholas Bolad, Damascus, Turkey. 

STRIPED AND FTOURED SILKS. 

Report, — Striped and figured silks, of good taste in good colors and combination of 
materials. 



62. Bmanuel G. Marridas, Kiopler, near Brousse, Turkey. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — A remarkable display of white and yellow raw silk of great beauty and 
tenacity. 

63. Gondard, Cirlot, & Martel, Lsrons, France. 

FOULARDS. 

Report. — Commended for the elegance of design, brilliancy of colors, and general good 
taste of printed foulards. ' 

64. B. P. Schilizzi, Adrianople, Turkey. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — ^Very fine, clean, and strong white and yellow raw silk. 



65. Merouk Oglou, Brousse, Turkey. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report. — Very well made, and of good texture. 



66. Hu Kwang Yung, Hang Chow, China. 

PLAIN SILKS. . 

Report. — Plain colored satins of excellent manufacture and superior finish. 



67. K. A. Almgren, Stockholm, Sweden. 

SILKS. 

Report. — Colored failles, very well made from the best material, and of brilliant lustre. 



68. Fy Cheong, Canton, China. 

FANCY AND PLAIN SILKS. 
Report. — A very fine exhibit of colored and figured silk goods, showing marked improve- 
ments over former productions. 



69. Hadji Hakim Brothers, Aleppo, Turkey. 

SILK GOODS. 
Report. — While and gold damask of beautiful workmanship. 

207 



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124 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

70. Imperial Silk Manufactory of Hierek6, Turkey. 

SILK FABRICS. 

Report. — A superb display of rich brocade silks, excellent in design, color, and execnlion. 



71. Esute of Bir-Abu, Bellach, Egypt. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report. — An exhibit of cocoons of great beauty and excellent natnre of silk. 



72. Giovanni Tramontina, Cairo, Egypt. 

RAW SILK AND COCOONS. 

Report. — ^A fine exhibit of cocoons and specimens of raw silk of great regularity and 
tenacity, conunendable especially on account of the difficulties of this new branch of 
industry. 

73. Audibert, Monin, & Co., Lyons, France. 

SILKS AND POPLINS. 

Report. — Well-made black Sicilicnnes of great regularity and beauty of texture. 



74. Jandin & Duval, Lyons, France. 

FOULARDS. 

Report. — ^A great display of plain, figured, and printed foulards, elegant in design, taste, 
and execution. 

75. J. P. Million & Servier, Lsrons, France. 

SILK GOODS AND VELVETS. 

Report. — Commended for superiority of manufacture of black silk velvets and colored 
silk goods. 

76. Alex. Giraud & Co., Lyons, France. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report. — Umbrella silks, of good color and manufacture. 



77. Gillet & Son, Lyons, France. 

DYED SILKS. 

Report. — Fine assortment of black-dyed silk, of superior shade and excellent workman- 
ship ; can scarcely be excelled. 

78. Thomas Brothers, Avignon, France. 

RAW SILK. 

Report, — Bright China tram and organzine, of very good quality and excellent preparatinr . 



79. Jules Chabert & Co., Chomerac (Ard^che), France. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — Commended for French tram of great regularity and remarkable elasticity; 
also for Bengal organzine of excellent preparation. 



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GROUP IX. 125 

So. Louis Boudon, Saint-Jean-du-Gard, France. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — A remarkable exhibition of white and yellow raw silk, of extraordinary fine- 
ness, purity, and great regularity. 

81. ArUs-Dufour, L3ron8, France. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — A fine assortment of French raw silks of great beauty, and China organdne of 
great regularity and neatness. 

82. Jurie & Co., Lyons, France. 

VELVETS AND SILKS. 

Report. — A great variety of very well made black and colored plain silk velvets and 
dress silks. 

83. Antoine Guinet & Co., Lyons, France. 

BLACK SILKS. 

Report. — Black silks, very effective in appearance, in low and medium grades. 



84. J. Boquet & Co., Amiens, France. 

SILK VELVETS. 

Report. — Utrecht velvets in fine qualities and beautiful colors. 



85. Weidmann & Greppo, Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

DYED SILK. 

Report. — Commended for excellent production of black and colored dyed silk, comparing 
well with the best European establbhments. 



86. New York Woven Label Manufacturing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WOVEN SILK LABELS. 

Report. — ^Woven silk labels of very good execution. 



87. J. H. Hayden & Son, Windsor Locks, Conn., U. S. 

SEWING SILK. 

Report. — Slack and medium twist sewing silk of great brilliancy, strength, and regularity. 



88. Joseph Neumann, San Francisco, Cal., U. S. 

RAW SILK AND SILK COCOONS. 

Report. — ^A very good collection of cocoons and raw silk of a variety of races, highly 
commendable for the successful attempts in the introduction of this important branch of 
industry. 

89. M. Heminway & Sons Silk Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SEWING SILK. , 

Report. — A full assortment of colored and black machine and sewing silks, perfect in 
quality of material, color, and workmanship 

14 209 



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126 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

90. Dale Manufacturing Co., Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

SILK, MOHAIR, AND FANCY BRAIDS. 

Report. — A very fine dbplay of silk and mohair braids, fancy cords and trimmings, of 
great beauty and excellent workmanship. 



91. Sutio Brothers, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SILK AND COTTON BRAIDS. 

Report, — Braids of great regularity and excellent manufacture. 



92. Louis Franke, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SILK FRINGES AND BRAIDS. 

Report, — Silk fringes, dress trimmings, and tassels, made of the best material, excellent 
in style and manufacture. 

93. Holland Manufacturing Co., Willimantic, Conn., U. S. 

SEWING SILK. 
Report. — Commended for a fine assortment of sewing silks of different kinds ; also machine 
twist, highly meritorious for the excellent quality of raw material and the preparation for 
the various purposes ; also for silk spinning and silk thread-testing machines. 



94« S. M. Meyenberg, Paterson, N. J., and New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SILKS AND UPHOLSTERY SATINS. 

Report. — Commended for very well made millinery silks and upholstery satins, of superior 
quality and finish ; also for ladies' scarfs of excellent color and design. 



95. John N. Steams & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

nOURED AND TWILLED SILKS. 

Report. — A handsome exhibit of brocade silks of superior styles and quality ; also twilled 
silks well made, and meritorious in every respect. 



96. Dexter, Lambert, ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for millinery silks, well made and of good colors ; also for bro- 
cade silks of excellent manufacture. 



97. Cheney Bros., Hartford and South Manchester, Conn., U. S. 

SILKS AND SILK RIBBONS. 
Report, — Commended for perfect manipulation of spun silk in every form, and for piece 
goods and ribbons manufactured thereof, evincing a high degree of excellence. 



98. Frederick Baare, Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for black figured silks, made in an improved and superior manner; 
also for twenty-six inch millinery goods of good manufacture. 

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GROUP IX. 12 J 

99. The Central Commission of the District of Vizeu, Vizeu, Portugal. 

SILK COCOONS. 
Report. — ^A very fine exhibition of raw-silk cocoons of superior quality. 



100. The Imperial Ottoman Government, Consuntinople, Turkey. 

COLLECTIVE EXHIBITION OF SILK GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for an excellent and very complete display of the silk, gold, and 
mixed fabrics of the Ottoman Empire, collected from the various places of manufacture, 
and deserving the highest merit for taste and workmanship; also for a splendid display of 
carpets, of great beauty of design, harmony of colors, and excellent manufacture. 



loi. Pim Brothers & Co., Dublin, Ireland. 

SILK AND WOVEN POPLINS. 
Report. — Black and colored hand- woven plain silk poplins, excellent in every respect; 
furniture damasks of superior effect and manufacture. 



102. Charles A. Rickards, Leeds, England. 

SEWING SILK. 

Report. — Sewing silk of excellent character, both as to quality, color, and preparation. 



103. Fredr. Wurm, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 

SILK COCOONS. 
Report. — A very good exhibit of cocoons, remarkable for such a short period of culture. 
The yellow silk shows great tenacity, and is very clean. 



104. George Thome, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report. — ^A good assortment of cocoons of different races; commendable, coasidering 
the youth of the plantation. 



105. Superintendent of Destitute Children's Asylum, Sydney, New South 

Wales, Australia. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report. — ^A fine show of cocoons; very creditable as first essays. 



106. Mrs. Bladen NeiU, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

RAW SILK AND COCOONS. 

Report. — A good exhibit of raw silk and cocoons, highly creditable from the fact (hat 
this branch of industry has only lately been introduced. The raw silk, particularly from 
the reproduction of Japanese and Grenoble cocoons, has great elasticity. 



107. Sheldon & Fenton, London, England. 

SEWING SILKS. 

Report, — Sewing silks of excellent quality and brilliant colors, in a variety of shades. 



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128 * REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

io8. Wm. Milner 9l Sons, Leek, Staffordshire, England. 

SEWING SILKS. 

Report, — Sewing silks of excellent appearance for the prices quoted. 



109. Mrs. Ann Timbrell, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 

RAW-SILK COCOONS. 
Report. — ^A good display of raw-sllk cocoons of a variety of races, very firm, and of good 
quality. 

1 10. C. F. Chubb, Ipswich, Queensland, Australia. 

RAW-SILK COCOONS. 

Report. — Good variety of raw-silk cocoons of different races. 



f III. John McDonald, Queensland, Australia. 

SILK COCOONS. 

Report, — A very creditable assortment of raw-silk cocoons of good quality. 



112. American Silk Label Manufacturing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WOVEN SILK LABELS. 

Report. — A well-woven fac-simile of the signatures to the Declaration of Independence. 



113. Hamil & Booth, Patcrson, N. J., and New York, N. Y., U. S. 

PLAIN AND FIGURED SILKS. 

Report. — ^A very fine exhibit of figured dress and millinery silks, plain satins, serges, and 
silk ribbons, of excellent manufacture and material. 



1 14. Werner Itschner 9t Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SILK RIBBONS. 

Report, — Commended for faille, fancy, and Jacquard ribbons of very good manufacture, 
both as to c<^r and to combination of material ; also for a good display of very suitable 
hat-bands. 

115. Seavey, Foster, ft Bowman, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

SEWING SILKS. 

Report. — Commended for great uniformity and general excellence in manufacture of 
their sewing silks. 

116. F.Thomas, Pont-des-Charrettes, France. 

RAW SILKS. 

Report, — ^A fine collection of cocoons and beautiful oiganzine, superior in eveiy respect 



117. Font, Chambeyron, ft Benolt, Lsrons, France. 

SILK VELVETS. 

Report, — A fine assortment of black silk velvets of great evenness and lustre ; the blacks 



beautiful. 



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GROUP IX. 129 

iiS. F. Brioude & Co., St. Btienne, France. 

VELVET RIBBONS. 

Report, — ^Black velvet ribbons of good manufacture and finish, very well made in every 
respect 

119. Benoit, Tabard, & Co., L3ron8, France. 

UNING SILKS. 

Report. — A good assortment of black and fancy lining silks, well made. 



120. Belding Bros. & Co., Rockville, Conn., U. S. 

MACHINE AND SEWING SILKS. 

Report. — Machine and sewing silks of good color, strength, smoothness, and quality. 



121. Aub, Hackenburg, A Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

MACHINE AND SEWING SILKS AND BUTTON-HOLE TWIST. 

Report. — A fine exhibit of sewing and embroidery silks and machine twist; the sewing 
and embroidery silks principally meritorious for great beauty and brilliancy of color; the 
button-hole twist and saddlers' silk highly commendable. 



122. Nonotuck Silk Co., Florence, Mass., U. S. 

SEWING SILK AND SILK MACHINERY. 

Report. — ^A splendid exhibit of a variety of sewing silks and machine twist of great 
superiority as to strength and regularity, evincing extreme care in the manufacture; also a 
fine collection of silk manufacturing machinery, embracing winding, doubling, spinning, 
and reeling machines, and spool-finishing machines; the latter of very ingenious construc- 
tion. 

123. B. B. Tilt & Son, Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

FIGURED SILKS AND SILK LOOMS. 

Report. — Commended for brocade silks and handkerchiefs of superior quality and work- 
manship, excellent in color and style; also for a Jacquard ribbon- weaving loom and a 
figure silk loom, both of very good construction. 



124. A. Hamelin Son, Paris, France. 

SEWING SILK. 

Report. — Sewing silk of excellent quality and manufacture; a great assortment of very 
fine shades. 

125. Jaubert, Audras, ft Co., Lyons, France. 

BLACK SILKS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence of manufacture and quality of material, and gen- 
eral superiority of black silks and satins. 



126. Sevtoe, Barral, & Co., Lyons, France. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report. — ^A good display of medium qualities ; fine shades at reasonable prices. 



213 

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I30 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

127. Poncety Senior ft Junior, Lyons, France. 

SILKS. 

AV/<;/^.— Commended for novelties in dress silks, of exqviisite taste and perfect work- 
manship. 

128. Faye ft Th^venin, Lyons, France. 

COLORED SILK GOODS. 

Report, — ^This exhibit has special merit in the superior manufacture of the plain silks as 
regards quality and color. 

129. C. J. Bonnet's Sons ft Co., Lyons, France. 

BLACK SILKS. 

Report. — Commended for unrivaled productions of black silk fabrics, showing the highest 
state of perfection in silk manufacture. 



130. Huber ft Co., Paris, France. 

HATTE&S' SILK PLUSHES. 

Report, — Hatters' black silk plushes of remarkable perfection in color and finish. 



131. Gourd, Croisat Son, ft Dubost, Lyons, France. 

BLACK SILKS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence, in every respect, of black silks, in medium and 
fine grades. 

132. Qautier, Bellon, ft Co., Lyons, France. 

SILK VELVETS. 

Report. — A fine exhibit of plain black and colored velvets; specialty of rich goods of 
superior manufacture. 

133. Joseph Puydebart ft Son, Lyons, France. 

RAW AND SEWING SILKS. 
Report. — Sewing silks, raw and dyed, of great regularity and excellent workmanship ; 
specialty of saddlers' silk of great tenacity. 



134. L. Domon, Lyons, France. 

SILK GAUZES FOR BOLTING-CLOTH. 
Report. — Commended for extraordinary fineness and great uniformity of texture. 



135. Qiron Bros., St. Etienne, France. 

VELVET RIBBONS. 

Report, — A great display of very well made velvet ribbons. 



136. J. B. Martin, Tarare, France. 

PLUSHES AND VELVETS. 

Report. — Commended for superiority of manufacture, lustre, finish, r.nd quality of black 
and colored plushes for hatters and milliners. 

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GROUP IX. 131 

137. Tapissier Son ft Debry, Lyons, France. 

BLACK SILK. 

Report, — Commended for the great care and general excellence bestowed upon the 
manufacture in all its stages. 

13S. Mauvemay & Co., Lyons, Prance. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report, — Striped and fancy silks in medium grades, creditable for the price. 



139. Bresson- Agnis & Co., Lyons, France. 

SILKS. 

Report, — A very fine exhibition of rich damask silks ; also novelties in figured crftpe du 
chine and pnnted cravats. 

140. C. J. Servant ft Co., Lyons, France. 

VELVETS AND SILKS. 

Report. — Superior very wide black silk velvets of remarkable beauty, made of the best 
raw material of their own production. 



141. L. R. Gascon, Montauban, France. 

SILK BOLTING-CLOTH. 

Report. — Silk bolting-cloth of great regularity ; perfect in execution. 



142. Bardon ft Ritton, Lyons, France. 

SILKS. 

Report. — A fine exhibit of colored faille and gros-grain, which, for superiority of manu- 
facture, purity of material, brilliancy of color, and beauty of finish, cannot well be excelled. 



143. Collective Exhibition of the Weavers of Mineyama, Province of Tango, 

Japan. 

SILK CRAPES. 

Report. — ^A very fine assortment of white and colored silk crapes, showing great perfec- 
tion, principally those marked « Ikebe.*' 



144. Government Establishment for Experimental Silk- Worm Breeding, Tokio, 

Japan. 

RAW SILK AND COCOONS. 

Report, — An excellent exhibit of raw silk and cocoons, of great regularity, evenness, and 
tenacity, showing the best productions of this valuable industry, collected from the silk- 
spinning establishments of Tomioka, Yamanacho, Nihoumato, Kanazawa, and Nagano. 



145. Egyptian Raw Silk Company, Oporto, Portugal. 

RAW SILK. 

Report. — ^Very clean, strong, and elastic raw silks and sewing silks. 



146. Brashnin Bros., Oriechovo-Zooevo, Moscow, Russia. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report. — A creditable assortment of striped and checkered dress silks. 

215 



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132 KEPOJ^TS ON AWARDS. 

147. Local Qovemment of Tsunigaken, Japac. 

PLAIN FOULARD SILK. 
Report, — White foulard, excellent in quality, at a remarkably low price. 



148. His Highness the Bey of Tunis, Tunis. 

SILK TISSUES AND MIXED FABRICS. 

Report, — A great variety of silk, silk and gold, and mixed fabrics of Tunisian manufac- 
ture, all evincing great taste and excellent workmanship, and highly commendable for the 
great care bestowed upon this collection. 



149. Adlischweil Silk Goods Factory, Adlischweil, near Zurich, SwiUerland. 

SILK GOODS. 
Report, — Black and colored failles and taffetas, which are remarkably well made for tlie 
price, and on that account are calculated for a large and general consumption. 



150. Winterthur Silk Goods Factory, Winterthur, SwiUerland. 

SILK GOODS. 

Report, — A fine and varied assortment of all grades; power-loom lunbrella silks, which 
are well adapted for the piupose intended ; also good black cotton-back satins. 



151. Russian Government. 

RAW SILK AND SILK CX)COONS. 

Report. — A very fine display of raw silk and silk cocoons in great variety, all of excel- 
lent quality and purity, meriting high commendation, and showing great skill and care on 
the part of the Director, Mr. Lootchinsky. 



152. Government Office for Experimental Silk- Worm Breeding, Tokio, Japan. 

SILK-WORM BREEDING. 

Report. — ^A very fine exhibit, showing the breeding of the silk-worm, with drawings, 
models, samples, and implements, showing great care in its preparation. 



153. The National Museum of Egypt, Cairo, Egypt. 

FIGURED AND BROCADED SILKS. 

Report. — ^A splendid assortment and a great variety of national manufactures of silk and 
mixed fabrics, evincing great skill of workmanship and combination of colors, and meriting 
the highest praise for the good taste with which this collection has been made. 



154. India Museum, Kensington, London, England. 

SILKS AND MIXED FABRICS. 
Report, — A splendid display of Indian productions of silk and mixed fabrics of classical 
taste and beauty. 

155. Imperial Maritime Customs, Shanghai, China. 

PLAIN AND FANCY SILKS. 
Report, — A very fine collection of Chinese plain and fancy silks, highly meritorious for 
the improvement in the manipulation, workmanship, and uniformity ; also an extraordinarily 
fine collection of raw silk, comprising a full assortment of all the qualities produced in the 
country. 

216 



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GROUP IX. 133 

156. Collective Exhibit from the Provinces of the Ottoman Empire. 

kAW SILK AND COCOONS. 

Report. — An excellent display of silk cocoons and raw silk of excepticrnal ment. 



157. L. J. Knowles ft Bro., Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

LOOMS. 

Report. — Looms of good construction and workmanship. 



158. John Lang Currie, Larra, Derimallum, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL, 

Report. — ^Three fleeces of lambs' and merino wool of superior quality and in good con- 
dition. The lambs' wool is specially good. 



159. Robert W. Scott, Franklin Co., Ky., U. S. • 

WOOL. 

Report. — Commended for two pelts, with wool, illustrative of fleeces from sheep claimed 
to be a distinct breed, produced by the exhibitor, the wool of a fair quality for combing 
purposes ; and for two excellent pelts from Angora goats. 



160. William Croskey, Hopedale, Harrison County, Ohio, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report. — An exhibit of twelve samples of Saxony wool, of the highest excellence. 



161. Moses Stocking, Wahoo, Saunders County, Nebraska, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report. — One fleece of merino rams' wool, of good weight and excellent quality. 



162. Atlas Manufacturing Co., Newark, N. J., U. S. 

WOOL-BURRING MACHINES. 

Report, — Wool-burring machines of rapid and effective action. 



163. First Hungarian Wool- Washing and Commission Co., Budapest, Austria. 

WASHED WOOL. 

Report. — Beautifully-washed wool, from which potash is extracted from the yolk by an 
entirely new process. 

164. David Smith ft Co. (Limited), Halifax, England. 

FREPARED SHODDY AND WOOL. 

Report. — Commended for shoddy and wool, prepared for manufacturing purposes by a 
patent process, by which the burrs are completely cleaned, and for cotton and wool stuff", 
prepared on the same principle. 

217 



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134 /REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

165. The Mill Hill Wool and Rag Extracting Co. (Limited^, Huddersfield, 

England. 

PREPARED SHODDY AND WOOL. 

Report. — Commended for shoddy and wool, prepared for manufacturing purposes by a 
patent process, by which the burrs are completely cleaned, and for cotton and wool stuff, 
prepared on the same principle. 

166. Board of Agriculture of the State of New Hampshire, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report, — An assortment of Spanish merino wool of fine fibre and good staple, adapted 
for the manufacture of cassimeres, merinos, and flannels. 



167. State of Oregon, U. S.. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Some very fine specimens of merino wool of fine fibre and good staple, very 
much resembling Australian wool, and giving evidence that this State can produce wool of 
very great value. 

16S. Province of Entre Rios, Argentine Republic. 

RAW WOOL. 
Report. — An assortment of small samples of fine merino wool of superior quality and 
long staple. 

169. Danfbrth Locomotive and Machine Co., Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

SILK MACHINERY. 
Report. — A collection of silk machinery, embracing winding and spinning frame for 
singles and for doubling. 

170. Government of the Argentine Republic. 

WOOLEN MANUFACTURES. 

Report. — A beautiful collection of vicufla shawls and ponchos, carpets, and ta]>estries. 
Among the vicufla shawls exhibited were some especially to be mentioned, made by 
Jova Madueno, Samuel A. Lafone Quevedo, of Catamarca, M. Malbran, of Catamarca, 
and Teresa Luraschi, of Catamarca. The above goods are of the highest texture and 
merit. 

171. Chamber of Commerce of Reims, France. 

COLLECTIVE EXHIBIT OF WOOLEN MANUFACTURES. 
Report. — A brilliant collection of merinos, cashmeres, sateens, reps, and ecosse cloth; 
plaid, white, and colored flannels ; worsted coatings, fancy cassimeres, shawls, and blankets, 
all of high excellence. The finish of the merinos, and the variety and brilliancy of the 
colors dyed by Delamotte and £ms( Houpin, are specially commendable. 



172. Commissioners for Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

RAW WOOL. 

Report. — ^Washed lambs* wool, greasy wool, and Victoria merino; all well selected and 
of excellent growth and quality. 

218 



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GROUP IX, 135 

173. C. H. Beall, Brooke County, West Virginia, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report. — An admirable exhibit of fleeces of American merino wool from two bucks and 
nine ewes, with a case containing thirty-three samples, all the samples being of exceptional 
excellence. 

174. S. A. Cockayne, Moundsville, Marshall County, West Virginia, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report. — One fleece of good merino wool. 



175. John Ingram, Poplar Spring, Marshall County, West Virginia, U. S. 

WOOL. 
Report. — ^Ten fleeces of exdiellenf merino combing and beautiful merino clothing wools. 



176. Ninian Beall, Ohio County, West Virginia, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report. — ^An exhibit of Saxony fleeces, two bucks and two ewes, of fineness character* 
istic of the race. 

177- J* J* Surber, Vienna, Austria. 

REEDS AND HEDDLES FOR LOOMS. 

Report. — ^A good collection of reeds and heddles for looms. 



178. Faxon ft Wright, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

EXTRACT OF WOOL, 

Report. — A creditable exhibit of extract of wool, prepared by a chemical process not 
disclosed, together with yam made from same, illustrating the excellence and strength of 
the prepared fibre. 

179. Albert Bauer, Humpoletz, Austna. 

WOOLEN GOODS. 

Report, — ^A'good collection of well-made cloth, at low prices, for general use. 



iSo. Brosset-Heckel ft Co., Lyons, France. 

SATINS. 

Report. — ^All silk, and silk and cotton back, black and colored satins. 



181. A. Q. Jennings, Nottingham Lace Works, Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. 

SILK LACES. 

Report. — Commended as an attractive exhibit of gimpure, cashmere, and other laces and 
trimmings ; also for a general assortment of net goods, highly commendable for excellent 
fabrication. This exhibit is noticeable as illustrative of an important manufacture just 
introduced into the United States by the exhibitor. 

219 



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^^T▼fl^^^-'??^^^ 



1 36 REPOR TS ON A IVARDS, 

182. James Oddy & Son, Bradford, England. 

WOOLS. 
Report. — A unique assortment of fleeces, admirably illustrative of the principal cHarac* 
teristic wools of England. 

183. Parks ft Woolson Machine Co., Springfield, Vt., U. S. 

CLOTH-SHEARING AND BRUSHING MACHINES. 

Report, — A cloth-shearing and a cloth-brushing machine, both of very good construction 
and workmanship. 

184. S. Q. Reed, Portland, Oregon, U. S. 

LONG COMBING WOOL. 

Report, — ^Three samples of Leicestei combing wo^I, and three samples of Cotswold 
combing wool, noticeable for long staple and bright lustre. 



185. SUnfield, Brown, ft Co., England. 

SHOE LASTINGS. 

Report, — A superb exhibit of ten numbers of lastings, especially creditable for richness 
of lustre, good color, and evenness of thread. 



186. Jacob Senneff, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

FLAT METALLIC EYE HEDDLE. 

Report, — Commended as an improvement upon the cotton and varnished heddles, being 
less liable to abrade the warp. 

187. The State of Michigan, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report, — A collective exhibit of samples of wool produced in the State, contributed by 
one hundred and sixteen persons in ten counties, four hundred and sixty-one samples being 
of merino wool and grades, and one hundred and ninety-six samples being of long combing 
wool of English blood. The collection b illustrative of the high character of an annual 
product of wool in the State, estimated at eight million pounds. 



188. M. Wilkins, Eugene City, Lane County, Oregon, U. S. 

COMBING WOOL. 

Report. — An exhibit of a sample of Cotswold wool, with twelve samples of wool improved 
by a series of crossing, pursued for many years, of high-bred Cotswold bucks on high-bred 
Oxfordshire-down ewes, producing a combing wool retaining the length of the original 
Cotswold, but with greatly increased fineness and softness, and total absence of hair. 

Also for improved Oxfordshire and Leicestershire wool. 



189. Peter Kosishnikof, Veliki- Oostioog, Vologda, Russia. 

BRISTLES. 

Report, — Commended for bristles of extraordinary lengths, adapted for the manufacture 
of brushes. 

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GROUP IX. 137 

190. Tunzis Mills, Poquonnock, Conn., U. S. 

COLORED WORSTED YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for an admirable collection of colored wools and worsted yams, in 
a great variety of colors and mixtures, adapted for both dress purposes and clothing goods, 
and for excellence of dye and colors. 



191. Baltic Woolen Mills, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

REPELLANTS. 

Report, — Medium grades of repellants, in black and colors, of good manufacture and 
cheap prices. 

192. Shaffner St Stringfellow, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GERMANTOWN WOOL. 

Report. — A handsome variety of Germantown wool and zephyr yams, in beautiful colors, 
and very neatly made up in a special style of ball, weighing one ounce each. 



193. Parrington ft Kinsey, Rahway, N. J., U. S. 

EXTRACT WOOLS. 

Report. — Extract wools from old garments of cotton and wool, from which the cotton is 
destroyed by a chemical process without injury to the wool. 



194. A. Prouvost & Co., Roubaix, France. 

WOOLS. 

Report. — A large assortment of prepared wools from Australia, South America, Black 
Sea, Russia, France, and Belgium ; also of slivers and noils from the same, adapted to a 
great variety of fabrics. 

195. J. M. Kirkpatrick, Utica, Ohio, U. S. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Six samples of fine merino wool, of good quality and fibre. 



196. Albert Quigley, Cadiz, Ohio, U. S. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Five samples of fine merino wool, of good quality and fibre, and adapted either 
for clothing or combing purposes. 

197. B. J. HUtt ft Bros., Chester Hill, Ohio, U. S. 

OHIO WOOL. 

Report. — ^Fleeces of excellent quality and growth of Ohio wool, well bred, and adapted 
for combing. 

198. Walter Craig, Cadiz, Ohio, U. 8. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Seventeen samples of pure merino wool, of very superior quality, and of con- 
siderable merit. 

221 



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138 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

199. James B. Jamison, Cadiz, Ohio, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Eight samples of Spanish merino wool, of very superior quality and growth. 



200. Henry Boyles, Cadiz, Ohio, U. 8. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — Six samples of Spanish merino wool, of very superior quality. 



201. J. M. Holmes, Short Creek, Ohio, U. 8. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — ^Twelve samples of excellent merino wool, of good staple and fihre. 



202. W. B. Law, Connotton, Ohio, U. S. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Thirteen samples of fine Spanish merino wool, of superfine quality and growth. 



203. S. S. Campbell, Cadiz, Ohio, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Twenty-four samples of merino wool, of excellent quality and good staple, 
well adapted for the manufacture of cashmeres and merinos. 



204. Isaac Thomas, Short Creek, Ohio, U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Twelve samples of fine merino wools, of superior quality and growth. 



205. Andrew Jamison, Short Creek, Ohio, U. 8. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Eleven samples of fine merino wool, of considerable merit and good fibre. 



206. W. O. Harrah, Cadiz, Ohio, U. S. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Eleven samples of pure merino wool, of superior quality and good staple. 



207. M. L. Bimey, Bowerstown, Ohio, U. S. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Twelve samples of fine Spanish merino wool, of superior quality and growth. 



208. James Torrence, Utica, N. Y., U. S. 

WOOLS. 
Report. — Twelve samples of merino, Leicester, and half-blood wools, of excellent quality 



and considerable merit. 

222 



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GROUP IX. 



139 



209. George W. Bond, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

WOOL, MOHAIR, AND ALPACA. 

Report. — ^A very large and complete selection of wool, mohair, and alpaca, consisting of 
oDe hundred and ninety specimens, all of distinct qualities and varieties, collected from 
ererj wool-growing country in the world, and adapted for the manufacture of all fabrics of 
which wool is a component part. The exhibit is admirably arranged for scientific investi- 
gation. 

210. W. W. Jamison, Cadiz, Ohio, U. S. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — ^Eleven samples of merino wool, of good quality and fibre, well adapted for 
combing. 

211. Thomas P. Gumming, Stony Point, Victoria, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Sample of very superior combing greasy merino wool, of excellent quality and 
growth. 

212. J. Brock, Campania, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — Fleece of pure merino wool, of very superior quality and growth. 



213. Greenwood ft Batley, Leeds, England. 

WARP-TYING MACHINE. 

Report, — A warp-tying machine of very ingenious construction. 



214. George W. Keach, Chiswick, Ross, Tasmania 

WOOL. 

Report. — A fleece of four years* old ram, and one of five years* ol<? ewe woo! of gi* ^ 
quality and adapted for combing. 

215. David Taylor, St. Johnstone's, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — ^Fleeces of pure merino wool in the grease; all of superior quality anH merit 



216. Charles Headlam, Egleston, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — Fleeces of pure merino wool of excellent quality, staple, and fibre. 



217. Samuel Page, Belle Vue, New Town, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Fleeces of pure merino hot- water washed wool ; all of superior v^uaJ'cy and 
excellent f^rowth. 

223 



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I40 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

218. Pacific Scouring Co., Hartford, Conn., U. S. 

WOOL. 

Report, — A fine specimen of beautifully cleansed wool, carefully assorted into different 
qualities, ready for manufacturing purposes. 



219. Marinska Model Farm, near Saratov, Russia. 

WOOL, 

Report, — An exhibit of excellent merino clothing wool, with samples illustrative of native 
Russian merino fleeces. 

220. Count Komarowsky, Government and District of Orel, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Six illustrative fleeces of wool of native Russian breeds and English races* 



221. Theodore Fatx, Olviopol, Kherson, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Samples of electoral wool of great fineness and beauty. 



222. V. Labenski, Government and District of Warsaw, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — ^Two cases of very beautiful electoral wools, short and fine in staple, corre- 
sponding to the fine Silesian and Hungarian wools. 



223. Ganeshin Bros., Moscow, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Merino wool, washed, fine, and of good staple. 



224. Simon Stishinsky, Golobovo, near Voronesh, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Merino wool of fine quality and good staple. 



225. Nicholas Glinka, Ostrolenka, Lomsa, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — ^Fonr fleeces of clothing wool from sheep of the electoral breed, of special 
fineness. 

226. Baklanof ft Sons, Moscow, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Six small bales of excellent washed merino wool. 



227. Edward Falx-Fein, Kakhovka, Tauride, Russia. 

WOOL, 

Report. — Commended for seven fleeces of washed merino wool of fine quality and good 
growth; and for one htmdred samples of clothing and combed merino wool of great 
excellence. 

224 



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GROUP IX. 141 

228. P. Mariolaki, Rostov on the Don, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Excellent Donskoi wool, marked for cleanness and length of staple. 



229. A. Warshawski, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Samples of wool of Rambouillet and Negretti breeds, of good growth, quality, 
and staple. 

230. Karlovka Estate of the Grand Duchess Katherine Mikhailovna, Qovemment 

of Poltava, Russia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — One hundred samples of wool from sheep of the Rambouillet and Negretti 
breeds, principally adapted for combing purposes, and remarkable for length of staple. 



231. Th. J. Martin, Verviers, Belgium. 

WOOL CARD CLOTHING. 

Report. — ^A good exhibition of wool card clothing. 



232. Felix Delrez, Verviers, Belgium. 

WOOL CARD CLOTHING. 
Report, — An excellent exhibition of wool card clothing. 



233. Heinr. Lewald, Breslau, Germany. 

WOOL. 

Report, — ^A good exhibit of woolen and vigogne fabrics, made for technical and medical 
purposes. 

234. Ambros. Marthaus, Oschatz, Germany. 

FELTS. 

Report. — Perfectly made felts used for saddle-cloths, shoes, and boots. 



235. R. von Mens, Karlsdorf, Silesia, Germany. 

SILESIAN WOOL. 

Report. — Three very fine fleeces of Silesian wool, of excellent quality and fibre, and 
adapted for the manufacture of the finest cloths produced. 



236. Valckenberg & Schoen, Worms, Germany. 

ARTIFICIAL WOOL. 

Report. — A good assortment of extract, mungo, and shoddy wool. 



237. Carlos J. Guerrero, Province of Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic. 

MICRLNO WOOL. 

Report. — Fleeces of unwashed merino wool, of sui^erior quality and fibre, adapted to Ihr. 
manufacture of cashmeres and merinos. 

15 225 



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142 liEFORTS ON AWARDS, 

238. Na2ar & Brothers, Buenos Ajrres, Argentine Republic. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — A large assortment of samples of merino wool, in great variety of staple and 
of good quality. 

239. Francisco Chas & Son, Province of Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic. 

WOOL. 

Report. — One fleece of unwashed wool, weighing thirty-one pounds, of fair quality and 
excellent growth. 

240. Jorge Stegman, Province of Buenos Ajrres, Argentine Republic. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — One fleece of healthy, full-grown merino wool, weighing twenty-one pounds, 
of good staple and fibre, and adapted for combing purposes. 



241. Wilfred Latham, Province of Buenos Ajrres, Argentine Republic. 

MERINO WOOL. 
Report. — Two fleeces of merino combing wool, of excellent quality and fibre; also 
samples of fine merino wool. 

242. Emilio Duportal, Province of Buenos Ajrres, Argentine Republic. 

WOOL. 
Report. — A very good exhibit of sheep-skin wool, very heavy, and of good quality, and 
nine inch staple ; also four fleeces excellent combing wool, weighing about twenty-three 
pounds each. 

243. Samuel B. Hale, Province of Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Six fleeces of merino combing wool, of very superior quality, well bred, and 
long staple, almost equal to Australian wool, and well adapted for the manufacture of 
merinos and Italian cloths. 

244. Count Alois Karolyi, Stampfen, Austria. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Several very beautiful fleeces of short wool, both washed and unwashed, of ex- 
ceedingly fine quality and fibre, and adapted for the manufacture of superfine cloths. 



245. Adolf Jacob, Reichenberg, Bohemia, Austria. 

WOOLEN CLOTH. 

Report. — A rich collection of military cloth, in good qualities and brilliant colors. 



246. Count Emerich Hunjrady, Urm^ny, Hungary, Austria. 

HUNGARIA.N WOOL. 

Report. — Fleeces of washed and unwashed Hungarian wool, of excellent quality and 
fibre, and adapted to the manufacture of fine cloths. 

226 



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GROUP IX. 143 

247. Joint Stock Company of the Voslau Worsted Yam Manufactory. Vbslau, 

Austria. 

WORSTED YARNS, 

Report. — An excellent collection of worsted yarns, of various numbers and brilliant 
colors. 

248. John L. Bowes & Brother, Liverpool, England. 

WOOLS, MOHAIRS, ALPACAS, NOILS, AND WASTE. 

Report. — Commended for a very complete and well-arranged assortment of wool, mohair, 
and alpaca, comprising about two hundred and eighty specimens, from all parts of the 
world; also for wool waste, extract wool, silk noils, camels'-hair noils, alpaca and mohair 
noils, mmigo, and wool-waste, adapted for manufacturing purposes. 



249. Qunerius Pettersen, Christiania, Norway. 

FLANNELS AND WOOLEN DRESS GOODS. 

Report, — Well-made dress goods and flannels, for general consumption. 



250. Frederick Shaw, Redbanks, Swansea, Tasmania . 

LEICESTER WOOL. 

Report. — One fleece of Leicester wool, of excellent quality and growth. 



251. Wm. H. Gibson, Fairfield, Snake Banks, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — For fleeces of pure merino raw wool, of superior quality and staple. 



252. John Taylor, Milford, Campbell Town, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Washed and skirted yearling merino ewe wool, of first-rate quality, adapted for 
the manufactiure of the finest goods. 



253. W. Gibson & Son, Scone, Perth, Tasmania. 

MERINO^ WOOL. 
Report. — Fleeces of pure merino ram, ewe, and hogget wool, all of excellent quality and 
of the highest merit. 

254. George Wilson, Oatlands, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL, 

Report, — Several fleeces of fine merino wool, of excellent quality, well bred, and of 
good staple, weighing about eleven and a half pounds each. 



255. James Gibson, Belle Vue, Cleveland, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Fleeces of pure merino, ram, ewe, and lambs' wool, all of excellent quality 
and growth. 

227 



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144 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

256. W. H. D. Archer, Brickendon, Longford, Tasmania. 

woou 

Report. — Samples of pure merino and lambs* wool, all of excellent quality and growth. 



257. George Taylor, Milford, Campbell Town, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Several very superb fleeces from stud merino ram, valuable for length of fibre 
and adaptation for the manufacture of the best merinos and cashmeres. 



258. William Kemp, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report, — Twelve sheep-skins of excellent growth and quality; very good of their kind. 



259. Fenwick & Scott, Queensland, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — A large collection of samples of Australian wool, most of which are of high 
merit, great length of staple, and superior quality. 



260. Q. H. Davenport, Headington Hill, Queensland, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — A most choice exhibit of merino combing wool of the finest quality, long staple, 
and excellent in every respect ; especially remarkable for its length and richness of fibre. 



261. Hajrward, Armstrong, & Co., Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — A very good selection of merino, ewe, wether, hogget, and lambs* wool, all of 
superior quality and merit. 

262. John Howard Angus, Adelaide; South Australia, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Commended for scoured merino laml«* wool, of fine quality and in good con- 
dition ; also for two cases of show wool of choice quality, and for dressed skins of pure 
Lincoln ram, clean and of good staple. 



263. Shanahan & Jennings, Westbrook Station, Queensland, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — A very excellent exhibit of Australian merino wool, choice in every respect. 



264. Allan McFarlane, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 
wooi« 
Report. — Merino ewe wool, of good fibre, staple, and quality. 



265. Price & Browne, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 
wooi« 
Report. — Merino, ewe, wether, hogget, and lambs' wool, of fine quality, good fibre, and 
healthy growth. 

228 



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GROUP IX, 145 

266. L. E. Lester, Rosenthal, Queensland, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Australian merino wool, of superior quality and in fine condition. 



267. John Murray, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — A choice selection of combing merino rams' wool, of long staple and excellent 
quality, some fleeces weighing fifteen pounds. 



268. Joseph Keynes, Keyneton, South Australia, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — ^Four fleeces of combing merino wool, of healthy growth, good staple, and 
superior quality. 

269. C. B. Fisher, Headington Hill, Queensland, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 
Report. — ^Well-bred merino wool, of exceedingly fine quality, good staple and growth. 



270. John Wilson, Lismore, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — ^Three fleeces of greasy merino lambs', ewcb', and wethers' wool, of good 
quality and growth, adapted both for combing and clothing purposes. 



271. W. & N. G. Elder, Elder, Rookwood, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — ^An excellen texhibitof merino lambs', ewes', and wether wool, of very superior 
quality and growth. 

272. R. Goldsbrough & Co., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — A very considerable variety of greasy and washed merino wool, most of which 
is of very superior quality and growth, and adapted for both clothing and combing pur- 
poses. 

273. George Arnold & Co., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report, — Five cases of wool, containing thirty fleeces of washed and greasy merino ; 
also, Lincoln, Leicester, and cross-bred. The merinos are excellent in every respect, and 
the Leicester crosses are of considerable merit. 



274. Timms Brothers, Mount Hesse, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Samples of ewe and wether merinos, hot- water washed, of very superior quality 



and fibre. 

229 



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146 I^EPOJ^TS ON AWARDS. 

275. Hastings Cunningham & Co., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — A most complete assortment of fine washed combing merino wool; also greasy 
rams* wool, and cross-bred and Lincoln ewe fleeces. The merino wool is excellent in 
every respect, and reflects great credit on the growers. 



276. Alexander Armstrong, Warramtine, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — A very creditable exhibit of washed and greasy merino wool, of excellent 
quality and growth. 

277. Wm. Bliss & Son, Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, England. 

WOOLENS. 

Report. — Commended for a very handsome assortment of Himalayan shawls, novel in 
pattern and combination; also, for tweeds, Cotswold suitings, serges for military wear, 
Cambridge rugs. Angora beavers and horse clothing ; all of excellent manufacture and 
adapted for general use. 



278. Howgate, Day, & Nolt, Huddersfield, England. 

WOOLENS. 

Report, — A very complete assortment of reversible coatings, Victoria naps, Irish frieze, 
and presidents cloth ; all of excellent manufacture, at low prices. 



279. Nussey & Leachman, Leeds, England. 

CLOTH MACHINE. 

Report. — A powerful hot-pressing machine for cloth, having an effective and automatic 
action. 



280. B. C. Parr, Queensland, Australia. 

AUSTRALIAN WOOL. 

Report, — Australian wool, of superior quality and in good condition, high class wool in 
every respect. 

2S1. George Clark, East Talgai, Queensland, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Australian merino wool, of very superior quality and fibre, and of high merit. 



2S2. Gore & Co., Yandilla, Queensland, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — A very good exhibit of merino wool, of fine quality, good staple, and healthy 
growth. 

283. Simpson & Co., Bon Acora, Queensland, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Combing merino wool, of very superior quality, staple, and growth. 

230 



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GROUP IX, 147 

284. F. R. White, Blandford, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Commended for combing merino wool, of superior growth and quality ; also 
for several fleeces of Saxon merino wool, of excellent growth and staple. 



285. J. B. Bettington, Merrieva, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Commended for two cases of Saxon merino combing wool, of fine quality, 
good staple and growth ; also for greasy wool, of very superior quality and merit. 



286. G. H. Cox, Mudgee, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — An extensive and excellent exhibit of Saxon merino combing wool, beautifully 
washed, of the finest quality, and very high merit. 



287. Henty & Balfour, Albury, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Two cases of combing merino wool, of very superior quality and growth, and 
excellent in every respect. 

288. E. K. Cox, Mudgee, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Several fleeces of Saxon merino combing wool, well washed, of excellent 
quality, fibre, and staple, and of very high merit. 



289. £. & A. Tindal, Barrajan, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Commended for fine washed combing Saxon merino wool, of very superior 
quality and fibre, and of high merit ; also for greasy combing wool of superior quality. 



290. W. S. Peter, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

WOOL. 
Report, — Merino fleece wool, of very choice quality, good fibre, and staple. 



291. Samuel Bealey, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Several fleeces cross-merino ewe wool, by Romney Marsh or Kent ram, of very 
choice quality and good weight. 

292. John Hall, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Merino fleece wool, of very superior quality and growth. 



293. Geo. A. Anstey, Nelson, New Zealand. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Several fleeces of merino ram and ewe wool, of choice quality and excellent 
growth. 

231 



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148 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

294. J. Cathcart Wason, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Commended for several fleeces of merino wether wool, and for Lincoln fleeces, 
of good staple and quality. 

295. A. Braithwaite, Wellington, New Zealand. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Romney Maish and merino fleece wool, of good quality and growth. 



296. A. H. Rickman, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Romney Marsh ewe wool, very silky, and of healthy growth. 



297. Charles Clark, Queensland, Australia. 

ANGORA WOOL. 

Report, — Fleece of pure Angora wool, of excellent quality, good staple, and rich lustre. 



298. Willibald Schram, Vienna, Austria. 

JACQUARD MACHINES. 

Report, — ^Jacquard machines, excellent in workmanship. 



299. G. L. Lethbridge, Singleton, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Cases of Saxon merino greasy combing wool, of good fibre and quality. 



300. A. N. Gilbert, Warwillah, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Saxon merino combing wool, of fine quality, good staple, and healthy growth. 



301. £. & A. Bowman, Rotherwood, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Commended for greasy merino clothing wool, of superior quality and adapted 
for fine cloths ; also for several cases of Saxon merino combing wool, of good quality and 
fibre. 

302. T. Brown & Co., Tuppal, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Cases of excellent combing merino wool, of first-rate quality, and, if free from 
burrs, would be most choice wool. , 

303. Hon. James Maclanachan, Ballochmyle, Tasmania. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Fleeces of pure merino rams* wool, in the grease, of excellent gix>wth and 
quality, weighing from ten to eleven pounds each. 

232 



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CROUP IX, 149 

304. Thomas Russell, Barunah Plains, Victoria, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report, — Hot-water washed wool, of excellent quality and high merit. 



305. W. S. Shailand, Woodbridge, New Norfolk, Tasmania. 

WOOL. 

Report, — ^Fleeces of pure merino wool, of good quality, fibre, and staple. 



306. John Ralston, Logan, Evandale, Tasmania. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Several fleeces of pure merino wool, of good quality and growth ; also Leicester 
fleeces of very good length, staple, and quality, highly creditable to the grower. 



307. Victorian Woolen Cloth Co., Victoria, Australia. 

WOOLENS. 

Report, — Shawls, tweeds, and broadcloths, made of pure wool, and of honest and sub- 
stantial manufacture ; very creditable for a new country. 



308. Thos. Parramore, Beaufort, Ross, Tasmania. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — Several fleeces of wool from pure merino ram and ewes, of very superior 
quality and staple. 

309. John McVean, Wooloomoonoo, New South Wales, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report, — Combing merino wool, of fine fibre and staple and very superior quality. 



310. Geo. Synnot & Co., Geelong, Victoria, Australia. 

LINCOLN WOOL. 

Report, — Samples of well-grown Lincoln wool, of good staple and rich fibre. 



311. Andrew Loder, CoUey Creek, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Commended for an excellent exhibit of fine merino clothing wool, of superb 
quality, and adapted for the manufacture of the 1)est superfine cloths ; abo for combing 
merino wool, of very choice quality, staple, and fibre. 



312. A. H. Lowe, Dynevor, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — Angora goats' wool of fine growth and high lustre, adapted for the manufacture 
of mohair fabrics ; capable of further improvement. 



313. John Allen, Burrangong, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report, — One case of Saxon merino combing wool, of very fine quxditv and good staple ; 
also well bred. 



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1 50 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

314. Wm. Lang, Wargam, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report — Excellent samples of greasy wether and hogget wool, of very superior quality 
and staple. 

315. F. & A. Cox, Mudgee, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report, — A very superior exhibit of fine Saxon merino combing wool, excellent in 
quality and fibre. 

316. D. H. Campbell, Cunningham Plains, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Commended for one case of Rambouillet combing wool, of superior quality, 
healthy growth, and good staple; also for clothing wool adapted for fine cloths. 



317. W. A. Brodribb, Moolbong, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Fine combing merino wool, of good staple and quality, and adapted for the 
manufacture of cassimeres. 

318. L. Learmonth, Groongal, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Cases of fine combing merino wool, of excellent quality, fibre, and growth; 
a most choice selection. 



319. E. B. Hulme, Burrowa, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Saxon merino combing wool in the grease, of good fibre, quality, and growth ; 
also very heavy fleeces. 

320. P. G. King, Goonoo Goonoo, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Several fleeces of superior combing merino wool, excellent in quality and 
staple. 

321. Clive & Hamilton, CoUaroy, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — A very superior exhibit of beautifully washed merino combing wool, of the 
highest quality, and excellent in every respect; also combing wool of choice quality. 



322. Alexander Wilson, Coree, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Fleeces of merino combing wool, of excellent growth and quality, and adapted 
for combing purposes; very choice in every respect. 



323. W. Crozier, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 

WOOL. 
Report. — Merino ewe wool of good staple, quality, and growth. 

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GROUP IX, 151 

324. Wolfendcn, Shore, & Co., Cardington, Pa., U. S. 

CLOTH LOOM. 
Report. — A general purpose cloth loom, of simplicity of motions and reasonable price. 



325. Samuel McCaughey, Coonong, New South Wales, Australia. 

WOOL. 

Report. — One case of combing merino wool, of very superior quality and good staple ; 
also beautifully washed. 

326. Sir Samuel Wilson, Oakleigh Hall, Victoria, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 
Report. — Five bales of very fine merino wool, both ewes* and hoggets*, remarkable for 
fineness of fibre and length of staple; admirably adapted for the manufacture of the finest 
cloths and cassimeres. 

327. Marshall & Slade, Glengallan, Queensland, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — A very creditable exhibit of merino wool, one fleece of which is from Cham- 
Itton ram. The wool is choice in every respect. 



328. C. H. Green, Goomburra, Queensland, Australia. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Australian merino wool, of first-rate quality, and in excellent condition. 



329. James Kirkman, Chester, Pa., U. S. 

COTTON AND WOOL DOESKINS. 
Report. — An exhibit of union doeskins (or Kentucky jeans), in a variety of mixtures, at 
low prices, and adapted to common use. 



330. Knox Woolen Company, Camden, Me., U. S. 

PAPER-MAKERS* FELTS. 

Report. — An exhibit of paper-makers* felts, unsurpassed in excellence. 



331. Provincial Commission, Province of Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic. 

WOOL. 

Report. — Samples of merino and other wools, in different classes and great varieties; the 
staple in some instances being eight inches long; also sheep-skin, Cordova, and goats* wool; 
all of excellent growth and great weight. 

332. Portalegre Woolen Manufacturing Co., Portalegre, Portugal. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — A collection of fancy cassimeres, in creditable qualities and good designs. 



333. Joint Exhibition of Elberfeld Manufacturers of Zanella and Coatings, 
Elberfeld, Germany. 

ITALIAN CLOTHS. 

Report. — ^A splendid exhibition of Italian cloths and coatings, plain and figured, of ex- 
cellent qualities, fine color, and perfect finish. 

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152 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

334. Association of Cloth Makers of Reichenberg, Bohemia, Austria. 

CLOTHS, DOESKINS, AND TRICOTS. 
Report. — A creditable assortment of broadclotlis, doeskins, and tricots, of good quality 
at cheap prices. 

335. Orange Free Stotc, Africa. 

WOOL. 

Report, — One bale of mohair and two bales of merino clothing wool ; all of excellent 
quality. 

336. Prycc Jones, Newtown, North Wales, Great Britain. 

FLANNELS. 

Report. — A creditable exhibit of white Welsh, colored, striped, and robe flannels, 
together with mixed shawls of substantial make. 



337. Carlo Ditta Morandi, Milan, Italy. 

SILK TASSELS AND FURNITURE GALLOONS. 

Report, — ^Very well made silk tassels and furniture galloons. 



338. Enrico Beati, Milan, Italy. 

SILK .STOCKINGS. 

Report. — A good variety of plain and fancy silk stockings. 



339. The Nishijin Weavers, Kiyoto, Japan. 

BROCADED SILKS. 

Report. — An excellent show of rich brocade silks, of good designs and combinations of 
colors. 



340. A. L. Trapadoux, Brothers, & Co., Lyons, France. 

PRINTED FOULARDS. 

Report. — A handsome collection of foulards. 



341. A. L. Woodworth, St. John, New Brunswick. 

WOOLEN YARNS. 

Report. — A considerable variety of woolen yams, in good colors, and well adapted for 
the purpose intended. 

342. Titus Calverley & Sons, Huddersfield, England. 

DOESKINS AND CASSIMERES. 
Report. — Commended for economy and cost in the manufacture of black doeskins and 
union cassimeres, which are really creditable articles at the price. 



343. Geo. H. Gilbert Manufacturing Co., Ware, Mass., U. S 

FLANNELS AND BLANKETS. 
Report. — An imposing display of flannels and blankets, the former consisting of all wool 
white silk warp, gauze, moleskin, Shaker, domett, and opera flannels ; the scarlet and blues 
of the latter especially striking; the blankets made of Ohio and West Virginia wool are 
noticeable for their softness of material and excellence of manufacture. 

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CROUP IX, 



153 



344 Manchester Mills, Manchester, N. H., U. S. 

STUFF DRESS GOODS. 

Report. — A very complete assortment of three-quarters figured dress goods — mixtures, 
lustres, cashmeres, twills, and six-quarters cashmeres; all of excellent manufacture, color, 
and finish, at reasonable prices, and adapted for general consumption. 



345. Edward Webb & Sons, Worcester, England. 

HAIR CLOTH. 

Report, — Hair cloth, adapted to upholstery and tailors* padding; the former specially 
notable for beauty and novelty of effects in pure white grounds, with rich dark-colored 
stripes in various shades; the fabric adapted to warm climates. 



346. Robert S. Davies & Sons, Stonehouse Mills, Gloucestershire, England.. 

CLOTHS, BEAVERS, MELTONS, AND DOESKINS. 

Report, — A very creditable exhibit of superfine cloths, beavers, meltons, and doeskins, 
of excellent manufacture, color, and finish. 



347. H. Winger, Elmira, Ontario, Canada. 

FLANNELS. 

Report, — Serge flannel cotton wool blankets ; excellent for the price. 



348. Kell & Co., Bradford, England 

LASTINGS. 

Report, — Lastings marked for their lustre and good texture. 



349. Smith & Wilby, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

FLANNELS. 

Report, — Three-quarters domestic flannels, at low cost, for general use. 



350. Oxford Woolen Mills, Oxford, Nova Scotia. 

WOOLENS. 

Report, — ^Wool flannels, Halifax tweeds, and home-spun stufl"; all excellent goods for 
general use. 



351. John Wardlaw, Gait, Onurio, Canada. 

WOOLEN YARNS. 

Report, — ^White, colored, and gray knitting yarns, in considerable variety of shades, 
cheap, aseful, and well adapted for general use. 



352. Rosamond Woolen Co., Almonte, Ontario, Canada. 

WOOLENS. 

Report. — Fancy cassimeres and tweeds, of excellent manufacture and low cost. 



353. Mills & Hutchison, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 

WO(JLENS. 

Report. — Three-quarters cassimeres and Canadian tweeds, of excellent manufacture and 
good value. 



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154 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

354. Adam Lomas & Son, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. 

FLANNELS. 

Report, — Very cheap flannels, dotlis, and tweeds, well adapted for general consumption. 



355. Samuel T. Willett, Chambly, Quebec, Canada. 

FLANNEl^. 

Report, — Blue, scarlet, and mixed flannels, of rich color and soft texture, all excellent 
for the price. 

356. John Harvie & Co., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

WOOL. 
Report. — A very complete and creditable exhibit of Leicester, Cotswold, and Southdown 
wool ; also the following crosses : Leicester and merino, Leicester and Southdown, Cots- 
wold and Leicester, Lincoln and Cotswold, Leicester and Cotswold. The Southdown and 
Leicester merino are excellent both in staple and fibre, also the Leicester and Southdown 
cross good ; the others fair. 

357. Toronto Tweed Co., Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

WOOLENS. 

Report, — Fancy Scotch tweeds, plaids, and cheviots, in novel patterns, and at reasonable 
prices. 

358. T. S. Fisher, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

WOOLENS. 

Report, — Cheviot coatings, meltons, tweeds, and Blair Athols, all of useful manufacture 
and at low prices. 

359. Robt. Brearley & Son, Great Britain. 

PILOTS, BEAVERS, AND OVERCOATINGS. 

Report. — A very creditable exhibit of pilots, beavers, and overcoatings, at moderate cost, 
and adapted for general consumption. 



360. Jesse Eddy's Sons, Fall River, Mass., U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report, — Well-made fancy cassimeres of novel English effects, in great variety and at 
moderate prices. 

361. Peckham Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. L, U. S. 

KENTUCKY JEANS, DOESKINS, AND WOOLEN YARNS. 
Report, — Kentucky jeans and doeskins, smooth in finish and uniform in shade; also an 
excellent exhibit of woolen yams in great variety of shades. 



362. Groveland Mills, South Groveland, Mass., U. S. 

FLANNELS. 

Report, — An assorted exhibit of red Shaker, Martha Washington, white, light red, and 
blue flannels, both in twenty-seven and thirty-six inch widths ; all of good fabrication, at 
moderate cost. 

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GROUP IX, 155 

363. Oregon City Woolen Mills, Oregon, U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES AND BLANKETS. 

Report, — Fancy cassimeres, substantial in fabric, of excellent Bnisb, and good designs ; 
also blankets of good quality; all marked for their cheapness, resulting from the availability 
of Oregon wools at low cost. 

364. Charles N. Bacon, Winchester, Mass., U. S. 

FELTS. 

Report. — An excellent exhibit of felt goods, in great variety and of good fabrication, 
comprising many novel and ingenious applications. 



365. William Walshaw, Saxonville Mills, Mass., U. S. 

DYEING. 

Report, — ^A considerable exhibit of colors, in great variety, in woolen and worsted yams. 



366. Meriden Woolen Co., West Meriden, Conn., U. S. 

FANCY UNION CASSIMERES. 

Report, — Fancy union cassimeres of good manufacture, at cheap prices. 



367. Union Manufacturing Co., Wolcottville, Conn., U. S. 

THREE-QUARTERS BLACK DOESKINS. 
Report, — Three-quarters black doeskins ; excellent in fabric, color, and finish. 



368. Henry Fox & Co., Urbana, Ohio, U. S. 

STOCKING YARNS AND TWEEDS. 

Report, — Excellent indigo-dyed stocking yams ; also tweeds, honest and substantial in 
material and make. 

369. Niantic Woolen Mills, East Lyme, Conn., U. S. 

COTTON WARP TWEEDS. 

Report, — Commended for a three-quarters cotton warp tweed, tastefully mixed with 
silk noils for " Knickerbocker** effects, at cheap prices. 



370. Arlington Mills, Lawrence, Mass., U. S. 

ALPACAS AND BRILLIANTINES, 

Report, — A very superior collection of black alpacas, brilliantines, figured mohairs, and 
Roubaix poplins ; all first-class goods of their kind, very uniform in width, color, and finish, 
and, being of recent introduction, reflect great credit on the manufacturers. 



371. Beckman & Co., Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. 

WOOL SHODDIES. 

Report, — A full assortment of all wool shoddies, comprising about seventy-eight varieties 
of colors and mixtures, beautifully arranged, and of considerable merit 

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156 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

372. Globe Woolen Co., Utica, N. Y., U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report, — ^An admirable exiiibit of fancy cassimcrcs, in great variety of design, superior 
in texture and finish; the silk-mixed, hair-lines, and velvet effects are specially note- 
worthy. 

373. Weybosset Mills, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — Three-quarters fancy cassimeres, of substantial make and tasteful designs, at 
moderate cost, adapted for general use. 



374. Lippitt Woolen Co., Woonsocket, R. I., U. S. 

OVERCOATINGS AND FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — A good exhibit of all wool fancy elysians and fur beavers, of varied patterns 
and colors, in low and medium grades. 



375. L. Dryfoos & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

FELT SKIRTS. 

Report. — Commended for a handsome exhibit of felt skirts, and for originality of desi^ 
in embroidery. 

376. Economy Mills, Philadelphia, Pa., U. 8. 

COTTON WARP AND WOOL FUR BEAVERS. 

Report, — Various grades of cotton warp and all wool fur beavers and chinchillas, of 
excellent designs, at cheap prices, together with cotton warj) bed and horse blankets for 
general consimiptlon, at very low cost. 



377. Tillotson & Collins, Pittsfield, Mass., U. S. 

CASSIMERES. 

Report. — ^Three-quarters cotton waq->, double and twist cassimeres of low grades, note- 
worthy for evenness of weave and clearness of mixture, with low prices. 



378. James Phillips, Jr., Fitchburg, Mass., U. S. 

WORSTED SUITINGS. 

Report. — ^Worsted suitings made from Ohio wool, unsurpassed for excellence of manu- 
facture, superiority of quality, and beauty of styles. 



379. Camden Woolen Mills, Camden, N. J., U. S. 

COTTON WARP REFELLANTS AND FLANNELS. 

Report. — Cotton warp rcpellants, flannels, cloakings, and knickerbocker goods at low 
prices. 



3S0. Hinsdale Bros., Hinsdale, Mass., U. S. 

KERSEYS AND COATINGS. 

Report. — Commend e<l for light colored kerseys of good finish and beautiful and even 
shades, and for excellent coalings. 

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GROUP IX. 157 

381. Martin Landenberger's Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

DRESS GOODS AND SHAWLS. 

Report. — A brilliant exhibit of fancy worsted dress goods and shawls, both knit and 
woven, the latter original in design and process of manufacture. 

The India styles are especially creditable for novelty and tastefulness of design and 
moderate prices. 

3S2. Washington Mills, E. R. Mudge, Sawyer, & Co., Lawrence, Mass., U. S. 

WORSTED AND STUFF GOODS. 

Report. — A very creditable exhibit of three-quarters worsted stuff goods, consisting of 
plain and twilled mixtures, checks, stripes, cretonnes, and all wool delaines ; all very useful 
goods, and adapted for general consumption. 



383. Robert Rodman, Lafayette, R. I., U. S. 

DOESKIN JEANS. 

Report, — Humboldt jeans of cotton warp and all wool filling, of substantial make and 
intrinsic worth, for common wear. 

384. Wonimbo Manufacturing Co., Lisbon Falls, Me., U. S. 

OVERCOATINGS. 

Report. — Black and colored Moscow beavers, of excellent fabric, color, ajid finish. 



385. Mississippi Mills, Wesson, Miss., U. S. 

WOOL FILLING JEANS. 
Report. — ^An exhibit of doeskin jeans, of substantial manufacture, adapted to the wants 
of the laboring classes. 

386. Bates Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Me., U. S. 

BEAVERS AND REPELLANTS. 

Report, — ^Well-made beavers and repellants. 



387. Middlesex Co., Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

WOOLEN GOODS. 
Report. — Commended for indigo-blue police flannels, cadet uniform and yacht cloths, 
with police beavers; all of substantial fabrication, and adapted for uniformed schools, city 
police, and for general consumption ; also for large shawls, in excellent colors, at moderate 
prices. 

388. Midnight Yam Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GERMANTOWN WOOL AND WOOLEN KNITTING YARNS. 

Repoi-t. — An exhibit of woolen Germantown and knitting yams, adapted for crochet antl 
hand-knitting, embroidery, and hosiery, of brilliant colors and great variety of shades. 



389. Germania Mills, Holyoke, Mass., U. S. 

BEAVERS, ESKIMOS, AND DOESKINS. 
Report. — ^Three exhibits of fur beavers, elysians, and eskimos; the Germania beavers, in 
blacks and colors, are especially commended for excellence of texture and finish. 
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158 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

390. Hockanum Co., Rockville, Conn., U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES AND WORSTEDS. 
Report. — A superb display of fancy cassimeres and worsted suitings, excellent in all 
respects. 

/ 391. Bel Air Manufacturing Co., Piusfield, Mass., U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — An admirable exhibit of fancy cassimeres, of bold and novel designs, in great 
variety and of excellent manufacture. 



392. Woodvale Woolen Mills, Johnstown, Pa., U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — Fancy cassimeres of medium grades, substantially made, of 'neat design, and at 
moderate prices. 

393. Burlington Woolen Co., Winooski Falls, Vt., U. S. 

CASSIMERES AND OVERCOATINGS. 

Report. — A good exhibit of elysians, black and colored Moscows, kerseys, and castors ; 
also three-quarters black doeskins of superior finish and color. 



394. New England Manufacturing Co., Rockville, Conn., U. S. 

WOOLEN CASSIMERES. 
Report. — Fancy cassimeres of unsurpassed excellence in material, fabric, and finish ; the 
designs tasteful, novel, and varied. 

395. The Broad Brook Co., Broad Brook, Conn., U. S 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — An excellent exhibit of fancy cassimeres, in great variety, substantial, well 
made, and of good designs ; also meritorious indigo-blue coatings. 



396. C. H. & F. H. Stott, StottsviUe, N. Y., U. S. 

FLANNELS. 

Report, — Cotton and wool-mixed twilled flannels, for bathing-robes and other purposes ; 
also plaid flannels of a better grade, all noticeable for cheap prices. 



397. Steam Woolen Co., Catskill, N. Y., U. S. 

CHEVIOT SUITINGS AND SHAWLS. 

Report. — A low grade of cheviot suitings and cotton and wool shawls, both specially 
noteworthy for cheap prices and adaptation to general consumption. 



398. Pawtucket Hair Cloth Co., Pawtucket, R. I., U. S. 

HAIR CLOTH. 

Report, — Commended for a handsome exhibit of upholstery hair cloth, varied in coI.t 
and width, and noticeable for the evenness and smoothness of fabrication, especially credii 
able as a new industry in this country; also for originality in the application of auiouiaiic 
machinery to this fabrication. 

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GROUP IX. 
399. Sawyer Woolen Mills, Dover, N. H., U. S. 

FANCY CASSIMERES AND SUITINGS. 



159 



Report. — Fancy cassimeres and kerseys in blacks and colors, of high intrinsic merit, free 
from cotton, shoddy, or flocks; the styles neat, and the prices for the quality low ; the silk 
mixed and the double and twist specially commended. 



400. United States Bunting Co., Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

WOOLEN BUNTING, MOREENS, AND DAMASKS. 

Report. — Commended for an excellent show of bunting made of English and Canadian 
wool, and for originality of process of striping and forming design and pattern; also fur 
moreens and damasks of creditable manufacture and of considerable merit. 



401. Fan Alpaca Co., Holyoke, Mass., U. S. 

ALPACAS AND SERGKS. 

Report. — An excellent exhibit of black alpacas, mohairs, cashmeres, and serges; all of 
superior manufacture, very regular in quality, evenly spun and woven, and of permanent 
color and Bnish. 

402. Philadelphia Worsted Spinners' Association, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

WORSTED YARNS. 
Report. — A most complete and admirable collection of extra fine yarns, from numbers 
fifty to two hundred ; also, colored and mixed yams in beautiful colors and great variety, 
and zephyr, braid, cassimere, genappe, shawl, knitting, floss, and upholstery yarn : al' very 
evenly spun, well adapted for thfe purposes intended, and excellent in every respect. 
Mostly spun from American wool. 

403. Hamilton Woolen Mills, Southbridge, Mass., U. S. 

REPS AND DELAINES. 

Report. — A very handsome and complete assortment of three-quarters printed reps and 
delaines, in strong patterns and designs, adapted for general consumption, and at lowprice<;. 



404. Peacedale Manufacturing Company, Peacedale, R. I., U. S. 

LASTINGS, SHAWLS, AND WORSTED SUITINGS. 

Report. — An exhibit of eleven thread and other numbers of lastings, of very creditable 
manufacture, and well adapted for shoe purposes; also worsted suitings of excellent manu- 
facture, and shawls in great variety. The all wool cheap shawls are especially creditable. 



405. R. Howard & Sons, Apponaug, R. I., U. S. 

WOOLEN YARNS. 

Report. — Woolen yams, well spun, and of good colors. 



406. Montessuy & A. Chomer, Lyons, France. 

CRAPES. 

Report. — Goods perfect in manufacture, color, and finish, showing particularly greal 
improvements in English crapes. 

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sat*, if^-^nv^'?^ -^^ - 



160 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

407. L. Drogue & A. Monnard, Lsrons, Prance. 

POPLINS. 

Report. — A fine assortment of plain, striped, and figured poplins, of brilliant shades and 
good workmanship. 

408. Ph. Dufourmantel & Co., Corbie, Somme, Prance. 

WOOLEN YARNS AND YARNS OF WOOL AND SILK. 

Report. — Woolen and silk and woolen yams of great perfection and wonderful fineness. 



409. Poirrier, Mortier, & Muller, Paris, Prance. 

DYED GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety and beauty of colors in dyed cashmeres and 



410. P. Piquee & Bros., Paris, Prance. 

UPHOLSTERY. 

Report. — Figured and plain Utrecht velvets of excellent finish and colors. 



411. Pinon & Guerin, Reims and Paris, Prance. 

WOOLEN DRESS GOODS. 

Report, — Knickerbocker woolen dress goods, in great variety and of excellent designs. 



412. G. Maes, Clichy-la-Garenne, Prance. 

DYED GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for the vividness of color and variety of tints in dyed cashmeres 
and upholstery goods. 

413. Dumortier & Guigniet, Roubaix, Prance. 

WORSTED SUITINGS. 

Report. — Commended for variety of designs and excellence of manufacture in worsted 
suitings. 

414. P. Talamon Son & Co., Paris and Elbeuf, Prance. 

CLOTHS. 

Report. — An admirable display of fancy cassimeres and worsted suitings, excellent in 
design and fabrication. 

415. Decaux Son, Elbeuf, Prance. 

MILITARY CLOTHS. 

Report. — Well-made and serviceable military cloths of good colors. 



416. P. Vanoutr3rve & Co., Roubaix, Prance. 

UPHOLSTERY GOODS. 

• Report. — upholstery goods, reps, tapestries, and damasks, distinguished for beauty, excel- 
lence of fabrication, and variety of product. 

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GROUP IX. i6r 

417. Dabert & Co., St. Denis, France. 

YARNS. 

Report, — A large assortment of melanges, in great variety of hues and shades, very evenly 
mixed. 



418. Braquenie Brothers, Aubusson, France. 

TAPESTRIES. 

Report, — A rich collection of Gobelin tapestries, of excellent workmanship and design 
and of a very high artistic merit. 

419. Pin & Cleugnet, Lyons, France. 

SHAWLS. 
Report, — Shawls in India style, distinguished for beauty of design, harmony of color, 
and excellence of manufacture, and especially for the clearness of the whites. 



420. Seydoux, Sieber, and Co., Paris, France. 

MERINO, CASHMERES, ROVINGS, AND YARNS. 

Report, — Commended for a magnificent exhibit of French merinos, all wool and silk 
warp cashmeres, gauzes, and deb^ges; all of the highest order of merit in material, texture, 
beauty, and variety of hue and shade; also for a complete collection of wool rovings aiul 
yarns, illustrative of the material of which the goods are composed. 



421. E. Bellest & Co., Elbeuf, France. 

BLACK AND COLORED CLOTHS. 

Report, — A creditable exhibit of black and colored cloths of medium grades. 



422. Chalamel & Co., Paris, France. 

DYED GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for brilliant and varied tints in cashmeres and upholstery goods. 



423. A. Quillaumet's Sons, Suresnes, France. 

DYED GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for beauty, variety, and vividness of tints in merinos, poplins, and 
reps. 

424. E. de Montagnon & Son, Sedan, France. 

CLOTHS. 

Report, — Overcoatings and worsted suitings of novel and elegant designs and excellent 
quality. 

425. Bertrand Boulla, Ntmes, France. 

TAPESTRY. 

Report, — Woven tapestiy in imitation of the style of the Middle Ages, of high merit and 
at low prices. 

426. Robert- Ouerin's Widovir & Son, Reims, France. 

MERINOS, CASHMERES, AND REPS. 

Report, — Merinos, cashmeres, and reps of excellent manufacture. 

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1 62 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

427. Wanskuck Company, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

OVERCOATINGS. 

Report. — A beautiful exhibit of fancy elysians and fur beavers, excellent in design and 
texture; their Devonshire kerseys in bla9k and colors especially commendable. 



428. The Rock Manufacturing Company, Rockville, Conn., U. S. 

FANCY CASSI MERES. 

Report. — An unsurpassed exhibit of fancy cassimeres, in great variety of designs, without 
blemish in texture and finish; the hair-lines and velvets especially commendable. 



429. Conshohocken Woolen Mills, Conshohocken, Pa., U. S. 

BEAVERS AND DOESKINS. 

Report. — Moscow castor and doeskin beavers of medium grades, well made for the pur- 
poses intended, and at moderate prices; the diagonal beavers especially commendable. 



430. J. Ledward & Son, Chester, Pa., U. S. 

COTTON AND WOOL DOESKINS. 

Report. — Cotton and wool doeskins of good and substantial make and at low prices, 
adapted for a large demand in agricultural districts. 



431. James Roy & Co., Watervliet Mills, West Troy, N. Y., U. S. 

SHAWLS AND WORSTED SUITINGS. 
Report. — An excellent and varied display of worsted suitings and plaid shawls, the fonnei 
of superior manufacture and design, and the shawls especially creditable for good taste in 
color and design, with cheap cost. 



432. North Star Mills, Minneapolis, Minn., U. S. 

BLANKETS. 

Report. — Commended for blankets made of Minnesota and Ohio wools, of very high 
excellence and beauty; also for blankets sixty-six inches by eighty-four inches, adapted foi 
popular consumption, at low prices. 



433. Waterloo Woolen Manufacturing Company, Waterloo, N. Y., U. S. 

SHAWLS. 
Report. — Plain and fancy woolen shawls, notable for their brilliancy of colors and beauty 
of styles. 

434. Mission Woolen Mills, San Francisco, Cal., U. S. 

BLANKETS. 

Report. — Blankets, carriage and lap robes, made of Pacific coast wool, the higher quali- 
ties unsurpassed in excellence of fabrication, softness of finish, and tastefulness of borders. 



435. Jacobs, Poelaert, & Co., Brussels, Belgium. 

BLANKETS. 

Report. — Commended for cheapness and adaptation of blankets to general consumption. 

246 



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GROUP IX, 163 

436. Leop. Ph. Hemmer, Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany. 

FULLING MILL. 

Report, —A model of fulling mill, of excellent construction. 



437. James Aked & Sons, Halifax, England. 

WORSTED COATINGS. 

Report, — ^Worsted coatings of excellent manufacture and at low prices. 



438. J. E. & G. P. Buckley, Delph, near Manchester, England. 

SHAWLS. 

Report, — A small assortment of shawls in creditable styles and at very low cost. 



439. Isaac Can & Co., Bath, England. 

MELTONS, BEAVERS, AND OVERCOATINGS. 

Report, — Meltons, beavers, and overcoatings of superior manufacture and Bnish, at 
moderate cost.* 



440. Thackray & Co., Leeds, England. 

CALF'S HAIR COATINGS. 
Report. — A very handsome assortment of calf's hair coatings in beautiful shades and 
of excellent manufacture. 

441. Ainley, Lord, & Co., Huddersfield, England. 

WORSTED COATINGS. 
Report, — Well-made worsted coatings of good quality. 



442. Jesse Clegg, Huddersfield, England. 

COTTON WARP FANCY CHEVIOTS. 

Report. — Commended for economy in cost in the manufacture of cotton warp fancy 
cheviots of considerable merit, and adaptation for general use. 



443. Liddle & Brearley, Huddersfield, England. 

WORSTED COATINGS. 

Report. — A very creditable exhibit of worsted coatings, in neat designs, well manufac- 
tured, and adapted for general use. 

444. S. Bachman, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SHAWLS. 

Report, — An excellent display of silk and worsted plaid and reversible woolen velvet 
shawU, of novel and beautiful designs and excellent fabrication. 



445. F. Steffan & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SHAWLS. 

Report, — Reversible beaver shawls of wool filling and cotton warp, noticeal)le for origi 
nality and taste of design of gray and black stripes, with borders woven in the Jacquard loom. 

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164 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

446. E. Qootchkof, Moscow, Russia. 

CASSIMERES, CLOTHS, AND SHAWLS. 
Report. — Very creditable fancy cassimeres, black and colored cloths, and woolen shawls. 



447. Baron Stieglitz, near Narva, Russia. 

CLOTHS AND BEAVERS. 

Report. — Broadcloths, black and colored, beavers, and Moscows, of excellent qualiiiej 
and finish. 



448. Nikitin, Gorjaef, & Co., Moscow, Russia. 

DRESS GOODS AND BAREGES. 
Report. — Fancy dress goods, gauzes, and bareges, of wool and silk, in elegant styles. 



449. E. Armand & Sons, Moscow, Russia. 

ALPACAS AND LUSTRES. 

Report. — Merinos, figured alpacas, black and colored lustres, in good qualities and bril 
liant colors. 

450. Theodore Mikhailof & Son, Moscow, Russia. 

SERGES, REPS, AND ALPACAS. 

Report. — A fair collection of fancy dress goods, serges, reps, and black and colored alpacas. 



451. G. Kommichau, Belostok, Grodno, Russia. 

BLANKETS AND RUGS. 

Report. — Woolen goods, blankets, and rugs, in creditable qualities. 



452. Augustus Shrader, Moscow, Russia. 

LUSTRES, CASHMERES, AND PLAIDS. 

Report. — A rich assortment of black and colored lustres, cashmeres, and plaids, in gootl 
qualities and colors. 

453. Ganeshin & Co., Moscow, Russia. 

WORSTED YARNS, MOHAIRS, AND ALPACAS. 
Report. — A good assortment of single and twisted worsted yams, mohairs, and alpacas. 



454. G. P. Uskof, Moscow, Russia. 

FANCY DRESS GOODS. 

Report. — Fancy dress goods, lions, and plaids, in good qualities and designs. 



455. Nicholas Seliverstof, Roomiantzevo, Simbirsk, Russia. 

camel's HAIR AND GOAT CLOTHS. 

Report. — Cloths woven of goat and camel hair, in natural colors. 



456. Poliakof Bros., Moscow, Russia. 

FANCY DRESS GOODS. 

Report. — Very creditable fancy dress goods in good qualities and moderate prices. 

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GROUP IX, 165 

457. V. N. Soovirof, Tooshino, Moscow, Russia. 

WOOLEN CLOTHS. 

Report, — Black and colored cloths of medium qualities for general use. 



458. Shelaief Brothers, Moscow, Russia. 

SATINS. 

Report, — Plain black and colored cotton-back satins of excellent manufacture. 



459. O. J. Lecloux, Dison, Belgium. 

BROADCLOTHS. 

Report, — Well-made black and blue broadcloths, adapted to the clothing trade, at cheap 
prices. 

460. Pran9ois Biolley & Son, Verviers, Belgium. 

BROADCLOTHS AND OVERCOATINGS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence of manufacture and reasonableness of price of 
broadcloths and overcoatings. 

461. Domken Bros., Verviers, Belgium. 

FANCY CASSIMERES AND WORSTED COATINGS. 

Report, — Commended for cheapness, combined with utility, of fancy cassimeres and 
worsted coatings. 

462. Charles Begasse, Liige, Belgium. 

FELTS. 

Report, — Well-made felts at cheap prices. 



463. Biolley Brothers & Co., Juslenville, Belgium. 

FANCY CASSIMERES AND BATISTE CLOTHS. 

Report, — Commended for excellent manufacture of fancy cassimeres and batiste cloths. 



464. Jean Tast6, Verviers, Belgium. 

FANCY CASSIMERES AND MIUTARY CLOTHS. 

Report, — Commended for cheapness, combined with utility, of fancy cassimeres and 
military cloths. 

465. Beuthner Brothers, Berlin, Qermany. 

CARD CLOTHING. 

Report, — ^A good assortment of card clothing. 



466. M. Chatten & Co., Dison, Belgium. 

BLACK AND COLORED CLOTHS AND BEAVERS. 

Report, — Commended for good fabrication of black and blue cloths and Moscow beavers 
at low prices. 

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1 66 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

467. J. J. Henrion, Dison, Belgium. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — Commended for good fabrication of fancy cassimeres, with neat designs, and 
at low prices. 

468. Delhez Brothers, Dison, Belgium. 

CLOTHS. 

Report. — Cloths, Moscows, and other beavers, adapted to popular consumption, at low 



469. Clement Bettonville, Hodimont, Belgium. 

MOSCOW BEAVERS AND CLOTHS. 

Report, — Commended for fair fabrication and cheapness of price of Moscows and other 
beavers. 



470. H. J. Lejeune- Vincent, Dison, Belgium. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — Commended for novelty of design, excellence of manufacture, and adaptation 
to public wants, of fancy cassimeres. 



471. Peltzer & Son, Verviers, Belgium. 

CLOTHS AND DOESKINS. 

Report, — Commended for excellent fabrication of broadcloths, doeskins, Moscow beavers, 
and chinchillas, at reasonable prices. 



472. Iwan Simonis, Verviers, Belgium. 

BROADCLOTHS, DOESKINS, AND BATISTE CLOTHS. 

Report, — Commended for high excellence of manufacture of superfine black broadcloths 
and doeskins * excellence of batiste cloths. 



473. H. & J. Dr^ze, Dison, Belgium. 

MOSCOW AND OTHER OVERCOATINGS. 

Report. — Commended for good fabrication of Moscows and other overcoatings, at cheap 
prices. 

474. L. & E. Lairitz, Remda, Germany. 

VEGETABLE WOOL. 

Report: — A fine exhibit of vegetable wool and manufactures thereof; very well made m 
every respect. 

475. W. Spindler, Berlin, Germany. 

DYED AND PRINTED WORSTED YARNS. 

Report. — ^A rich collection of dyed and printed worsted yams, in brilliant colors and 
perfect shades. 

476. Ackens, Grand, Ry, & Co., Eupen, Germany. 

CLOTHS. 
Report. — Commended for brilliancy and stability of colors, good quality, and cheapness 
of tlieir woolen cloths. 

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GROUP IX. 167 

477. C. Delius, Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany. 

CLOTHS AND COATINGS. 

Report. — Commended for his large production of well-made fancy coatings, at moderate 
prices. 

478. Alois Knops, Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany. 

BLACK AND COLORED CLOTH. 

Report. — Carefully and solidly manufactured black and colored cloths and coatings, at 
moderate prices. 

479. Joh. Wilh. Jansen, Montjoie, Germany. 

FANCY CASSl MERES AND COATINGS. 

Report. — Excellent fancy cassimeres and overcoatings, produced in elegant styles, fine 
qualities, and finish. 

480. Wiese Brothers, Werden-on-the-Ruhr, Germany. 

CLOTH. 
Report. — Cloths and overcoatings distinguished by superiority of material and excellence 
of manufacture and finish. 

481. I. P. Sch511er, Duhren, Germany. 

CLOTHS AND COATINGS. 

Report. — Fine cloths and coatings, made of the best wools, with perfect finish. 



482. Joh. Erken's Sons, Burtscheid, Germany. 

BLACK AND COLORED CLOTHS AND OVERCOATINGS. 

Report. — Commended for fineness and finish of doeskins, and for brilliancy of colors and 
finish of military cloths. 

483. L. Scholler & Sons, Dilhren, Germany. 

CLOTHS AND COATINGS. 

Report. — A rich assortment of cloths and worsted coatings, in the best qualities and 
highest finish. 

484. Massing Brothers & Co., Piittlingen, Germany. 

BLACK SIIJC PLUSHES. 

Report. — A remarkable assortment of hatters' black silk plushes, of great beauty in color 
and finish. 

485. Paul Scholz, Friedberg, Germany. 

WOOLEN STOCKINGS. 

Report. — An exhibit of woolen felted stockings, commendable for their good execution 
and great durability. 

486. Seret & Turull, Barcelona, Spain. 

SHAWLS AND BLANKETS. 

Report. — Shawls and blankets of good qualities. 

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1 68 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

487. Josi JorcUi & Son, Alcoy, Alicante, Spain. 

WOOLEN CLOTHS. 
Report, — A collection of cheap fancy cassimeres. 



488. Bresca & Co., Barcelona, Spain. 

MERINO. 
Report, — Merinos and merino shawls of good qualities. 



489. Joaquin Casanovos & Son, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain. 

WOOLEN CLOTHS. 
Report, — A good collection of faiicy cassimeres, at low prices. 



490. Maiquez & Tom&s, Valencia, Spain. 

MANTLE CLOTHS. 

Report, — Spanish mantles of original designs. 



491. Juan Sallares & Son, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain. 

WOOLEN CLOTHS. 
Report, — Fancy cassimeres in creditable qualities and at moderate prices. 



492. Rodriguez Brothers, Bejar, Salamanca, Spain. 

WOOLEN CLOTHS. 
Report, — Black and colored cloths in creditable qualities, at low prices. 



493. Tarrat & Sociats, Teruel, Spain. 

WOOLEN CLOTHS. 

Report, — Colored cloths of good qualities and colors, at low prices. 



494. Francisco Sanchez, Seville, Spain. 

GOLD BRAIDS. 

Report, — A good assortment of gold braids of veiy creditable manufacture. 



495. Sert Brothers & SoU, Barcelona, Spain. 

WORSTED GOODS. 

Report. — A large display of dress goods, upholstering materials, shawls, blankets, carpets, 
and plushes, in great variety of qualities and good designs. 



496. Bernardo Daupias & Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

CASSIMERES, PONCHAS, AND SHAWLS. 

Report. — A creditable assortment of fancy cassimeres, ponchas, and woolen shawls. 



497. Constant Bumay, Lisbon, Portugal. 

CASSIMERES, FLANNELS, AND BLANKETS. 

Report. — A very creditable exhibition of fancy cassimeres, flannels, and blankets. 



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GROUP IX. 169 

498. Antonio Alves Bibiano, Pedrogao Grande, Portugal. 

BLACK CLOTHS. 
Kiport. — Black cloths in creditable qualities and at low prices. 



499- Collective Exhibition of the Tilburg Wool Industry, Tilburg, Netherlands. 

BLANKETS AND FLANNELS. 

Report. — A large collection of blankets, white and colored flannels, fancy cassimeres, 
beavers, and kerseys, in creditable qualities and at low prices. 



500. Clinton Mills Co., Norwich, Conn., U. S 

BLANKETS. 

Report. — Blankets of low grade and cheap price. 



501. Norway Plains Co., Rochester, N. H., U. S. 

BLANKETS. 

Report. — Blankets of fine and medium grade, of excellent manufacture, at moderate 
prices, noticeable for cleanness of stock and freedom from grease. 



502. Campo Grande Woolen Fabrics Co., Lisbon, Portugal. 

CLOTHS AND SHAWLS. 
Report. — A good assortment of black and blue cloths and shawls. 



503. Otto von Bauer, Briinn, Moravia, Austria. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — A very good collection of fancy cassimeres, of good finish and neat designs, at 
moderate prices. 

504. Emanuel Thieben, Vienna, Austria. 

SHAWLS AND KOBES. 
Report. — Well-made long shawls and morning robes, in Oriental styles. 



505. J. Philip Schmidt & Sons, Reichenberg, Bohemia, Austria. 

BLACK AND COLORED CLOTHS. 

Report. — Commended for excellent finish and material of black and blue broadcloths. 



506. Hlawatsch & Isbary, Vienna, Austria. 

SHAWLS. 

Tieport. — Excellent shawls of fine material and good designs in India styles. 



507. Wilhelm Siegmund, Reichenberg, Bohemia, Austria. 

BROADCLOTHS AND DOESKINS. 

Report. — Commended for high excellence and finish of superfine broadcloths and doe- 
skins. 

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I/O REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

508. Qiov. Bozzalla & Brother, Biella, Italy. 

CASSIMERES. 

Report, — A creditable exhibit of fancy cassimeres, in good designs, and at moderate 
prices. 

509. Antonio Bozzalla & Brother, Coggiola, Italy. 

OASSIMERES. 

Report. — A creditable exhibit of fancy cassimeres, in good designs, and at modemie 
prices. 

510. Bergsbro Manufacturing Co., Norrkoping, Sweden. 

CASSIMERES. 

Report, — Fancy cassimeres of excellent manufacture and design. 



511. Drag Manufacturing Co. (Limited), Norrkoping, Sweden. 

FANCY CASSIMERES AND OVERCOATINGS. 
Report. — Fancy cassimeres, rating, and other overcoatings, doeskins and tricots of supe- 
rior manufacture and finish. 

512. Malmo Wool Manufacturing Co. (Limited), Malmo, Sweden. 

CASSIMERES AND COATINGS. 

Report. — Fancy cassimeres and worsted coatings, for general consumption, good for the 
cost of production. 

513. Starkey Brothers, Huddersfield, England. 

BEAVERS AND DOESKINS. 

Report. — Beavers, Venetians, doeskins, and woaded cloths, of excellent manufacture, 
color, and finish. 

514. Ballarat Woolen Co., Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. 

TWEEDS, SHAWLS, AND FLANNELS. 

Report. — Tweeds, shawls, and flannels of honest and substantial manufacture, at mod- 
erate cost and good for general use. 

515. Alexander Gray Co., Albion Woolen Mills, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. 

TWEEDS AND SHAWLS. 

Report. — All wool tweeds, in a handsome assortment of shawls and patterns, and of 
honest and substantial manufacture. 



516. William King, Morley, Leeds, England. 

COTTON WARP CLOTHS. 

Report. — Commended for economy and cost of cotton warp cloths, of excellent make and 
finish. 



517. Charles Hooper & Co., Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, England. 

CLOTHS, BEAVERS, AND DOESKINS. 

Report. — An excellent assortment of black and blue superfine cloths; scarlet, cnmson, 
and other fine military cloths of brilliant and permanent colors ; kerseys of close and fine 
texture ; Hooper's web, a specialty of the house ; elysians, beavers, and doeskins ; all of a 
high order of merit, and comprising an unusual variety for one manufactory. 

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GROUP IX. 171 

518. Thomas Mallinson & Sons, Huddersfield, England. 

FANCY CHEVIOTS. 
Report. — A small assortment of fancy cheviots, of superior manufacture, at low prices, 
and adapted for general consumption. 



519. Marling & Co., Stroud, England. 

CLOTHS AND BEAVERS. 

Report. — An excellent assortment of superfine cloths, beavers, doeskins, and cassimeres, 
of superior merit and of permanent colors and finish. 



520. Samuel Salter & Co., Trowbridge, Wilts, England. 

FANCY CASSIMERES. 

Report. — A very handsome assortment of fancy cassimeres in novel styles, and ac 
moderate prices. 

521. John Day & Son, Huddersiield, England. 

CHEVIOT COATINGS. 

Report. — Cheviot coatings, of excellent manufacture, at small cost, and adapted for 
general use. 

522. Joseph Buckley & Co., Delph, near Manchester, England. 

COTTON AND WOOL SHAWLS. 

Report. — Cotton and wool shawls, in tasteful patterns and combinations, at low cost. 



523. John Taylor & Sons, Great Britain. 

WORSTED COATINGS AND SILK AND WOOL CASSIMERES. 
Report. — Worsted coatings and fancy cassimeres of silk and wool, of excellent manu- 
facture and neat patterns. 

524. Harg^eave & Nusseys, Leeds, England. 

WORSTED COATINGS. 

Report. — Worsted coatings, medium cloths, tweeds, and meltons; all of superior quality, 
excellent manufacture, and at low prices. 



525. T. W. Little & Co., Leeds, England. 

UNION CLOTHS. 

Report. — Mixed union cloths, birds'-eye, and tweeds, at low cost, adapted for general 
consumption. 

526. William Child, Huddersiield, England. 

MOHAIR SEALSKINS. 

Report, — ^A very fine exhibit of mohair sealskins, tipped seal and dog skins, of 
exceedingly fine quality, rich material and finish; all of the highest order of merit. 



527. M. Mahony & Bros., Cork, Ireland. 

BLARNEY TVVEEDS. 

Report. — A complete assortment of Blarney tweeds, in a great variety of colors, patterns, 
and qualities ; all of a high order of merit, and most useful goods for general consumption. 

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1/2 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

528. Henry Andrews & Co., Leeds, England. 

COATINGS AND COTTON WARP. 
Report. — Worsted coatings, cotton warp, melton, and water-proof, of excellent manu- 
facture, and at low cost. 

529. J. D. Birchall & Co., Leeds, England. 

V TWEEDS AND COATINGS. 

Report, — A very complete assortment of light tweeds, of beautiful colors and texture ; 
also worsted coatings, meltons, and beavers ; all of superior merit, at moderate cost, and 
adapted for general use. 

530. J. Vicars, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 

TWEEDS, PLAIDS, AND SHAWLS. 

Report. — ^Tweeds, plaids, and shawls of honest and substantial manufacture, made of 
domestic wool, and very creditable for a new country. 



531. B. Hcpworth & Sons, Dewsbury, England. 

LAP ROBES AND RUGS. 

Report, — Lap robes and rugs, in great variety of pattern and of excellent manufacture ; 
also ingenuity of process of shearing rugs so as to produce an imitation of an animal's 
skin. 

532. The Kanoko-shosha Co., Kiyoto, Japan. 

DYED CRAPES. 
Report, — Commended for excellent production of tie and dye (Kanoko) crapes. 



533. Custodio Lopes da Silva Quimaraes, Penafiel, Portugal. 

GOLD AND SILVER GALLOONS AND GIMP. 
Report, — A good assortment and well made gold and silver galloons and gimp 



534. Ramires & Ramires, Lisbon, Portugal. 

COLORED SILKS, VESTINGS, AND RICH BROCATELLES. 

Report. — Black and colored failles of excellent manufacture in every respect; rich 
brocatelles of good design and execution. 



535. John Kemperling & Sons, Vienna, Austria. 

CIGAR AND HATTERS' RIBBONS. 

Report. — Silk, and silk and cotton, cigar and hatters' ribbons, of medium grade, in a 
great variety of colors and designs. The goods are very effective and of good manufacture, 
both with regard to combination of materials and to their execution. 



536. Usni Hadji, Brousse, Turkey. 

FELTS. 

Report.— Felts of excellent quality. 

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GROUP IX. 173 

537. Joh. Schwarx & Son, Vienna, Austria. 

HATTERS* RIBBONS. 
Report. — specialty of hatters* ribbons, very deariy and neatly made ; first-rate in manu- 
facture in every respect. 

538. Piqua Woolen Mills, F. Gray, O'Farrell & Co., Piqua, Ohio, U. S. 

PAPER -MAKERS' WET AND PRESS FELTS AND JACKETS. 

Report. — A creditable exhibit of Fourdrinier print, cylinder print, wrapping, second 
press, and jacket felts for paper-makers* use. 



539. Alfred Dolge, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

FELTS. 

Report. — ^A superb exhibit of piano felt, made from Silesian wool, jewelers* and marble 
masons* polishing felts ; all of creditable fabrication. 



540. Collective Exhibition of Weavers from Nagahama, Province of Omi, Japan 

WHITE CRAPES. 

Report. — A very fine assortment of white silk crapes, showing great clearness in coloi 
and regularity in texture, particularly those marked " Nishigori.** 



541. National Manufactory of Gobelins, Paris, France. 

GOBELINS. 

Report. — Splendid specimens of Gobelin tapestry, representing this celebrated establish- 



ment. 



542. Ministry of the Colonies, The Hague, Netherlands. 

GOLD EMBROIDERY STUFFS. 

Report. — ^A splendid collection of silk and Oriental tissues, superb in design and perfect 
in workmanshio ; highly meritorious for the great care bestowed on this exhibit. 



543. National Tapestry Manufactory of Beauvais, Beauvais, France. 

TAPESTRY. 

Report. — Very fine specimens of artistically woven tapestry, perfect in design, combina- 
tion of colors, and general execution. 



544. The Bickmesrer Hat Blocking Machine Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

HAT-MAKING MACHINERY. 

Report. — ^Ingenious, novel, and highly valuable labor-saving machinery, adapted for the 
making of hats, extensively used in this manufacture in place of hand processes, to wit, a 
hat-tip stretching machine, a universal hat pouncing machine, and hat ironing machine. 



545. Norris & Co., London, England. 

UPHOLSTERY GOODS. 
Report. — A fine display of upholstery silks, of good styles and well manufactured. 
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174 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

546. Henry Noske, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PAPRR-MAKERS' FELTS. 

Report, — ^Well-made paper-makers* felts. 



547. Novelty Weaving and Braiding Works, Tobias Kohn, Hartford, Conn., U. S. 

BRAIDS. 

Report, — A very fine exhibit of braids, well made in every respect as to quality and 
color. 



548. Shuler & Benninghofen, Hamilton, Ohio, U. S. 

PAPER-MAKERS' FELTS. 

Report. — ^Well-made felts for paper-making. 



549. W. H. Horstmann & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

DRESS, CARRIAGE, AND UPHOLSTERY TRIMMINGS. 

Report. — A splendid exhibit of dress, carriage, and uphobtery trimmings, of great excel- 
lence and beauty in style, material, and execution ; also a very handsome and complete 
assortment of woolen and mohair yams, known to the trade as Germantown, cashmere, 
Saxonia, Shetland, and Balmoral yams, of brilliant colors, variety of shades, and regularity 
of spinning. 

550. Frecon 8r., ft Leclerq, Amiens, Prance. 

CHEMICAL PROCESS FOR REMOVING FIBRES FROM WOOLENS. 

Report. — An interesting exhibit of cloths illustrating a chemical process for removing 
fibres of burrs, thistles, and vegetable particles from woolen fabrics, the samples showing 
extraordinary efficiency in the process employed, and indicating a discovery of great prac- 
tical value. 

551. E. Roussel, Roubaix, France. 

DYED STUFFS. 

Report. — A very fine collection of piece-dyed woolens, perfect in shade and finish. 



552. L. Dupont, Beauvais, France. 

UPHOLSTERIES AND AXMINSTER CARPETS. 
Report. — Commended for excellence and originality of designs in tapestry and upholstery 
fabrics ; also Axminster carpets of superior quality and beautiful designs. 



553. S. B. ft M. Fleisher, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

BRAIDS. 

Report. — A fine exhibit of the ** Star" alpaca braids, of superior manufacture, perfect in 
colors, and of the best materials, placing this braid in the first rank* 



554. William Strange ft Co., Paterson, N. J., U S. 

RIBBONS. 

Report. — Commended for an extremely fine exhibit of plain and fancy ribbons, of good 
materials, well made in every respect ; also for sash and millinery ribbons of great beauty 
and superior quality. 

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GROUP IX. ,75 

555. Enterprise Co., Woonsocket, R. I., U. 8. 

SHOE LASTINGS. 

Report. — A very creditable exhibit of 1 1, 14, and 16 thread lastings of honest make and 
guod quality for the number of threads. The goods are well adapted for the manufacture 
of boots and shoes. 

556. Newichawanick Company, South Berwick, Me., U. S. 

HORSE BLANKETS. 
Report. — An excellent exhibit of horse blankets in great variety of styles. 



557. Pontoosuc Woolen Manufacturing Co., Pittsfield, Mass., U. S. 

ROBES AND BLANKETS. 

Report. — An excellent exhibit of lap and railway robes, all made of California wool; 
the Pullman palace and Wagner's blankets are particularly noteworthy. 



558. D. Goff & Son, Pawtucket, R. I., U. S. 

ALPACA BRAIDS. 

Report. — A complete assortment of alpaca braids, in a beautiful variety of colors and 
mixtures, of uniform width and length, and admirably adapted for trimming ladies' dresses. 



559. Q. L. Kelty & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

TERRIES AND DAMASKS FOR UPHOLSTERY PURPOSES. 

Report. — Plain, figured, and striped terries and damasks for upholsterers* use, substantially 
made, and of neat designs. 

560. John Sytof, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

GOLD DAMASKS. 

Report. — Silk and velvet brocades, and velvets made of silk, silver, and gold, of great 
beauty in design and excellent manufacture ; also trimmings of the same materials. 



561. Michael Borodin, Moscow, Russia. 

GAUZES. 

Report. — A very fine exhibit of gauzes and fancy dress goods, in very good taste and of 
perfect execution. 

562. Mosjookhin & Sons, Moscow, Russia. 

DAMASKS AND BROCADES. 

Report. — A fine display of rich furniture silk damasks of great perfection in the execution. 



563. Alexander Timashef, Moscow, Russia. 

GAUZES. 

Report. — ^A large display of striped and fancy gauzes, veiy well made. 



564. Braquenie Brothers, Malines, Belgium. 

TAPESTRIES. 

Report. — A rich collection of tapestries (Gobelins), of excellent workmanship, and designs 
of a veiy high artistic merit. 

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176 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

565. Hauzeur-Oerard Son, Verviers, Belgium. 

YARNS. 
Report. — Excellent carded yams in great variety and brilliancy of color. 



566. Armand Jamme, Saint-Hadelin, Belgium. 

CARDED YARNS. 

Report. — Well -spun carded yams of great variety of colors. 



567. Bergmann & Co., Berlin, Germany. 

DYED ZEPHYR WOOL, 

Report. — Commended for the brilliancy of colors, perfection and variety of shadings of 
their Berlin wools. 



568. Heinrich Hilffer, Crimmitschau, Germany. 

VIGOGNE YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for the good assortment, large production, and cheapness of his 
vigogne yams. 

569. WUrtemberg Wool Felt Co., Giengen o. B., Germany. 

FELTS. 

Report. — A rich collection of wool felts in great perfection. 



570. Tittel & Krfiger, Leipsic, Germany. 

DYED WORSTED YARNS. 

Report. — ^Well-dyed worsted yams, in brilliant colors. 



571. Worsted Yam Co., Kaiserslautem, Germany. 

WORSTED YARNS. 

Report. — Commended for large production of fine worsted yams for weaving purposes, 
in great variety of qualities, colors, and mixtures. 



572. Dufour & Co., Thai, Switzerland. 

SILK BOLTING-CLOTH. 
Report. — Bolting-cloth of good manufacture, well adapted for the purpose. 



573. SI. Siegenthaler, Enggistein, Switzerland. 

FELTS. 

Report. — A good collection of felts for shoes and hats, for general use, and at moderate 
prices. 

574. Meyer Brothers, Zurich, Switzerland. 

BOLTING-CLOTH. 
Report. — Bolting-cloth of great regularity and perfection of quality. 



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GROUP IX. 177 

575. Heidegger, Wegmann, & Co., Seefeld, Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILK BOLTING-CLOTH. 
Report. — Bolting-cloth remarkable in all grades for superior manufacture and regularity. 



576. Egli & Sennhauser, Zurich, Switzerland. 

BOLTING-CLOTH. 

Report, — Bolting-cloth in great variety ; evenly and well made. 



577. Reiff-Huber, Zurich, Switzerland. 

BOLTING-CLOTH. 

Report. — A large variety of bolting-cloths, deserving special merit for great perfection in 
their manufacture. 

578. Mehmed Erwin, Constantinople, Turkey. 

FURNITURE BROCADES. 

Report. — A great display of divan figured velvets of rich design and good execution. 



579. Giorgi Melouk, Damascus, Turkey. 

GOLD FIGURED VESTMENTS. 

Report. — Rich damask mantle of great beauty in material, design, and execution. 



580. F. A. Jevaijeief, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

SILVER AND GOLD FABRICS FOR CHURCH VESTMENTS. 

Report. — A magnificent display of sacerdotal vestments, made of silver and gold tissues, 
of excellent execution, preserving the traditional splendor of the Greek Church. 



581. Gibb & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — An exhibit of cotton- warp and rag-filling carpet of substantia] manufacture, at 
fair prices ; especially adapted for kitchen or common use. 



582. Ballard Vale MUls, Ballard Vale, Mass., U. S. 

FLANNELS. 

Report. — An exhibit of all wool flannels from No. I to 5, including extra and double 
extra, all highly meritorious ; the four-fourths silk warp wool filling and four-fourths silk 
warp gauze especially commendable for perfection of fabrication. 



583. Leedom, Shaw, & Stewart, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — A creditable exhibit of extra super carpets and damask Venetians, of good 
designs, especially noticeable for low prices. 



584. McCallum, Crease, ft Sloan, Philadelphia,^Pa., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — An excellent exhibit of two and three ply ingrain carpets, unexceptionable in 
texture, design, and color, the material and fabrication indicating excellent wearing 
qualities. 



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178 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

585. Seffarlen ft Fritz, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

RAG-CARPET YARNS. 

Report. — An excellent exhibit of wool and cotton rag-carpet yams, made from carpet 
noils, in a great variety of shades ; the solferino, pink, and orange especially noteworthy. 



586. The Society of Friends of Handiwork, Stockholm, Sweden. 

CARPETS AND RUGS. 
Report. — A beautiful exhibit of carpets and rugs, in the ancient traditional styles of the 
country of production, made by hand. 



587. Mrs. E. B. Shapleigh, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HAND-MADE RUGS. 

Report. — Two rugs made of carpet yarns by the process denominated hooking, being a 
novel and tasteful adaptation from a domestic industry largely pursued in the State of 
Maine, and capable of extensive application by ladies for household decoration. 



588. P. de Andria ft Co., Smyrna, Turkey. 

CARPETS. 

Report, — A splendid collection of Turkish carpets, excellent in style and quality. 



589. J. G. McGee ft Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

RUGS AND WRAPS. 

Report. — A very handsome assortment of rugs and traveling wraps, made chiefly of 
mohair, silk, and wool, in imitation of real furs, otter, sealskin, and beavers; all of superior 
merit and beautiful combinations. 

590. John ft James Dobson, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CARPETS, BLANKETS, AND OVERCOATINGS. 

Report. — A varied exhibit of carpetings, all attractive in design and desirable as low 
and medium grades at moderate prices; also blankets, all wool fur beavers, and chinchillas, 
adapted for the masses. 

591. C. W. ft J. Pcirce, Bristol, Pa., U. S. 

FELTS, CRUMB-CLOTHS, AND FELT SKIRTS. 

Report. — A capital display of felts for carpetings, skirts, and other purposes, made of all 
wool and cotton and wool ; the fabrication substantial and excellent, the designs of the 
carpetings and crumb-cloths remarkable for originality and beauty. 



592. Taylor ft Mullen, Newark, Del., U. S. 

CARPETS AND MATS. 

Report, — A creditable exhibit of rag carpets and mats. 



593. Hartford Carpet Co., Hartford, Conn., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — A capital exhibit of Brussels and two and three ply ingrain carpets, all of the 
best fabrication; the designs original and tasteful, and the colors clear and bright; the 
material and texture indicating high wearing qualities. The exhibit is illustrative of a 
vast production. 

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GROUP IX. lyg 

594. Roxbury Carpet Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

TAPESTRY AND VELVET CARPETS. 
Report. — A superior exhibit of tapestry Brussels and tapestry velvet carpets, of high 
excellence in texture, color, and original design; the pile conspicuous for its length, indi- 
cating good wearing qualities. 

595. Alexander Smith & Sons Carpet Co., Yonkers, N. Y., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report, — ^A beautiful display of Axminster and tapestiy Brussels and tapestry velvet 
carpets, the latter excellent in texture and design ; the Axminster carpets distinguished for 
great beauty of design, color, and texture, and remarkable as made by original automatic 
machinery introduced by the senior exhibitor. 



596. Lowell Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

CARPETS AND LASTINGS. 

Report. — An imposing exhibit of Brussels, Wilton, and two and three ply ingrains, all 
of the best fabrication ; the designs original and tasteful, and the colors clear and bright ; 
the material and texture indicating excellent wearing qualities. The exhibit is illustrative 
of a vast production. Commended also for lastings. 



597. Monitor Mills, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — An excellent exhibit of two and three ply ingrains, specially noticeable for 
originality of certain patriotic designs, and of good quality and fair prices. 



598. Bigelow Carpet Co., Clinton, Mass., U. S. 

CARPETS, 

Report. — A brilliant display of Brussels and Wilton carpets, in material, texture, design, 
and color possessing all the elements of the highest manufacture ; the Wiltons especially 
conspicuous for chasteness of design and perfection of fabrication. 



599. John Bromley & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — ^A good exhibit of super and extra-super ingrain and damask Venetian carpets, 
tastefully designed and unexceptionable in fabrication. 



600. J. & H. Hutchison, Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. 

MATS. 

Report. — A capital exhibit of cocoa and brush mats, with and without wool borders ; 
excellent in design and quality, and at fair prices. 



601. Ivins, Dietz, & Magee, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — The only exhibit of cotton and wool and cotton ingrains, of excellent designs, 
at very low prices. 

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l8o REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

602. The Read Carpet Co., Bridgeport, Conn., U. S. 

CARPETS AND CARPET TERRY. 
Report, — Commended for two-ply ingrain carpets, excellent in design and finish; for 
originality in weaving the same with variegated yams, increasing the number of colors; 
and for all wool carpet terries, serviceable and novel, adapted for libraries and offices. 



603. Clement Gravier, Ntmes, Prance. 

CARPETS. 

R*iu>rt, — Commended for excellence of design and execution of carpets. 



604. Dienelt & Eisenhardt, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GEE NON-SHXHTLE POWER CARPET LOOM. 

Report, — A needle loom of ingenious construction, and a Jacquard loom for weaving silk 
scarfs. 

605. Armand Gu6dan & Co., Ntmes, France. 

AXMINSTER CARPETS. 

Report, — Axminster carpets of finest quality and beautiful designs. 



606. Gevers & Schmidt, Schmiedeberg, Germany. 

SMYRNA CARPETS. 

Report. — A rich assortment of imitations of Smyrna carpets of superior quality and taste- 
ful Turkish styles. 

607. Gustav Schweinburg, Vienna, Austria. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — A good assortment of substantial carpets for general use, at moderate prices. 



608. Julius Schnabel, Oravitza, Austria. 

CARPETS. 

Report, — A collection of Slavonic carpets in original styles. 



609. Ig^az Ginzkey, Maffersdorf, Bohemia, Austria. 

BLANKETS AND CARPETS. 

Report. — Blankets and carpets distinguished for taste of design, beauty of dye, and 
excellence of finish. 



610. A. G. Gaijeanne ft Co., Delft, Netherlands. 

CARPETS. 

Report, — Imitations of Smyrna carpets, of good qualities and taste. 



611. Jan Heukensfeldt, Delft, Netherlands. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — Imitations of Smyrna carpets of good qualities. 

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GROUP IX. I^I 

612. Royal Carpet Manufactory, Dcvcntcr, Netherlands. 

CARPETS. 

Report, — A fine collection of imitations of Smyrna carpets in tasteful designs. 



613. Said Effendi, Sivas, Turkey. 

CARPETS. 

^<^/f.— Turkish carpets of beautiful designs. 



614. Edver, Diarbekir, Turkey. 

CARPETS. 

Report, — Turkish carpets of distinguished styles. 



615. Tomkinson & Adam, Kidderminster, England. 

CARPETS. 
Report. — A fine collection of Axminster carpets in beautiful qualities and magnificent 
designs. 

616. Henderson & Co., Durham, England. 

AXMINSTER CARPETS. 

Report, — A fine and rich assortment of Axminster carpets of admirable designs and 
qualities. 

617. Mehmet Oglou Alichan, Turgosklou, Turkey. 

CARPETS. 

Report, — ^Turkish carpets, very well made in every respect 



618. Mohamet, Angora, Turkey. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence of quality and very fine combination of colors of 
Turkish carpets. 

619. John Crossley & Sons (Limited), Halifax, England. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — A large collection of tapestry, Brussels, velvet, and Wilton carpets, in superior 
qualities and at moderate prices. 

620. John Lewis, Halifax, England. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — A collection of Brussels and Wilton carpets of best qualities and exquisite 
ityles. 

621. J. & J. S. Templeton, Glasgow, Scotland. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — Commended for a rich variety of Wilton and Brussels carpets in admirable 
designs and superior qualities, and especially for patent brocade curtains, silk and wool, in 
I he mtxst elegant designs and combinations of colors. 

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1 82 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

622. James Templeton & Co., Glasgow, Scotland. 

CARPETS. 

Report. — A superior assortment of Axminster carpets, in exquisite styles and of best 
quality. 

623. S. R. Parkhurst, Newark, N. J., U. S. 

DOUBLE-CYUNDER BURR-PICKER. 

Report, — Well-constructed burring machines. 



624. Doman Bros. & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

POWER CARPET LOOM. 

Report, — An ingenious needle loom in which the colored weft to be thrown is selected 
by a Jacquard and raised so as to bring it within the range of the reciprocating needle ; 
this carries it half way across the shed, where it is met by a hook, which in retreating 
carries the bight of the weft to the other selvage, where it is knit in by a latch needle. 



625. M. A. Furbush & Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S 

SET OF CARDING MACHINES. 

Report, — A series of carding machines, well built, and showing several very valuable 
improvements ; also a Murkland loom, showing simplicity, excellence of finish in work, and 
great production. 

626. James Butterworth & Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

RAG PICKER AND* RAG DUSTER. 

Report. — ^Two machines, a rag waste and shoddy picker, and a rag duster, both of good 
workmanship. 

627. Soci6t6 Houget et Teston, Bide & Co., Verviers, Belgium. 

WOOL-PICKING AND CLEANING MACHINE. 

Report. — Wool-picking and cleaning machine ; condenser card and fulling mill ; all of 
excellent construction. 



62S. Thomas Stevens, Coventry, England. 

SILK LOOM AND SILK FIGURED RIBBONS. 
Report, — Silk loom of excellent and quite original construction, design, and quality ; 
result excellent and economical ; new and excellent plan to lessen the pressure of the 
cards in the Jacquard machine. The large variety of figured and emblematical silk ribbons 
evinces the highest perfection. 

629. S. H. Powers, Woodstock, New Brunswick. 

HAND LOOM. 

Report, — A useful hand loom for domestic purposes. 



630. James Smith & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

MACHINES AND CARD CLOTHING. 

Report. — A machine for washing wool and a garnet machine or hand-waste card, both 
of excellent and simple construction and good workmanship ; also a very creditable exhibit 
of card clothing. 



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GROUP IX. 183 

631. Thames River Worsted Co., Norwich, Conn., U. S. 

SPINNING FRAME. 
Report. — Commended for a ring and traveler spinning frame for worsteds. 



632. Rodney Hunt Machine Co., Orange, Mass., U. S. 

FULLING MILL. 

Report. — A useful fulling mill. 

633. James Short, New Brunswick, N. J., U. S. 

CARPET LOOM. 

Report. — ^A tapestry carpet loom with an ingenious positive motion. 



634. George Crompton, Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

LOOMS. 
Report. — The best looms for fancy weaving on shawls, cassimeres, and satinets, em- 
bracing original inventions, ingenious construction, and excellent workmanship. 



635. B. A. Earl, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

WOOL-OILING MACHINERY. 

Report. — A useful wool-oiling attachment for carding machines. 



636. Woonsocket Machine Co., Woonsocket, R. I., U. S. 

SELF-ACTING SPINNING MILL. 
Report. — A self-acting spinning mill of excellent construction and good workmanship. 



637. John D. Cutter ft Co., Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

SEWING-SILK AND SILK MACHINERY. 
Report. — Black and colored sewing-silks and machine twist, excellent in every respect, 
and particularly distinguished for the great regularity obtained through their new system 
of grading the sizes. The machinery exhibited for the purpose of spooling and measuring 
the silk is of ingenious construction and good workmanship. 



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SIGNING JUDGES OF GROUP IX. 



The numbers annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written by them 
respectively. 

Hayami Kenzo, I, 7, 45, 46, 48, 50, 55, 56, 99, 103, 104, 105, 109, no, iii, 145. 

GusTAv Gebhard, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 14, i7» 24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 39, 47, 49, 51, 52, 
54, 58, 59. 60, 61, 62, 64, 70, 7i» 74, 77, 79, 80, 81, 87, 88, 89, 90, 100, 102, 106, 107, 
108, 114, 115, 122, 124, 129, 131, 133, 134, 140, 142, 146, 148, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 
180, 337, 338, 340, 408, 458» 541, 542, 543. 547, 549, 55^, 561. 574, 578, 579, 580, 588, 

603, 628, 637. 

John G. Neeser, 6, 18, 19, 20, 22, 31, 40, 43, 44, 66, 68^ 72, 91, 130, 141, 143, 155, 
484, 494, 533, 534, 54©. 

Max Weigert, 9, 10, 157, 162, 169, 170, 177, 179, 191, 213, 231, 232, 245, 279, 298, 
324, 332, 342,* 346, 375, 418, 436, 438, 439, 444, 445, 44^, 447, 448, 449, 450. 4Sh 452, 
453, 454, 456, 457, 459, 4^5, 474, 475, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 49', 492, 493, 495» 
496, 497, 498, 499, 502, 508, 509, 519, 520, 523, 525, 536, 564, 573, 584, 595, 59^, 598, 

604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 618, 619, 620, 621, 622, 
625, 627, 629, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 636. 

Charles Le Boutillier, 12, 15, 25, 27, 29, 32, 42, 57, 63, 73, 75, 82, 93, 117, 119, 
120, 121, 123, 126, 127, 128, 132, 135, 136, 144, 149, 150, 181, 407, 554, 560, 562. 

Eluot C. Cowdin, 16, 21, 23, 53, 65, 67, 69, 76, 85, 86, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, loi, 
112, 113, 138, 406, 535, 537, 545, 553, 563, 572, 575, 57^, 577. 602. 

August Behmer, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 147, 339, 532. 

Louis Chatel, 78, 83, 116, 118, 125, 137, 139. 

Charles J. Ellis, 84, 171, 178, 185, 329, 330, 343, 360, 362, 363, 365, 366, 367, 368, 
369, 372, 373, 374, 383, 384, 385. 386, 387. 388. 389. 390, 391. 392. 393, 394, 395. 39^, 
397, 398, 399, 404, 409, 410, 4", 412, 416, 419, 424, 425, 426, 428, 429, 431, 433, 434, 
460, 461, 462, 464, 468, 470, 472, 500, 501. 538, 539. 546, 552, 556, 557, 581, 583. 585, 
590. 591. 593. 597. 599. 600, 601, 624. 

Henry Mitchell, 158, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 172, 190, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 
198, *I99, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 
217, 218, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 246, 248, 250, 251. 252, 
253. 254. 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 
271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 
290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308. 
309. 310. 3". 3»2, 313, 314, 315. 3»6. 317. 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 325, 326, 327. 
328, 331, 333, 341, 344, 347, 349, 35©, SSh 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 370, 
371, 382, 400, 401, 402, 403, 4^7, 440, 441, 442, 443, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 
483, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 521, 522, 524. 526, 527, 528, 529, 530. 531. 555. 558, 
567, 568, 569, 570, 571, 589. 

John L. Hayes, 159, 160, 161, 173, 174, 175, 176, 182, 187, 189, 194, 219, 220, 221, 
222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 247, 334, 335, 336, 345, 348, 361, 364, 376, 
377, 378, 379, 380, 405, 413, 414, 415, 417, 420, 421, 422, 423. 427, 430, 432, 435, 463, 
466, 467, 469, 471, 473, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 544, 548, 550, 559, 565, 566, 582, 586, 
587, 592, 594, 609, 623. 

Theodore Bochner, Jr., 183, 233, 381, 455, 626, 630. 

J. D. Lang, 184, 188. 

Carl Arnberg, 249, 510, 511, 512. 

Edward H. Knight, 186. 

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SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP IX. 



REPORTS 

OF 



JUDGES ONAPPEALS. 



JUDGES. 



John Fritz, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Edward Conlky, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Charles Staples, Jr., Portland, Me. 
Benj. F. Britton, New York City. 
H. H. Smith, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Coleman Sellers, Philadelphia, Pa. 
James L. Claghorn, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Henry K. Oliver, Salem, Mass. 
M. Wilkins, Harrisburg, Oregon. 
S. F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 



1. Sanford Mills, Sanford, Me., U. S. 

LAP ROBES. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in color and general finish, fitness for purpose, 
together with economy in cost. 

2. French & Co., Norwich, England. 

NORWICH CRAPE, IN SINGLE, DOUBLE, AND TREBLE. 

Report, — Commended for a high degree of excellence in texture and finish. 



3. Wilhelm Schroeder & Co., Zurich, Switzerland. 

SILKS. 

Report. — A large display of dress silks, excellent in texture and color. 



4. Homberger Bros., Wetzikon, Switzerland. 

SILK BOLTING-CLOTH. 

Report. — Commended for uniformity in texture and fitness for purpose intended. 



5. Baumann & Streuli, Horgen, Switzerland. 

DRESS SILKS, CHANGEABLE COLORS. 

Report. — Commended as excellent in color and texture* 

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1 86 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

6. Jose Maria Casqueiro, Crato, Portalegre, Portugal. 

WOOLS. 

Report, — Washed wools of good quality. 



7. Devoosse-Blaise, Dison, Belgium. 

CASSIMERES. 

Report, — Good fabrics, excellent in design and finish. 



8. M. Wihl ft Co., Venders, Belgium. 

CASSIMERES. 

Report. — A good display in various weights, excellent in color and designs. 



9. Campos Mello ft,Co., Covilhan, Portugal. 

CASSIMERES. 

Report. — Commended for fancy cassimeres 01' good fabrication and neat designs. 



10. Padronello Woolen Fabrics Co., Amarante, Portugal. 

CASSIMERES, OVERCOATINGS, AND SHAWI3. 

Repoii, — Commended for a large display of excellent fabrics tastefully designed. 



II. Antonio Jose Pereira da Silva e Alves, Oporto, Portugal. 

SEWING SILK. 

Report. — Commended for uniform twist and superior strength. 



12. Franzi Brothers fu Giuseppe, Abcano Maggiore, Italy. 

SILK. 

Report. — A good exhibit in tram, organzine, and twist, well prepared and excellent in 
general finish. 

13. Eduardo Augusto Pereira, Meizanil, Oporto, Portugal. 

WOOLS. 

Report, — An exhibit of wools, washed and in the grease, of good quality and staple. 



14. The Colony of the Cape of Qood Hope. 

WOOLS. 

Report, — A collection of samples, indiscriminately selected from bales for export, show> 
ing excellent merino and Angora wools. 



15. T. L. Davidson, Salem, Oregon, U. S. 

MERINO WOOL. 

Report. — Commended for fine staple, together with good strength. 



16. Fernando Ibanex Palenciano, Valencia, Spain. 

SILKS, BROCADE, AND DAMASK. ^ 

Report. — Commended for good design and workmanship of hand-made silks of old 
Moorish and Oriental styles. 

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GROUP IX. 187 

SIGNING JUDGES OF SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP IX. 



The figures annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written by them 
respectively. 

Benj. F. Britton, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 
Coleman Sellers, 16. 



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GROUP X. 



CLOTHING, FURS, INDIA-RUBBER GOODS, ORNA- 
MENTS, AND FANCY ARTICLES. 



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GROUP X. 



AMERICAN. 

W. H. Chandler, Lehigh UniTersity, South 
Bethlehem, Pa. 

Wm. O. Linthicum, New Yoric City. 

Benj. F. Britton, New York Gty. 

George Hewston, San Francisco, Cal. 

E. N. HORSFORD, Cambridge, Mass. 



JUDGES. 

FOREIGN. 
Ch. F. Dietz-Monnin, France. 
Modest Kittary, Russia. 
Edward Kanitz, Austria. 
M. P. Empby, Canada. 



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GROUP X. 



CLOTHING, FURS, INDIA-RUBBER GOODS, ORNAMENTS, AND 
FANCY ARTICLES. 

{Exclusive of Leather Boots and Shoes.) 

Class 250. — Ready-made clothing, knit goods and hosiery, military clothing, church 
vestments, costumes, water-proof clothing, and clothing for special objects. 

Class 251. — Hats, caps, gloves, mittens, etc. ; straw and palm leaf hats; bonnets, and 
millinery. 

Class 252. — ^Laces, embroideries, and trimmings for clothing, furniture, and carriages. 

Class 254. — ^Artificial flowers, coifiures, buttons, trinmiings, pins, hooks-and-eyes, fans, 
umbrellas, sun-shades, walking-canes, pipes, and small objects of dress or adornment, 
exclusive of jewelry. 

Toys, games, etc. 

Class 255. — ^Fancy leather work, — ^pocket-books, toilet cases, traveling equipmenti^ 
valises, and trunks. (See also in Leather, Group XII.) 

Class 256. — Furs, manufactured into clothing, robes, etc. 

Class 257. — Historical collections of costumes : national costumes. 

Class 288. — Flags, insignia, emblems. 

CAOUTCHOUC AND GUTTA-PERCHA INDUSTRY 
Class 285. — *' India-rubber*' goods and manufactures. 
Class 286.— Brushes. 



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GENERAL REPORT 



OP THE 



JUDGES OF GROUP X. 



Intbrnational Exhibition, 1876. 

Pkop. F. a. Walker, Chief of Bureau of Awards: 
Sir, — I transmit to you the report of the Judges of Group X. 

Respectfully yours, 

W. H. CHANDLER. 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 



GROUP X. 

CLOTHING, FURS, INDIA-RUBBER GOODS, ORNA- 
MENTS, AND FANCY ARTICLES, 

RUBBER HOSE, RUBBER BELTING, AND WALRUS 
HIDE BELTING. 

BY E. N. HORSFORD. 

The American firms exhibiting rubber fire-hose were : The New 
York Belting & Packing Company, The National Rubber Com- 
pany, The Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company, and The Star Rubber 
Company. 

Besides these, the house of H. Schrader, of St. Petersburg, Russia, 
exhibited fire-hose of superior quality, but of a calibre less than the 
standard recognized here, so that it was impossible to submit the 
Russian hose to comparative test. 

The Star Rubber Company's hose was not represented by an agent, 
and the hose was not provided with the couplings necessary for 
experiment. 

There were, besides, several exhibitors of cotton and linen hose 
of various forms of manufacture : riveted, sewed, and woven whole, 
and lined with rubber to render them water-proof; but as this lining 
did not materially add to their strength, they were regarded as 
properly to be excluded from the class of rubber manufactures. 

The experimental trials were limited to the samples submitted by 
The New York Belting & Packing Company, The National Rubber 
Company, and The Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company. 

The hose tested was in each case four-ply, of two and a half inch 
calibre, made up of successive layers of cotton duck coated with 
rubber composition, constituting a tube coated and lined with rubber 
composition, and the whole solidified by vulcanization. 

The hose of the National Rubber Company, and that of the Gutta- 
Percha Company, were made by winding the duck coated with com- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X, 3 

position upon a mandrel, with the warp of the duck parallel to the 
axis of the hose. That of the New York Belting & Packing Com- 
pany was made by cutting the duck coated with uncured rubber 
composition into narrow strips, running obliquely across the warp, 
and then so cementing these strips and winding them upon the man- 
drel as to present the warp and filling at an inclination of about 45® 
to the axis of the hose. The latter arrangement increases the flexi- 
bility of the hose, and diminishes correspondingly the liability to 
injury by the abrupt bending to which hose is often subjected in 
practical use. At the same time it provides for an increase of ca- 
pacity under pressure, — an increase of diameter with a concomitant 
diminution of length. With equal strength of duck such hose would 
have burst at a pressure inferior to that which hose with the warp 
parallel and the filling at right angles to the axis of the hose would 
require. The reason is this: with increase of the diameter of the 
hose under pressure the. greater is the number of units of liquid ex- 
erting any given pressure, while the tenacity to be overcome in the 
texture of the duck and rubber wall remains a constant quantity. 
Assuming the increase in calibre at the instant of bursting to have 
been J^ inch, or from 2J^ to 3, or from 100 to 125, the pressure would 
have been increased relatively to the strength of a given area by the 
quantity of one-fifth. 

The strain on hose in practical service rarely reaches 225 pounds to 
the square inch. In this quality the three exhibits subjected to trial 
by hydrostatic pressure exceeded in strength any practical need. 

A preliminary experiment was made with a section of the New 
York Belting & Packing Company's hose of but 8 feet in length. 
It was not weighed, and gave way under a pressure of 450 pounds. 

The principal experiments were made with sections of 50 feet in 
length, which were first weighed. That of 

The New York Belting & Packing Company weighed 66^ pounds. 

The Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company weighed 67^ pounds. 

The National Rubber Company weighed 59 pounds. 

The New York Belting & Packing Company's hose burst at 425 
pounds. 

The Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company's hose burst at 435 pounds. 

The National Rubber Company's hose did not burst at 500 pounds, 
at which pressure the couplings gave way. 

The rupture of the New York Belting & Packing Company's 

hose presented a peculiar section, having the shape of two V's point 

to point ^--^ thus ; the lines following the warp and filling, and the 

short line uniting the apices equally inclined to the direction of the 

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4 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

threads of the warp and fiUing. This form of the rupture was re- 
garded by experts as evidence of excellence of manufacture. Warp 
and filling were of equal strength. 

The rupture of the Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company's hose was 
slightly irregular, but in the main across the filling, that is, along a 
line parallel to the axis of the hose. This is the direction in which 
rupture should take place, where the duck is wound with the warp 
parallel to the axis of the hose, and where the strength of the warp 
equals or but slightly exceeds that of the filling. 

The diameter of the New York Belting & Packing Company's 
hose was increased about half an inch, — attended with a shortening 
estimated at about two per cent. 

The diameter and length of the other two exhibits were not 
appreciably changed. 

No experiments suggested themselves which might be considered 
the equivalents of actual wear in ordinary use. Actual practical use 
has shown that the warp of the duck where the fibre is parallel to 
the axis of the hose is subjected to greater strain in abrupt bending 
than the warp and filling where the thread is obliquely arranged. 
There is no opportunity for it to yield except by rupture. 

As all the three exhibits showed a strength greatly exceeding the 
ordinary requirements of service, and as all were put together with 
skill and cured with care, it was deemed just to commend them all 
alike for award. 

The experiments were conducted by Mr. Gardner Sanderson, de- 
tailed by Mr. John S. Albert, Chief of the Bureau of Machinery, 
under the direction of the Judges of Group X. 

Rubber belting was on exhibition by four American companies, viz.. 
The National Rubber Company, The New York Belting & Packing 
Company, The Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company, The Star Rubber 
Company, and also by the house of H. Schrader, of St. Petersburg, 
Russia. The delay in the opening of the Russian department pre- 
vented the samples of belting from coming to the attention of the 
Judges in time for the portion of the experimental testing made to 
determine the adhesion. 

The manufacture of belting is simple. Cotton duck is overspread 
with rubber composition, and the sheets of duck so coated are piled 
one upon another to any desired thickness, as of two-, three-, four-, or 
five-ply, then under pressure subjected to a vulcanizing heat for the 
time necessary to accomplish proper curing. 

The principal valuable qualities in a belt are: 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X, 5 

1st. Its adhesion to the surface of the pulley. 
2d. Its strength or capacity to resist strain. 
3d. Its absence of the stretching quality. 
4th. Its durability. 

The adhesion depends upon two qualities: ist, the smoothness of 
the surface of the belting, which permits contact with the smooth 
surface of the pulley ; and, 2d, a yielding but elastic surface, which, 
under strain, insures a more perfect contact. 

The mode of manufacture of the duck, and its incorporation into the 
belting with the warp parallel to the length of the belting, insure the 
product against stretching. The durability depends on the care ob- 
served in the curing, and in this all the samples seemed to have been 
cured with nice attention to temperature. 

The apparatus arranged to test the adhesion was of extreme sim- 
plicity. A pulley six inches wide and fifteen and three-fourths inches 
exterior diameter was supported over free space. A strip of each 
kind of six-inch belting was in turn placed upon the pulley, and held 
down to the surface of the pulley by attaching to either end a weight 
of fifty pounds. The pulley being fixed against rotation, weights were 
added to one end of the strip of belting until the belt slipped upon 
the pulley. 

The Star Rubber Company's and the New York Belting & Pack- 
ing Company's six-inch belting was three-ply. Each of the others 
was four-ply. 

The thickness of samples of belting was as follows : 
Star Rubber Company's, \i of an inch. 
New York Belting & Packing Company's, JJ of an inch. 
National Rubber Company's, Jf of an inch. 
Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company's, \^ of an inch. 
The measure of the adhesion was the weight required to overcome 
it. This weight was found to be, in the case of the 

Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company's belting, 48^^^ pounds. 
The Star Rubber Company's belting, 59^^ pounds. 
The National Rubber Company's belting, 60% pounds. 
New York Belting & Packing Company's belting, 70 pounds. 
Taking the highest of these at 100, we have the following ratios : 
New York Belting & Packing Company . . 100 

National Rubber Company 86.78 

Star Rubber Company 85 

Gutta-Percha & Rubber Company .... 68.92 
The strength of the belting was tested in a Richie's machine, under 

direction of Mr. Hirst, of the superintendence of Machinery Hall, 

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6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

detailed by Mr. Albert ; the testing-machine admitting belting of a 
maximum width of three inches. Three of the exhibitors had sam- 
ples of this width : The National Rubber Company, The New York 
Belting & Packing Company, and H. Schrader, of St. Petersburg. 
Each was three-ply. The thickness of the National Rubber Company's 
exhibit was ^ of an inch, while that of the New York Belting & 
Packing Company was -h- The Russia belting was \\ of an inch. 
The length of the fibre of the duck in the belting of the National 
Rubber Company ranged from .8 to i ^ inch, and that of the New 
York Belting & Packing Company from .5 to i inch. The duck 
used by the National Rubber Company was of finer quality than 
that in use by the New York Belting & Packing Company. 

The New York Belting & Packing Company's three-inch three- 
ply belting, without stretching, gave way under a strain of exactly 
3000 pounds. That of the National Rubber Company gave way at 
3500 pounds. The Russia belting gave way at 2750 pounds. 

WALRUS BELTING. 

A sample of walrus belting, from Norway, manufactured by Klemm, 
Hanson, & Co., of Trondhjem, was tested under direction of Mr. 
Albert, and referred to me. Its thickness was \^ of an inch. The 
adhesion was determined as that of the samples of rubber belting was, 
and with the same apparatus. With the flesh-side against the pulley 
the belt slipped at 88 pounds. With the hair or outside against the 
pulley the belt slipped at 38 pounds. Under the test in Richie's 
machine a three-inch strip gave way at 4175 pounds. As the thick- 
ness was more than that of the rubber belting, the strength should 
be rated as about one-half of the observed result of experiment 

In the judgment of the experts in the Leather Building, where 
opinion was sought, it was not comparable with good leather or 
rubber belting on account of its liability to stretch ; but it was well 
adapted to service, on account of its porosity, for emery belting, since 
its porous structure would enable it to take up and hold oil and 
emery. 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. 



CAOUTCHOUC AND GUTTA-PERCHA. 

BY W. H. CHANDLER. 

The manufacture of these products has rapidly increased since 
Charles Goodyear's discovery of vulcanization in 1839, and in the 
United States especially the industry has assumed large proportions. 
There were very few foreign exhibitors in this line. 

RUBBER-PRODUCING PLANTS, 

Of rubber-producing plants, a fine exhibit was made by A. G. Day, 
of New York, as follows : 



Ficus Brasiliensis, Brazil. 

F. lucidus, " 

F. tnacrophylla, Australia. 

F. Lodrickii, " 

F. Australis, " 

F. elastica, East Indies. 

F. rigida, " 

F. xiymphsefolia, East Indies. 

F. Fcligiosa, Palestine. 

Euphorbia triangularis, S. Africa. 



E. monstrosa, Cuba. 

£. Mackaii, Java. 

£. splendens, Mexico 

E. punicea, " 

Philodendron pertusum, or Monstera 

deliciosa, Brazil. 
Galipia odoratissima, Brazil. 
Aralia Cookii, ** 

Pereskii grandiflora, Mexico. 



CRUDE CAOUTCHOUC 

Smythe, Earle, & Co., New York, N, Y. 

This house, brokers in india-rubber and gutta-percha, made a very 
interesting exhibition, including a few specimens of caoutchouc- 
producing plants, a complete outfit for a rubber-gatherer in Brazil, 
the milk of the rubber-tree, and a large variety of crude rubber in 
the original packages, aggregating about 6000 pounds. Among the 
plants were the Ficus elastica, from the East Indies, and the Siphonia 
elastica, from Brazil. The Castillio elastica, from Central America, 
died in transit. The seeds and milk of the rubber-tree were among 
the exhibits, and the outfit for a Brazilian rubber-gatherer included 
the baskets to carry provisions, the hatchet to tap the tree, the 
earthen cups to catch the milk from the taps, the gourds to collect 
it from the cups, the metallic pans to hold the milk, the wooden 
spaddle which is dipped in the milk, and the furnace and oily palm- 
nuts which are burnt therein, and by which the coagulated milk upon 
the spaddle is dried and smoked. There were also specimens of the 
different gums washed and sheeted in the manufactory, and a speci- 

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8 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



men of fine Para rubber, twenty-six years old. The following samples 
of crude caoutchouc were exhibited by the same firm: 



From Central and South America, 

Carthagena, United States of Colombia, 

pressed strip. 
Panama, pressed strip. 

" slab. 
Nicaragua, pressed sheets. 

" scrap. 
Honduras, sheet. 
Mexico. 



Para, Brazil, coarse, original packages. 

" " fine. 
Ceara, " scrap. 
Bahia, " 
Balatta, « 

Esmeralda, Equador, pressed strip. 
Guayaquil, «« *« ** 

Buenaventura, United States of Colom 
bia, pressed strip. 

From East Indies, 



Borneo, in case. 

East India, or Java, basket. 

Assam, cake. 

West Coast, ball, cask. 
" " tongue, cask. 
«« ** niggers, bale. 
" " flake. 



Assam, ball. 

Calcutta, gutta-percha, baskeL 



From Africa. 



West Coast, thimbles. 

East Coast, Mozambique, ball. 

«* " " on sticks. 

" *' Madagascar, case. 



The National Rubber Company, Providence, R. /., and the India- 
RuBBER Comb Company, New York, N. K, also exhibited plants and 
samples of crude caoutchouc. 



BRAZIL. 

Raymonde Jose Rabello and Elias Jose Nunez, Para. 

These exhibitors displayed caoutchouc from the Provinces of Rio 
Grande do Norte, Amazonas, and Para. This caoutchouc is a pro- 
duct of the latex of the Siphonia elastica, Pers. {Hevea guyanensis). 
The exportation of caoutchouc from the province of Amazonas 
amounts annually to 8,800,000 pounds, nearly double the exportation 
of caoutchouc from the Ficus elastica, in the East Indies. This 
province also exports the "Breo de Macaranduba" {Mimusopsetata, 
considered the true gutta-percha). 

Commissions of the Provinces of Ceara and Rio Grande do 

Norte. 
These exhibited caoutchouc from the Mangabeira-tree {Hancomia 
speciosa), of which the Brazilian catalogue says: "This was adjudged 
among the best varieties at Vienna, and its cost is not over 50 cents 
a pound." There is also exported from this province caoutchouc 
from the Jatropha elastica, 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. g 

The average annual exports of india-rubber from Brazil have been 
as follows : 

Valne. 
1S39 to 1844 . . . 391,605 kilos. 210 : 000 looo reis. 

1869 to 1874 . . . 5,582,799 " 10,320 : 000 looo 

Increase in 35 years . . 5,191,194 "* 10,110:000 |ooo 

Mean annual increase in qoantity 3^*9^ P^ c^i^^* 

'* " *• value I4«-S9 " 

This is mostly produced in the provinces of Para and Amazonas^ 
where the Siphonia elastica abounds from the seaboard to a distance 
of 3300 kilometres inland. The above statistics are from the volume 
on Brazil, published by the Brazilian Government. They are at vari- 
ance with Smythe, Earle, & Co.'s statistics. 

The total exports from Para, Brazil, have been as follows: 

1873 14,886,000 lbs. 

1874 ........ 14,181,000 « 

1875 15.369.939 " 

1876 14,300,602 <« 

MEXICO, 

An exhibit of caoutchouc was made by the State Grovernment of 
Campeche. The india-ruMier-tree from which the caoutchouc is 
extracted is the Castilloa €lastica of the Artocarpae family, described 
by Vicente Cervantes. It grows in Chiapas, Campeche, and other 
localities near the Gulf of Mexico, to the height of 50 to 65 feet, and 
can be largely propagated along the low, wet shores of the Gulf 
There are more than ten species of the Ficus genus and some other 
plants which produce caoutchouc. The export of india-rubber in 
1873 amounted to ^193,052.58 in value. 

Durango caoutchouc is the product of a herbaceous plant, belong- 
ing to the Synancherae family, growing in the state of Durango. Like 
the genuine caoutchouc, it hs^rdens with sulphur, and takes a beautiful 
polish. It was brought to the city of Mexico by Bartolome Bal- 
lesteros, and studied by Fernando Altimarano. 

VICTORIA, AUSTRAUA. 

Australian rubber and rubber-stamps were exhibited by the Com- 
missioners for Victoria. 

NETHERLANDS' EAST INDIAN COLONIES. 

The government exhibited india-rubber from Palembang and other 
districts : 

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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Gutta-percha, balam, from Palembang. 
Gutta-percha, white, from Palembang. 
Gutta-percha, from Bandjermassin, Borneo. 
Gutta-percha, from Boeloengan. 
Gutta-gitang, from Palembang. 
Gutta-soesoe, from Macassar (Celebes). 
Guttasoesoe, from Bandjermassin, Borneo. 



TRINIDAD. 

Galata gum, or Trinidad gutta-percha, two demijohns of sap, and 
six cakes, were exhibited by the Government 

VENEZUELA. 

Gutta-percha from the Mimusops globosa^ Griseb., was shown from 
the state of Maturin. 

UNITED STATES. 



G. W. Mowbray, North Adams, Mass. 

An exhibit of gutta-percha, crude, also washed and ground, and 
wire insulated by the same, for blasting purposes. 

The direct imports to New York, stated in United States currency, 
at four months, are said by Smythe, Earle, & Co.'s circular to be as 
follows : 

Para. Cbmtral AmoucAif Gradss. 

Pounds. Ratet. Fine Para. Pounds. 



Rates. 
Guayaquil Strip. 

1872 5,183,000 68 @ 87 ;i cents. 6,302,000 5i;i@56cenU. 

1873 5J75.000 61 " 80 «* 5»994»ooo 4^ " 60 " 

1874 7»955»«» 75 " S^}i " 4.926,000 42 " 60 " 
187s 5»oi4.ooo 58 " 67^ " Z,iy!fOcx> 38 «* 47>i" 
1876 4,256,000 siyi** 64 " 4,067,000 43 « 53 " 



E. India, btc. Total. 

Pounds. Pounds. 

378,000 11,863,000 

361,000 12,130,000 

267,000 13,148,000 

222,000 8,973,000 

261,000 8,584,000 



Direct imports to New York 
Direct imports to Boston, E. I. grades 
Indirect imports from England to New 
York and Boston .... 



1874. 
13,148,000 lbs. 
825,000 " 

504,000 " 



1875. 
8,975,000 lbs. 
330,000 « 

525,000 « 



1876. 
8,584,000 lbs. 
251,000 «* 

1,463,000 " 



Exports to England • 
Add stock, January i . 


14477,000 « 
550,000 " 

13,927,000 " 
1,175,000 " 


9.830,000 
650,000 

9,180,000 
1,860,000 


u 

« 
« 

« 


10,298,000 
825,000 

9,473,000 
940,000 


Less stock at dose of year . 


15,102,000 " 
1,860,000 " 


11,040,000 
940,000 


10,413,000 
510,000 



Consumption in United States 



13,242,000 
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10,100,000 



9,963,000 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. n 

INDIA-RUBBER MACHINERY, 
W. E. Kelly, New Brunswick, N, % 

Machinery for manufacturing india-rubber, consisting of (i) cor- 
rugated rolls, with which the crude rubber is washed with cold 
water ; (2) smooth chilled rolls for mixing the washed rubber, sulphur, 
and other chemicals ; one of these rolls revolves three times as fast 
as the other; both rolls are heated internally by steam; (3) steam- 
heated engraved rolls for impressing the outsides of shoes ; (4) three 
high calender rolls, heated by steam, for coating cloth with rubber, for 
the insides of shoes. This machinery was operated by the National 
Rubber Company, whose employees also finished the shoes and vul- 
canized them in a small steam-heated oven. 

RUBBER MANUFACTURES. 

Most of the rubber is consumed in the manufacture of rubber 
shoes, belting, hose, and packing ; in addition to these uses there is a 
considerable industry in chirurgical instruments, household articles 
and clothing. 

RUBBER HOSE, BELTING, AND PACKING, 

The report on rubber hose, belting, and packing has been prepared 
by Professor E. N. Horsford, and precedes this report. The exhibit- 
ors of these articles were ': 

The New York Belting and Packing Company, New York, N. Y. 

The Gutta-Percha and Rubber Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y. 

National Rubber Company, Providence, R. I. 

The Eureka Fire Hose Company, New York, N. Y. 

Wannalanset Manufacturing Company, Boston, Mass. 

The Blake Hose Company, New York, N. Y. 

The Columbia Car-Spring Company, New York, N. Y. 

National Car-Spring Company, New York, N. Y. 

Star Rubber Company, Trenton, N. J. 

Russian-American Rubber Company, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

BOOTS AND SHOES, 

National Rubber Company, Providence, R. I, 

This company consumed 1,250,000 pounds of rubber in 1876. 
Their production from July, 1875, to July, 1876, was ^2,500,000, of 
which about ^1400,000 was for boots and shoes, and the remainder 
for packing, belting, hose, druggists* articles, clothing, etc. They 
employ 900 hands. This company is probably the largest manu- 

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12 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

facturer in this country, manufacturing a large variety of goods. 
They make over 300 distinct varieties of shoes. Among those 
deserving special mention is the Monitor and snow-excluding gaiter. 

The New Brunswick Rubber Company, New Brunswick, N. y. 
A general assortment of neat, well-made shoes. 

Moulded Heel Stiffening Company, Lynn, Mass, 

A stiffener of hard rubber, sold for 3 cents per pair, of which 
25,000,000 pairs have been sold since 1870. 

Chadeayne & Christian, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Ventilated rubber boots. 

Russian-American India-Rubber Company, St Petersburg, Russia, 

This company was founded in i860. It employs 12 steam-engines 
of 700 horse-power and 1378 men and women. Yearly value of goods 
produced, 3,000,000 roubles. The exhibit included articles of dress, 
boots, shoes, belts, straps, chirurgical, traveling, and household arti- 
cles of india-rubber, hose, and packing, a large variety of goods of 
excellent quality, billiard strips and telegraph insulated wire. Of 
boots and shoes it exhibited a good variety, with a novelty of fur- 
lined rubber shoes and galoshes. 

CLOTHING. 

The Gossamer Rubber Clothing Company, Boston, Mass. 

Water-proof cloaks, hats, leggings, and umbrellas, made from 
Scotch gingham, covered with a thin coating of rubber, sun-cured, at 
low prices; weight, 12 to 16 ounces. These materials afford light 
garments at small cost, though they probably have not the same 
durability as the English mackintosh. 

The National Rubber Company, Providence, R, 7. 

A large variety of clothing, including " lustre'' clothing, which is 
the cheapest variety; "dull finish" clothing, in all fabrics from silk 
to twill; reversible coats, in silk and silesia; and "flocked" clothing, 
covered with the shearings of broadcloth. 

The Russian-American Rubber Company, St, Petersburg, Russia. 

Clothing in some variety. Especially commendable was a coach- 
man's coat of cotton check covered with rubber of a dead-white color, 
not equaled by any other manufacturer. 



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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. ij 

Simon May & Co., Nottingham, England. 

A large variety of elastic gorings, gussetings, and boot welts. 
Especially fine were those of worsted back and silk facing. 

John C. McGee, Belfast, Ireland, 

Mackintosh coats, with silk lining and paramatta outside; also 
reversible coats of silk and rubber, made by twelve applications of 
a solution of caoutchouc. These coats were superior to all others 
on exhibition. 

Bally & Schmitter, Aarau, Switzerland. 

Elastic boot webs of cotton, silk, and linen. The firm employs 
450 hands and 140 looms. 

ScHNECK & KoHNBERGER, Vienna, Austria. 
Cotton gorings for shoes, at low prices. 

LuciEN Fremaye & Co., Paris, France. 
Elastic tissues. 

Nashawannuck Manufacturing Company, Easthampton, Mass. 
Elastic suspenders of good quality. 

American Suspender Company, Waterbury, Conn., 
National Suspender Company, Nezv York, N, Y, 

Similar exhibits to the preceding. 

The Easthampton Rubber Thread Company, Easthampton, Mass. 

Rubber thread for use in gorings and webs. This is now cured by 
water, but formerly by steam, which produced a less uniform result. 

The Glendale Elastic Fabric Company, Easthampton, Mass, 

This manufactory started in i860, but was organized as a stock 
company in 1867. It employs 200 hands, and in 1876 produced 
8oo,odo yards of cord and braids, 40,000 gross yards of fine loom 
webs for gaiters and pocket-books, and 10,000 gross yards of elastic 
belt webs. Total value, ^00,000. 

HOUSEHOLD GOODS. 

The Davidson Rubber Company, Boston, Mass. 

Bath-tubs, air-pillows, and beds of good design and fine finish. 
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14 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

The National Rubber Company, Providence, R. L 

Similar exhibits, with specialties of nursery sheeting, "flocked" 
piano-forte cover, inlaid checker-board, door-mats, and curry-combs. 

W. B. S. Taylor, New York, N. Y. 

Patent gas tubing, which is, without doubt, the best article of the 
kind in the market; it consists of a spiral wire core, covered with 
a coating of glue and glycerin, placed between two layers of rubber, 
and finished with a flocked or woven surface. All tubing used for 
conveying gas sooner or later becomes imbued with the strong smell of 
the gas, but this tubing is the most free from this difficulty, and, pro- 
viding the gas is turned off" at the chandelier only, so that the gas is 
not held in the tube, will remain quite free from odor. 

MEDICAL AND SURGICAL GOODS, 

The Davidson Rubber Company, Boston, Mass. 

This company exhibited very largely in these branches, their goods 
having a fineness and beauty of finish not equaled by any other ex- 
hibitor. Among their specialties were seamless tubes, bandage gum 
for dentists, sun-cured sponge bags, rubber-lined, and water bags. 

The National Rubber Company, Providence, R, I. 
Goods in this line, of good variety and quality. 

The following Parisian firms exhibited chirurgical instruments 
made of rubber : Jean Pierre Benas, Rondeau Bros., Vergne & Chose 
Bros. 

MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES, 

Crane & Co., Newark, N. % 
Soft-rubber bits for tender-mouthed horses. 

HARD-RUBBER MANUFACTURES. 

The India-Rubber Comb Company, New York, N. Y. 

A very fine exhibit of goods, of great variety and beauty of finish, 
including medical and household articles, photographic and tele- 
graphic utensils, ornamental articles, combs, etc. Deserving special 
mention were nine-inch tenpin balls, weighing about ten pounds each, 
calender rolls for paper manufacturers, and steel rolls with coating of 
hard rubber, five-eighths inch thick. These are not affected by acids, 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. 15 

and press the paper more evenly and thoroughly than those of metal, 
thus saving time in drying. Tube and sheet rubber of large size and 
fine finish, and some medallions of intricate design and fine work- 
manship, made by a new process, were also commendable. 

G. Magnus & Co., Berlin, Prussia. 

Hard-rubber billiard balls of good workmanship. These balls 
are sold for about one-half the price of ivory balls, but do not com- 
pete successfully with the latter. They take the force of the cue well, 
but do not rebound with accuracy from the cushions or from each 
other. Probably the metallic oxides introduced in the rubber are 
unevenly distributed, so that the centre of gravity does not coincide 
with the centre of the ball. 

Andrew Albright, Newark, N. y. 
Hard-rubber-coated harness. 

J. Dickson & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

A patent process for engravings from hard-rubber blocks, which are 
cheaper and more durable than wood ; 100,000 impressions have been 
taken from one block. The method of production is as follows: 
lithographic stone is covered with asphaltuni, engraved, and treated 
with nitric acid. The mixture of rubber and sulphur is then pressed 
upon the stone, subjected to a vulcanizing temperature, and sub- 
sequently finished with a graver. It is said to be one-tenth the price 
of wood-cuts for fine work, one-half the, price for coarse work, and 
four times as durable. 

The Russian-American Rubber Company, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

A cylinder cover of hard rubber outside and soft-rubber lining, of 
excellent make. 

Louis von Tuxen, Stockholm, Sweden. 

This was an exhibit of patent leather manufactured from new and 
old leather, which is ground and then condensed by chemicals, and 
used for tarpaulins, sun-tents, floor-mats, wall-covering, machine- 
belts, gas- and water-pipes, machine-packing, etc. The raw materials 
are leather refuse, india-rubber, and chemicals. The india-rubber is 
dissolved in turpentine, benzine, or bisulphide of carbon. The manu- 
factory was established in 1865, and employs 14 hands and a 4 horse- 
power engine. 

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INTERNATIOISfAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

Austin G. Day exhibited wire insulated with a patented mixture 
of caoutchouc, sulphur, oils, bituminous matters, and metallic oxides, 
of excellent insulating properties, durability, and very low cost. The 
article is termed kerite. 



RUBBER MANUFACTURERS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The following list of manufacturers of caoutchouc in the United 
States has been compiled from various sources, and is believed to be 
quite complete. It does not include the manufacturers of rubber 
jewelry or dentists* goods : 



iEtna Rubber Co. 


Boston, Mass. , 


Clothing. 


Akron Rubber Co. . 


Akron, Ohio 


Packing, belting, and hose. 


American Hard Rubber Co. 






Blake Hose Co. . . . 


Boston, Mass. . 


Hose. 


Boston Belting Co. . . . 


Boston, Mass. . 


Packing, belting, hose, etc. 


Boston Car-Spring Co. 


Boston, Mass. . 


Packing and car-springs. 


Boston Rubber Shoe Co. . 


Maiden, Mass. . 


Shoes. 


L. Candee & Co. 


New Haven, Conn. , 


Shoes. 


C. M. Clapp & Co. . 


Boston, Mass. . 


Clothing. 


Cleveland Rubber Co. 


Cleveland, Ohio 


Packing and car-springs. 


Columbia Car- Spring Co. . 


New York 


Car springs. 


The Combination Rubber Co. . 


New York . 


Packing and hose. 


Davidson Rubber Co. 


Charlestown, Mass. , 


Bands and rings and surgical 
goods. 


A. G. Day & Bro. . 


Seymour, Conn. 


Pencils. 


C. B. Dickenson 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Bands and rings and surgical 
goods. 


Eugene Doherty. 






Eagle Rubber Co. . . . 


Boston, Mass. . 


Wringer rolls. 


East Hampton Thread Co. . 


East Hampton, Mass. 


Rubber thread. 


A. C. Eddy & Studley 


Providence, R, I, 


Syringes. 


Elastic Fabric Co. . . . 


Boston, Mass. , 


Elastic goods, belting, and 
hose. 


Eureka Fire Hose Co. 


New York. 


Hose. 


E. Faber & Co 


New York. 


Elastic bands and rings. 


Glendale Elastic Fabric Co. 


Fast Hampton, Mass. 


Elastic fabrics. 


B. F. Goodrich & Co. 






Goodyear I. R. Glove Co. . 


Naugatuck, Conn. 


Clothing and gloves. 


Goodyear Metallic Rubber Shoe 






Co 


Naugatuck, Conn. 


Shoes. 


Goodyear Rubber Co. 


Middletown, Conn. . 


Shoes. 


Gossamer Rubber Clothing Co. . 


Boston, Mass. . 


Clothing. 


H. A. Hall & Co. . 


Boston, Mass. 




Hamilton Rubber Co. 


Trenton, N. J. . 


Packing and hose. 


Hayward Rubber Co. 


Colchester, Conn. 


Shoes. 


p. F. Heath . . . . 


Newark, N.J. . 
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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. 



17 



D. Hodgman & Co. . 

F. Holton . 

India-Rubber Comb Co. 

L. Joy & Co. . 

Keystone Rubber Co. 

Lambertville Rubber Co. 

Long Island Rubber Co. 

Marionville Rubber Co. 

Mercer Rubljer Co. . 

Meyer Rubber Co. 

Morrisville Rubber Co. 

Mystic Rubber Co. . 

Nashawannock Manufact'ing Co. 

National Car-Spring Co. 

National Rubber Co. . 

Newark Rubber Co. . 

New Brunswick Rubber Co. 

New England Car-Spring Co. . 

New Jersey Car- Spring Co. 

New Jersey Rubber Co. 

New York Belting and Packing 
Co 

New York Gutta-Percha and 
Rubber Manufacturing Co. . 

New York Rubber Co. 

Novelty Rubber Co. . 

C. Roberts .... 

Rubber Qothing Co. . 

Rubber-Coated Harness Trim- 
ming Co 

Rubber Comb and Jewelry Co. . 
Rubber Step Manufacturing Co. 
Seamless Rubber Co. 
Star Rubber Co. 
Stewart Rubber Co. 
Tyer Rubber Co. 
Union Rubber Co. 
Vulcanite Jewelry Co. 
Wannalauset Manufacturing Co. 
Ward Bros. Rubber Co. 
Whitehead Bros. 
Woonsocket Rubber Co. . 



New York 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
College Point, L. I. . 
Newark, N. J. . 
Williamsport, Pa 
Lambertville, N. J. . 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Trenton, N. J. . 
New Brunswick, N. J. 
Morrisville, N. J. 
Mystic, Conn. . 
East Hampton, Mass. 
New York . 
Bristol, R. I. . 
Newark, N. J. 
New Brunswick, N. J. 
New York 
Jersey City, N. J. 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

New York 

New York . 
New York 

New Brunswick, N. J. 
Newark, N. J. . 
New York . 

Newark, N. J. . 

Bloomingdale, N. J. . 
Boston, Mass. . 
Naugatuck, Conn. 
Trenton, N. J. . 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Andover, Mass. . 
Harlem, N. Y. . 
New York . 
Boston, Mass. . 

Trenton, N. J. . 
Woonsocket, R. I, 



Clothing. 

Surgical goods. 

Hard-rubber combs, etc. 

Clothing. 

Shoes. 

Springs, packing, belting, etc. 

Shoes. 

Springs, packing, and hose. 

Shoes. 

Springs, packing, and hose. 

Clothing. 

Elastic fabrics. 

Car-springs. 

All kinds of soft-rubber goods. 

Shoes. 

Springs, packing, and hose. 

Springs, packing, and hose. 

Shoes. 

Packing, belting, hose, etc. 

Belting, packing, and hose. 
Toys, belting, and hose. , 

Hard-rubber canes, buttons, etc. 
Elastic bands and rings. 
Rubber clothing. 

Rubber-coated harness trim- 
mings. 
Rubber combs and jewelry 
Rubber steps. 
Druggists* articles. 
Packing and hose. 
Shoes. 

Elastic fabrics. 
Clothing. 
Jewelry. 
Hose. 

Packing and hose. 
Shoes. 



The value of rubber goods manufactured annually in the United 
States is estimated at ^26,000,000. 



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1 8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876 

HATS AND CAPS. 

BY MODEST KITTARY. 

Different climates, different seasons, different ages, and different 
tastes determine the varieties of shapes, material, and workmanship 
used in the manufacture of these goods. These varieties were well 
represented at the International Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1 876, 
and specially in the American department, which had the largest 
number of exhibitors, each having a considerable number of articles 
on exhibition. The total number of American exhibitors was fifteen, 
of whom seven were from Philadelphia, four from New York, two 
from Newark, one from St. Louis, and one from South Norwalk. It 
is to be regretted that these elegant collections were not accompanied 
with information on which the history of this industry in the United 
States could be based. While all the foreign exhibitors sent detailed 
descriptions stating the time their establishments had been in opera- 
tion, giving the number of workmen employed, the yearly production, 
etc., the Official Catalogue of the American department has nothing 
of the kind, and the applications made by the exhibitors for exami- 
nation did not give this information. 

Various kinds of hats, silk or felt, could be subjected to a technical 
examination as well as any other article of manufacture. Such an 
examination was proposed to the Judges of Group X. by the writer; 
he proposed to determine accurately the weight, and, by pulling the 
hat, its strength ; this, however, was not accepted by the Judges, who 
feared to make the examinations too difficult and complicated. It 
was, therefore, decided to follow the course pursued at previous Inter- 
national Exhibitions, leaving the mode of examination to the Judges 
individually. But this fails to give manufacturers those useful hints 
which would call their attention to points important for further im- 
provements. The American manufacturers have reached the height 
of European manufacture, they are aiming to go further, and therefore 
such scientific examinations would be of great importance to them. 
The progress of this industry has been established by the fact that 
out of fifteen exhibitors twelve were recommended by the Judges for 
awards. 

UNITED STATES. 

E. Morris & Co., Pluladelphia, Pa, 
Their establishment was founded in 1846. They exhibited silk 
hats specially, — English and American styles ; the first weighing 6 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. ig 

ounces, the latter 3^ to 4^ ounces. Such a light weight was not 
exhibited by any other firm either from the United States or any 
other country. Their hats made on cork and on net with shellac 
are very light and porous, and therefore ventilate well. 

John B. Stetson & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Their establishment was founded in 1864; they manufacture a high 
quality of felt hats, soft and stiff. Their exhibit was interesting, as 
showing the articles used in their manufacture, — downs, rabbits of 
six kinds, four kinds of hare, musk-rats, and beavers. The rabbits 
used are mostly French, some blue Belgian; hares from Russia, 
Turkey, and Saxony. Musk-rats and beavers are silver-colored and 
brown. The prices of these hats are moderate, up to ^38 per dozen. 

Haverhill Hat Company, Haverhill, Mass, 

A large collection of felt hats made of merino wool, of very good 
quality and cheap, from $j to ^15 per dozen. 

DuNLAP & Co., New York, N. Y. 

A large variety of gentlemen's and ladies* silk, felt, and straw hats. 
They employ 170 hands, and manufacture ^00,000 worth per year. 

J. S. Bancroft & Co., New York, N Y. 

Light summer hats; their bamboo hats attracted attention on 
account of their quality and good shape. 

Schuyler, Hartey, & Graham, New York, N Y 
The best hats, caps, felt hats for masons, etc. 

The following exhibitors were also commended by the Judges for 
the high quality of their manufacture : Yates, Warton, & Co., Newark, 
N. y,, T. H. Amidon's Son, New York, N. Y, Alden Solmans, South 
Nonvalk, Conn,, J. H. Fenton & Brother, Philadelphia, Pa,, Blay- 
LOCK & Co., Philadelphia, Pa,, and James Schiller & Co., St. Louis, 
Mo. 

The Judges also examined the wooden blocks and other tools used 
in the manufacture of hats exhibited by two firms : Pierson & Her- 
man, Newark, N. y,, and Christian 'Hoii^EiiBERGEK, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Both parties were found worthy of an award, their products being 
equally good and complete. Mr. Nonnenberger has made an im- 
provement in the construction of an apparatus to stretch the crown. 

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20 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The Stretching has been done heretofore with a wooden screw, which 
' increased the size in one direction, leaving the other without change. 
Mr. Nonnenberger's apparatus increases the size of hats in two direc- 
tions at the same time (lengthwise and crosswise). These two col- 
lections of blocks and tools used in the hat manufactory show distinctly 
the progress made in the United States. None of the other countries 
exhibited anything in this line. The American manufacturers have 
not yet succeeded in stopping the import of fine hats from England. 
Dunlap & Co., of New York, being heavy manufacturers, are at the 
same time agents for Lincoln, Bennett, & Co., of London; and 
Blaylock & Co., of Philadelphia, are agents for Ormond Dash, of 
Brighton. 

ENGLAND. 

The Judges recommended Lincoln, Bennett, & Co., who had a 
large variety of silk, opera, felt, down, and straw hats of very high 
quality, but did not present any new inventions. By mistake the 
English Catalogue states that this firm received a medal at the Ex- 
hibition of 185 1, in London, the firm having been established later. 
This information was given by the third English exhibitor, — Tress 
& Co. They were awarded medals in London in 1852 and 1861, and 
in Paris in 1855 and 1867. They exhibited, beside a large collection 
of silk and felt hats of general character, an interesting collection of 
ladies* and gentlemen's Indian sun hats. These Indian hats have the 
shape of a helmet, have a complete ventilation, and have proved to be 
very practical ; they are in use not only in East India, but also in 
the United States ; are considered a good protection from sunstroke ; 
are made of felt, are stiff, and have a good shape. The sun or tropical 
hats are of soft felt, with wide brims, with openings for ventilation, 
thin and light, and always double, — that is, one hat inside of another. 
In very hot weather both hats are put on ; in cooler weather the 
second is left off; the air inclosed between the two forms the pro- 
tection from the heat of the tropical sun's rays. The collection of 
Tress & Co. justly received full attention from the Judges. 

RUSSIA. 

From Russia were eight exhibitors of hats, caps, military caps, and 
helmets. Russia is supplied by home production, and only a few hats 
are imported from Paris for admirers of French manufacture. 

The following exhibitors were found worthy an award : W. TcHis- 

TiAKOF, firm TcHOURKiN, St. Petersburg, founded eighty years ago, 

at present one of the largest establishments in Russia; who manufac 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. 2 1 

tures hats of all kinds, silk, opera, felt, stiff, and soft, of good quality 
and at moderate prices. He suits the requirement of the majority. 

Leon Wilken, firm Vandrague, Moscow, established in 1838. In 
quantity this house is equal to the first, and makes the same kinds^ 
but of higher quality and prices. They were approved by the Judges 
for good workmanship and material. 

Theod. Weigt, Warsaw, I. Popp, Riga, and Ephime Nazarof, St, 

Petersburg, 

These exhibitors showed excellent workmanship on hats, and the 
last on " horse-guards' " hfelmets. 

Russia does not present anything new and improved in this in- 
dustry; it keeps on the same level with other countries of good 
manufacture, meets the requirements, and is -able to keep foreign 
manufactures away from the home market. 

AUSTRIA. 

From Austria-Hungary were three exhibitors of hats; they were 
all found worthy of award. Data given in the Catalogue show that 
Austria supplies the home demand, and exports to Germany, Holland, 
Denmark, and America. The export to America seems to be doubt- 
ful, as no agents are named. 

T. Shrivan & Son, Vienna, and Peter Habig & Co., Vienna, 

Hats of usual shape, of excellent workmanship. The first was 
established in 1848, and exhibited military hats with gold galloons and 
feather trimmings. 

J. HiJCKELS & Son, Neutitscheim, 

Soft and stiff down felt hats, of high quality ; their soft, long-haired 
hats, imitating the beaver fur, were remarkable; some are dark green, 
blue, and of other colors. These hats are heavier than others, and 
are used in cold weather. 

SWEDEN. 

Sweden had no hat exhibit, except two caps and one helmet, ex- 
hibited by Mr. J. A. Ek, on three figures displaying officers' uniforms. 

ITALY. 

Outside of a large and fine collection of straw hats, which are a 
specialty of Italian manufacture, Italy exhibited a variety of silk hats 
with crowns of muslin and cork, opera hats of silk and merino, stiff 

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22 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

and soft felt hats. Nothing was new in these collections, but the 
excellence of workmanship and material deserved the approval of 
the Judges. There were only two exhibitors, Gabriel Rumieri, of 
Naples, and Cesare la Farina, of Palermo. 

SPAIN. 

Spain had seven exhibitors. They exhibited hats of general styles : 
silk hats, folding operas, down felt hats, stiff and soft. One exhibitor 
showed hats of natural color, and also colored Manila hats. 

Mateo de Harna, Zamora, 

His shop was established in' 1856, and now exports to Portugal. 
The qualities were good and prices moderate. Special attention is 
to be called to the extent of this establishment; 1000 workmen are 
employed, as stated by the Commissioner. This number of work- 
men is large; if correct, this establishment is the largest in the 
world. The establishment of Mateo de Harna has a school for the 
elementary education of the workmen's children 

Gregorio Sartoc, Seville, 
Very good and light felt hats. 

Francisco Villasante, Madrid. 
Good taste and low prices. 

Juan M. de Rojas, Pangasinan^ Philippine Islands, 

An interesting collection of Manila hats; they were light and fine, 
of white, brown, and black colors; the black color being artificial. 
Price, ^10. 

PORTUGAL. 

From Portugal were five exhibitors, whose collections attracted the 
attention of the Judges. 

Widow d*A. Roxo, Lisbon. 

This establishment was founded in 1851; it employs 400 hands; 
manufactures all kinds of hats, — silk hats with muslin and with cork 
crowns, opera hats, stiff and soft felt hats, military hats with gold 
galloons. Most remarkable were the felt hats with long hair, imita- 
tion of beaver and other colors, blue, green, gray, etc. They were of 
the same kind as shown in the Austrian department by Huckels & Son, 
of Neutitscheim. It is remarkable that in Austria these hats are 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. 23 

worn in cold weather to keep the head warm, while in Portugal they 
are worn to prevent the passage of sun-rays in summer-time. 

Maia & SiLVA, Oporto, 

The same kind of hats ; also those with long hair of beaver and 
other colors. Establishment founded in 1854; employs 350 hands; 
has steam-engine of 35 horse-power. The yearly production amounts 
to ^200,000. 

Costa Braga & Son, Oporto, 

Hats of general kind, silk and felt of good quality. Establishment 
founded in 1866; employs 200 hands ; has a 15 horse-power engine; 
yearly production ^120,000. Their felt hats are remarkable for fine- 
ness and light weight. 

Santos & Bro., Ovar, 

A similar exhibit of all kinds of hats, of very good quality. Estab- 
lished in 1872. Employs 100 hands, and has 30 horse-power. 

CusTADio Jose Rodrigues Bahia, Brago, 

This establishment is of great importance to the country. The 
Commissioner from Portugal states that Portugal has a large hat- 
industry. It supplies the home demand, and exports to Africa and 
Brazil ; to some extent hats are imported from Spain. 

BRAZIL. 

Brazil showed quite an interest in the hat exhibit ; eight firms sent 
their collections, of which the following attracted the attention of the 
Judges : 

Imperial Fluminense Agricultural Institute, Rio de Janeiro. 

This Government establishment exhibited felt and bamboo hats 
of excellent workmanship. The latter are very expensive; they are 
valued at $60 and ^70 apiece. If these goods find purchasers, it 
will be due to the benevolent object of the Institute. 

JoAQUiM Alvaro d'Armado & Co., Rio de yaneiro. 

Silk, felt, and bamboo hats of good workmanship, having variety in 
shapes, and moderate prices. 

Bierrenbach & Bros., Campinac, St, Paulo, 

Silk and felt hats, soft and stiff. Their soft felt hats excelled all 
the soft hats in the Exhibition in fineness and light weight 



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24 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Fernando Braga and Francisco Fischer, Rio de yaneiro. 
Good shapes, excellent workmanship. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 
The Argentine Republic had two exhibitors. 

BuFFETi & Maya, Buenos Ayres, 
A high quality of silk and felt hats. 

Serafin a. Carneiro, Buenos Ayres, 

Felt hats made of vicuna downs, remarkable on account of the 
material, light weight, fineness, and softness. 

japan. 
Japan had one representative. 

Wakamatsa, Omi, 

Hats made of leaves and stalks of Victoria Chinensis. This material 
has been in use for some time in the manufacture of nice, light, and 
strong cases, boxes, etc. Lately this new application of the Victoria 
Chinensis has taken place. It is used in the manufacture of hats 
of European shapes; also bamboo hats; they are stiff, durable, and 
porous. 

We close the general report on the collections of gentlemen's 
head-furnishing goods with regret that neither Germany nor France 
took part in this department of the Exhibition. The first has an 
established reputation for the moderate price and good quality of 
hats used by the middle classes; while the second is known for 
its elegance in style and high prices for hats used by the rich and 
aristocratic classes, 

CORSETS. 

BY MODEST KITTARY. 

It is neither just nor right to consider corsets as an article of fancy 
or fashion only. The peculiarity of the form of woman has, with the 
civilization of the human race, made the corset a necessity; the cor- 
set gives comfort and shape to the dress of ladies, and does also other 
quite important services, being often a hygienic and surgical appa- 
ratus. This is the point of view the Judges of Group X. have taken. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. 25 

UNITED STATES. 

The United States took the largest interest in this department 
They had fourteen exhibitors, each of them having some pecuhar 
features. The appearance of the American corsets did not quite 
meet the views of the European ladies, especially on account of 
the long waists; they could but acknowledge the usefulness and 
importance of improvements shown by these exhibitors. 

The Boston Comfort Corset Company, Boston, Mass, 

Corsets without whalebones, these being replaced by strong cords. 
This change permits an easy washing of the corset. They are cheap, 
do not press, and are free from disadvantages due to broken or loose 
whalebones in corsets, after they have been worn for a length of time. 
These corsets are mostly large, nearly closed ; they open on the side, 
and have small sleeves. 

The Worcester Corset Company, Worcester^ Mass, 
A large collection of corsets of various prices and shapes. Most 
remarkable is their patented arrangement of sewing the front parts 
of corsets, which contain the breasts. Generally these parts of 
the front are made, for each side, of two pieces of cloth. Between 
them are placed whalebones, or parts sewed through ; they press the 
breast in the middle. The Worcester Corset Company use three 
pieces, and relieve hereby the nipple from pressure. These corsets 
have, outside of the usual back-lacing, a side-lacing. This permits a 
regulation of the waist of the corset. Nearly all their corsets have 
suspenders for skirts, hoop-petticoat, etc. Some have shoulder- 
braces, entirely unknown in Europe. They are due to peculiarities 
in form and to the narrowness of the pelvis. Two corsets deserve to 
be mentioned especially ; one which is useful for pregnant persons, 
as well as for those who have falling of the womb ; and the second a 
universal corset, which can be made to fit most any form of the body 
by adjustment of shoulder-straps, belt, and lacing; this being very 
useful for pregnant women. The corsets of the Worcester Company 
are not dear ; they range from fj up per dozen. 

The United States Corset Company, New York, N. Y, 
Woven corsets with back-lacing, remarkable ♦for their cheapness, 
from J4 per dozen up. 

M. CoHN & Co., New York, N. Y. 
Corsets of cheapness and good quality. 



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26 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

Brewster Bros. & Co., Birmingham^ Conn, 

A finer quality of corsets, which resemble those of Paris. They 
are side-laced, with shoulder-brace, ring suspenders for skirts, etc., 
peculiarities proper to American corsets. An open corset, made 
only of stiff parts, where the whalebones are placed without cloth ; 
this is considered very good for summer-time. 

Mrs. Harriet M. Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa, 

This firm exhibited buff corsets; they are high, and cover the 
breasts ; the front is made in the shape of two buffs (pad), to receive 
the breasts. These corsets are very useful to persons who have sore 
breasts, and give at the same time a nice appearance to those who 
have small-developed breasts. 

George Frost & Co., Boston, Mass. 

Most remarkable is the corset of this firm, called " Emancipation 
corset," recommended for young women. The corset reaches only 
the breasts, relieves them from any pressure, and does not prevent 
their free development. 

PAI.MER & Williams, Boston, Mass, 

Corsets with double busk. In addition to the two busks generally 
applied, a third wide one is placed under them. In case one of the 
two break, the breasts cannot be hurt, and it is not required to repair 
the corset at once. 

Mme. Demorest, New York, N, K 

In addition to a large display of ladies' dress patterns, this exhibit 
comprised a large collection of corsets, ladies' shoulder-braces, skirt 
and stocking suspenders. These suspenders, also made independent 
of the corsets, are considered as very useful. 

FRANCE. 

FoREY & Oppenheim, Paris. 

Corsets, especially made for the Exhibition, with silk, silver, and 
gold embroidery ; very tasteful work, for which the firm was found 
worthy of an award. 

P. Lenoir, Paris. 

Excellent corsets. They have an interesting peculiarity, having 
the busk and bones substituted by rubber. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP X. 27 

GERMANY. 

Cross & Co., Baden, 

G. M. Ottenheimer & Son, Stuttgard. 

These corsets do not show anything new, but are considered 
worthy of an award for good workmanship, shape, and cheapness. 

SPAIN. 

J. Cardona & Baldrich, Barcelona. 

In their large exhibit the woven corsets were equal to the American 
in price and quality. More interesting was their exhibit of open cor- 
sets, cheaper, light, and well adapted to the climate in Spain. Messrs. 
Cardona & Baldrich also exhibited some hygienic and surgical corsets 
for deformed backs and breasts. 

The other countries had no exhibitors in the corset department 



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GROUP X. 



I. Wanamaker & Brown, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CIVIL AND MILITARY CLOTHING. 
Report, — Commended for fair skill in cut and workmanship, and as meritorious in price. 



2. John Wanamaker & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CIVIL AND MILITARY CLOTHING. 

Report, — Commended for fair skill in cut and workmanship, and as meritorious in price. 



3. H. P. Cooper, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

CLOTHING FOR GENTLEMEN. 

Report. — Commended for skill in cut and workmanship, and as well adapted to the 
purpose intended. 

4. E. O. Thompson, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CLOTHING. 

Report, — ^This is an exhibit of fancy clothing with United States gold and silver coin for 
buttons. The chief merit consists of skill in cut and careful workmanship. 



5. Devlin & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

CIVIL AND MILITARY CLOTHING. 

Report. — Commended for skill in cut, good quality and durability of the workmanship, 
and good taste in trimming. 

6. Sweet, Orr, & Co., Wappinger's Falls, N. Y., U. S. 

PANTALOONS, JACKirrS, AND OVERALLS. 

Report. — All the goods exhibited by this house are Avell cut, very strongly made, and sold 
at very low prices, and are in every way adapted to the wants of the working class. 



7. Pettingell & Sawyer, East Cambridge, Mass., U. S. 

WATER-PROOF OIL-CLOTH CLOTHES AND WATER-PROOF HATS. 

Report, — ^The products consist of oil-cloth clothing, yellow, gray, and black, including 

hats, jackets, and overcoats, for yachtmen and car-drivers ; jackets, pants, and overalls, for 

oystermen, fishermen, and butchers; miners* and Lincoln hats; souwesters; horse and 

wagon covers. The jackets and overcoats are of fine fabric, double thickness, the collars 

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30 J^EPOJiTS ON AWARDS, 

faced with flannel, the whole well put together, and inner sleeve protects against storms. 
The overalls are secured by a large running cord at the waist. The caps and hats are of 
tasteful forms, and strongly made. Commended for thorough workmanship, taste, and 
fitness for intended use. 

8. P. B. Eager, Tower, & Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

OIL-CLOTH CLOTHING. 

Report. — ^The products consist of yellow oil-cloth jacket, of fine fabric, for yachtmen, 
with flannel facings for warmth and for dress, thoroughly made; of captain*s overcoat, 
embroidered in front and on sleeves, faced with flannel, and having inner sleeves with close- 
fitting wristbands to keep out storm; of overalls or pants secured at the waist with buckle 
and leather belt, the latter fastened to the clolh with copper rivets. The buttons of the 
coat are of zinc, nickel-plated for the more expensive, and secured by twisted wire and 
stiongly stayed. Also of block jackets, overalls, souweslers, and overcoats; all of fine 
fabric and well made. Commended for adaptation of buttons and belt to use in cold and 
storm, and for taste, workmanship, and quality. 



9. John G. McGee ft Co., Belfast, Ireland. 

ULSTER OVERCOATS FOR LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, TRAVELING AND CARRIAGE CLOAKS. 

Report. — Commended for originality and variety of design, skill in cut, and good taste 
displayed in trimmings. 

10. T. G. Fumeval, Canada. 

CLOTHING. 

Report. — Commended for skill in cut, appropriateness, taste in trimming, and good 
workmanship. 

II. R. P. Taylor ft Son, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

MEN*S CLOTHING. 

Report. — Commended for fair skill in cut, and durable workmlnship. 



12. J. S. May, St. John, New Brunswick. 

CLOTHING FOR GENTLEMEN. 

Report, — Commended for good material, fair skill in cut, and good workmanship. 



13. Nicetas Komarof, Moscow, Russia. 

COLLECTION OF READY-MADE COATS MADE FROM DRESSED SHEEPSKINS. 

Report. — Commended for adaptation, usefulness, good workmanship, and economy. 



14. Broosnitzyn ft Sons, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

WATER-PROOF LEATHER COAT WITH CAP AND CAPE COMBINED. 

Report. — A specimen of leather tanning in the form of an overcoat together with a cap 
and cape combined. The hair side out presents a remarkably smooth, almost glossy, black 
finish. The texture and feel remind one of the finest samples of calf-skin. The sleeves 
and pockets are lined with Italian cloth, and the body and skirt with flannel of fine quality. 
The whole is substantially and thoroughly put together. 

Commended for strength, finish, and water-proof quality. 

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GROUP X, J, 

15. Chief Intendency, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

COLLECTION OF READY-MADE MILITARY CLOTHING. 

Report, — ^This collection consists of — a^ soldier's uniform of horse-guards men ; b, under- 
officer's uniform of life-guard ; c, soldier's uniform of life dragoon of his Majesty's regiment 
of Moscow (army cavalry); </, soldier's uniform of 1st Nevsky regiment army infantry; 
tt soldier's uniform of 1st Turkestan battalion ; soldiers* cloaks, gray, and gray with blue 
collar. These products are of very high order in cut and workmanship. 



16. Tailors' Society, Paris, France. 

men's CLOTHING. 

Report. — ^The exhibit is large, the garments cut in a variety of styles, and show skill in 
cut, and good workmanship. Another feature worthy of notice is the fact that this is a 
society of journeymen tailors organized for their mutual protection and the improvement of 
their moral and intellectual condition. 



17. A. Pereira Rego, Lisbon, Portugal. 

MILITARY CLOTHING. 
Report, — Commended for good skill in cut, and fine workmanship. 



18. Antonio Mangeri, Messina, Italy. 

men's CLOTHING. 

Report, — Commended for novelty and skill in cut, and fine workmanship. 



19. Salvatore Caldara, Palermo, Italy. 

men's CLOTHING. 

Report, — Commended as meritorious in cut, and of good workmanship. 



20. Joh. Werner, Prague, Austria. 
men's clothing. 
Report. — Commended for great variety of the exhibit, fine skill in cut, good taste in 
trimmings, and fine quality of the workmanship. 



21. M. Mottl's Sons, Prague, Austria. 
men's clothing. 
Report, — Garments adapted to a great variety of purposes. Commended for high order 
of skill in cut, fine taste in trimmings, and highest grade of workmanship. 



22. Keller & Alt, Vienna, Austria. 

clothing. 

Report, — Commended for great variety of product, skill in cut, and good workmanship. 



23. Beermann Straschitx, Prague, Austria. 
men's clothing. 
Report. — Commended for variety of the exhibit, fair skill in cut, and excellent work- 
manship. 



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32 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

24. E. F. Fernlund, Stockholm, Sweden. 

CIVIL AND MILITARY CLOTHING. 

Report, — Commended for skillful cut and excellent workmanship. 



25. A. R. Wallgren, Stockholm, Sweden. 

MILITARY CLOTHING. 
Report. — Commended for skill in cut, and good workmanship. 



26. B. Wiki, Luzerne, Switzerland. 
men's clothing. 
Report. — Commended for good material, skillful cut, and good workmanship. 



27. Christian Mfiller, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
oil-cloth clothing. 
Report. — The product consists of a white overcoat and cowl, two thicknesses throughout 
of fine fabric, the collar and cowl lined with red flannel, edges throughout bound with 
flexible leather binding, strongly sewed ; a jacket double-bound with leather, collar faced 
with flannel ; the buttons are sewed to a strip of leather, which is strongly sewed to the 
lapel of both^the coat and jacket; the button-holes are bound with soft, flexible leather, 
the fastening about the neck is with buckle and strap. The pants, double and reinforced 
about the knee, are secured at the waist with a leather string. The souwester is bound 
with leather, and leather ril« over the crown give stifl'ness to the form. Commended for 
leather bindings of edges and of button-holes; for mode of staying the buttons; for adaptation 
to use in severe weather ; and for thorough workmanship. 



28. Star Knitting Co., Cohoes, N. Y., U. S. 

COTTON, WOOL, AND MERINO UNDERWEAR. 

Report. — Commended for uniformity in texture and finish. 



29. C. A. Thudium & Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

knitted JACKETS. 

Report. — Commended for material used, and excellence in color and general finish. 



30. W. K. Greene's Sons & Co., Amsterdam, N. Y., U. S. 

COTTON AND MERINO UNDERWEAR. 

Report. — Commended as meritorious in view of cost and price. 



31. John J. Glazier, Brother, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HOSIERY. 
Report. — Commended for a large assortment of white and colored " circular" frame hose 
and half-hose, and high degree of excellence in bleach and finish. 



32. A. B. Hapke. Harrisburg, Pa., U. S. • 

KNIT GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for a great variety of patterns, and excellence in style and design. 

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33. Peck & Greene, Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. 

WORSTED AND SILK GOODS FOR THEATRICAL, BOATING, AND GENERAL UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended for high standard in quality for the purposes intended. 



34. Norfolk & New Brunswick Hosiery Co., New Brunswick, N. J., U. S. 

KNITTED UNDERWEAR FOR LADIES, GENTLEMEN, AND CHILDREN. 

Report. — Commended for high grade of material used, excellence in fashion, and general 
finish. 



35. American Hosiery Co., New Britain, Conn., U. S. 

UNDERWEAR AND HOSIERY OF WOOL, MERINO, AND COTTON. 

Report, — Commended for high standard of excellence in texture and finish, and perfec- 
tion in fashion and form. 



36. Q. H. Prindle, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

KNIT GOODS. 

Report. — A fine display of novelties made of zephyr yam, and specially meritorious ast 
to price, style, and quality. 

37. Henry Gabriel & Sons, Allentown, Pa., U. S. 

HOSIERY OF COTTON AND WOOL. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in wearing qualities, and a close resemblance in 
the general appearance to hand-knit goods. 



38. Thos. Hughes & Co., Bristol, Pa., U. S. 

COTTON, MERINO, AND WOOL HOSIERY. 

Report, — A large and varied collection, suitable for men, women, and children. 



39. Henry Zaiiner, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HAND-KNIT AND CROCHET ZEPHYR GOODS FOR INFANTS. 

Report, — Commended as excellent in appearance, with a view to price. 



40. Lowell Hosiery Co., Lowell, Mass., U. S. 

WOMEN'S PLAIN COTTON HOSE. 

Report, — Commended for special adaptation to the use of the middle and working classes, 
in regard to price and quality. 

41. Otis Co., Ware, Mass., U. S. 

HOSIERY AND UNDERWEAR. 

Report. — Commended for excellence of texture, color, and finish in gauze underwear. 



42. Martin Landenberger's Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HOSIERY AND KNIT GOODS. 

Report, — High degree of excellence in color and finish, superb in design, and specially 
commended for variety and assortment. 

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34 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

43. Boston Manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

COTTON HOSIERY. 

Report, — Commended for excellent finish, especially in full and half fashioned products. 



44. Wm. T. Hopkins, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

UNDERGARMENTS FOR LADIES AND CHILDREN, AND INFANTS* DRESSES. 

Report, — Commended for variety of design, good quality of material, and good work- 
up- 

45. Homer, Colladay, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

UNDERWEAR FOR LADIES AND CHILDREN, AND INFANTS' DRESSES. 
Report, — Commended for beauty in design and scperior workmanship. 



46. American Netting Underwear Co., C. H. Moeller, Propr., St. Louis, Mo., U. 8. 

NETTED UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended for originality and novelty of construction with a view to venti- 
lation, and excellence in fashion and finish. 



47. Dana Bickford, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

KNITTED ARTICLES. 

Report, — Commended for a great variety of designs and styles. 



48. Pennsylvania Industrial Home for Blind Women, Philadelphia, Pa., U. 8. 

KNITTED GOODS, BEAD-WORK, AND BASKETS. 
Report. — Commended for good and su1)stantial workmanship. 



49. Annie E. Taylor, Philadelphia, Pa., U. 8. 

KNITTED GOODS IN SILK AND WORSTED. 
Report, — Commended for the excellent taste displayed in designs and coIotb. 



50. I. & R. Morley, London, England. 

HOSIERY AND GLOVES. 

Report, — Commended for high degree of excellence in style, color, and ornamentation. 



51. Smyth & Co., Dublin, Ireland. 

HOSIERY. 

Report. — Commended for the high standard for quality in every particular. 



52. T. Tumbull, Gait, Ontario, Canada. 

KNITTED UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in color, and high grade of fabric. 



53. McCrae & Co., Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 

KNIT GOODS AND HOSIERY. 

^<^^^/.__Commended for excellence of material used, and special adaptability to home 
markets, and cold climates generally. 

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GROUP X. ^g 

54. Ancaster Knitting Co., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

KNITTED AND FANCY GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for the large and varied assortment, and skill displayed in color 
and Enish. 

55. John Roonin, Moscow, Russia. 

KNIT GOODS AND HOSIERY. 

Report, — Commended for excellent finish, substantial fabric, and adaptability to the pur- 
pose intended. 

56. Nicholas Shereshefsky, Moscow, Russia. 

ladies' underwear AND GENTLEMEN'S SHIRTS. 

Report, — Commended for variety of design, good quality of the material and workman- 
ship, and economy in cost. 

57. Walter Horving, Wiborg, Finland, Russia. 

KNIT GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in style and workmanship. 



58. Anne Winogradova, Nijni-Novogorod, Russia. 

HOSIERY AND CAPS FOR LADIES, WITH SWAN FEATHER TRIMMINGS. 

Report, — Coats and fichus entirely braided with swan. Commended for handsome pat- 
terns and great novelty. 

59. Poron Brothers, Troyes, Prance. 

HOSIERY. 

Report, — ^A large and varied assottment, of good make, style, and finish. 



60. C. Bullot, Paris, France. 

HOSIERY. 

Report, — Commended for skill displayed in ornamentation, and high degree of excellence 
in texture, color, and finish. 

61. Dujardin Brothers, Leuze, Belgium. 

COTTON AND WOOLEN HOSIERY. 

Report, — Commended for skill displayed in workmanship and design, ana as very ex- 
cellent in view of price. 

62. Oliver & Co., Mataro, Barcelona, Spain. 

HOSIERY AND UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended as of excellent finish and economical as to price. 



63. Masoliver Brothers, Barcelona, Spain. 

HOSIERY AND UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended as of high degree of excellence in quality of fabric, and especially 
meritorious in regard to price. 

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36 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

64. Luis Verderau, Spain. 

UNDERWEAR FOR LADIES AND CHILDREN, CHILDREN'S DRESSES, COLLARS, AND CUFFS. 

Report, — Commended for variety, good taste, and good workmanship. 



65. Ousta Yani, Adrianople, Turkey. 

WOOLEN HOSIERY. 

Report, — Commended for substantial make and excellent finish. 



66. Forol Yani, Trebizond, Turkey. 

HALF HOSE FOR MEN OR WOMEN. 

Report, — Commended for beautiful finish and fine quality of material. 



67. Frau Von Hake, Berlin, Germany. 

LADIES' UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended for good design and workmanship, and adaptability to the purpose 
intended. 

68. Fr. Ehreg Woller, Stollberg, Germany. 

COTTON HOSIERY AND UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — ^A very large and varied exhibit, excellent in quality and finish, and especially 
meritorious in view of price. 

69. Carl Mez & Sons, Freiburg, Baden, Germany. 

OPEN MESH FILET UNDERWEAR IN COTTON AND SILK. 

Report, — Commended for adaptability for the purpose intended, and economy in cost. 



70. Miss Helen Cathrine Lundh, Christiania, Norway. 

KNITTED GOODS BY THE EXHIBITOR AT THE AGES OF FIVE AND SIX YEARS. 

Report, — Commended for good style and workmanship. 



71. Jobs. Falkenberg, Christiania, Norway. 

UNDERWEAR FOR LADIES. 

Report. — Commended for variety in design, good material, and fine needlework. 



72. Meyer- Wsespi & Co., Altstetten, Switzerland. 

KNITTED UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended for large and varied assortment and excellence in make and 
finish. 

73. Blumer & Wild, St. Gallen, Switzerland. 

HOSIERY AND FANCY KNIT GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for new and unique designs, displaying good taste and work- 
manship. 

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74. Al End-Ulme, Luzem, Switzerland. 

KNITTED UNDERWEAR. 

Report. — Commended for a high degree of excellence in texture and finish. 



75. Mrs. Olivia P. Flynt, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

WEATHER PROTECTOR FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

Report, — Commended for novelty, entire fitness for purpose intended, and as being well 
made. 

76. Sharpless & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

COSTUMES FOR LADIES. 

Report. — Commended for excellent taste in design, skill in cut, and good 'workmanship. 



77. Mrs. E. Keyser, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

MISSES* CLOTHING AND INFANTS* OUTFITS. 
Report. — Commended for good taste in, design and good work. 



78. Madame Demorest, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

FASHIONS, PAPER PATTERNS, DRESS CUTTING SYSTEM, AND SHIRT AND STOCK INO StJS- 

PENDERS. 

Report. — Commended for variety of production, good quality of the products, simplicity 
and excellence of the dress-cutting system, and economy in cost. 



79. S. T. Taylor, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

DRESS-CinriNG SYSTEM AND PATENT BIAS CUTTER. 

Report. — Commended for skill in the preparation of the system of dress cutting, and 
adaptability in the bias cutter to the purpose intended. 



80. Mrs. Elmira Comwell, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GRADUATED CHART FOR DRESS CUTTING. 

Report. — Commended as original, well fitted to the purpose intended, and economical 
in cost 



81. Mrs. B. A. Steams, Wobum, Mass., U. S. 

GRADUATED CHART FOR DRESS CUTTING. 

Report. — Commended for good form, adaptation to public wants, and economy in cost 



82. Hitchcock, Williams, & Co., London, England. 

COSTUMES OF MIXED FABRICS FOR LADIES. 

Repo*i. — Commended for excellent taste in design, skill in cut, and fine workmanship. 



Z^. Brown & Clagget, Montreal, Canada. 

COSTUMES FOR LADIES. 

Report. — Commended for variety in design, taste in trimmings, and as being well made. 

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84. Petrof & Medvedef, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

CLOTHING FOR LADIES AND CniLDR^N. 
Report. — Commended for great variety of styles, good quality of the material used, good 
tas*<» and skill, and excellent workmanship. 



85. A. Levilion, Paris, France. 

COSTUMES FOR LADIES. 

Report. — Commended for exquisite taste in the selection of material and trimmings, fine 
skill in cut, and excellent workmanship. 



86. Mme. Augustine Cohn, Paris, France. 

COSTUMES FOR LADIES. 

Report. — Commended for fine taste in the selection of the materials and trimmings, 
great skill in cut, and excellent workmanship. 



87. Mme. Vauthicr, Paris, France. 

CHILDREN'S CLOTHING. 

Report. — Commended for variety in design, good taste in trimming, and good workman* 
ship. 

88. L. Tcrrillon, Paris, France. 

LADIES* DRESSES AND OTHER ARTICLI-:S FOR LADIES* WEAR; FOULARDS. 
Report. — Commended for good variety in patterns, taste, and fine workmanship. 



89. American Molded Collar Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

COMBINED CLOTH AND PAPER COLLARS. 

Report, — Commended for originality, quality, and adaptation to the public wants. 



90. Lockwood Manufacturing Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PAPER COLLARS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in quality and economy in cost. 



91. Rothschild Brothers & Gutmann, New York, N. Y., U. 8. 

SHIRTS, DRAWERS, AND UNDERWEAR. 

Report. — Commended for novelty in design of the " two in one shut," large variety of 
styles, good workmanship, and economy in cost. 



92. James Hayden, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SHIRTS AND DRAWERS. 

Report. — Commended for the good material used, fine workmanship, and skill in 
drawers cutting. 

93. Michaelis & Kaskel, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR. 

Report, — Commended for variety in design, excellence of the workmanship, and for 
fine embroideries. 

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94. Henry Atkinson, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

BUCKSKIN SHIRTS AND DRAWERS. 

Report, — Commended for the buckskin shirts and drawers, skillful in cut, and of fine 
workmanship. 

95. Judson Brothers, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SHIRTS AND DRAWERS. 

Report, — Commended for merit in cut and workmanship. 



96. Conrad Brothers, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SHIRTS, COLLARS, AND CUFFS. 

Report, — Commended for variety in designs, good quality of the material, and good 
workmanship. 

97. Skelton Tooke & Co., Montreal, Canada. 

SHIRTS, COLLARS, AND CUFFS. 

Report, — Commended for variety in design, good quality of the material used, good 
work, and economy in cost. 

98. Conde, Puerto, & Co., Spain. 
men's shirts. 
Report, — Commended for a great variety of patterns and styles, and gooJ workmanship; 
very economical in cost. The firm is also worthy of notice for maintaining a school at 
their own expense for the education of the children of their workmen. 



99. A. & C. Kaufmann, Berlin, Germany. 

PAPER COLLARS AND CUFFS, AND SHIRT FRONTS. 

Report, — Commended for variety in design, good work, and a close imitation m em- 
broidery to the genuine article. 

100. Hess Brothers, Amrisweil, Switzerland. 

COLORED COTTON SHIRTS. 

Report. — Commended for variety of patterns, and great economy in cost. 



loi. United States Corset Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WOVEN CORSETS. 

Report, — Commended for cheapness, durability, and good form. 



102. Geo. Frost & Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

CORSETS, WAISTS, HOSE SUPPORTER, AND EMANCIPATION COkJET. 

Report. — Commended as specially meritorious for young females. 



103. Jacobs, Strouse, & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

CORSET STF.EI^ OR DUSKS. 

Report, — Commended for strength and finish, combined with economy in cost 

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104. Madame Demorest, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

CORSETS. 

Report. — Commended for utility, form, and fashion, and high degree of excellence in 
workmanship. 



105. Boston Comfort Corset Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

CORSETS WITHOUT BONES. 

Report. — Conmiended for merit in the substitution of cords in place of bones ; also for 
good workmanship. 



106. Worcester Corset Co., Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

CORSET AND SKIRT SUPPORTER. 

Report. — Commended for originality in cut and form, good material, good workmanship, 
and economy in cost. 



107. A. W. Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

BUSTLE AND SKIRT ELEVATOR AND BOSOM FORM. 

Report. — Commended fdr originality, skill in workmanship, and adaptation to the purpose 
intended. 

108. Mrs. H. S. Hutchinson, New York, N. Y., U. 8. 

SKIRT SUPPORTING WAIST AND UNDER GARMENTS. 

Report. — Conmiended for noveUy in design, and adaptation to the purpose intended, 
and for good workmanship. 

109. Brewster Brothers & Co., Birmingham, Conn., U. S. 

COMBINED CORSET AND SKIRT SUPPORTERS. 

Report. — Commended for good taste, material, workmanship, and great merit in summer 
corset (open work). 

no. M. Cohn & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WOVEN CORSETS. 

Report. — Important as a national industry. Commended for high degree of excellence 
in form, quality, and ornamentation ; also for economy in cost. 



III. Fay ft Resmolds, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

JACQUELINE CORSETS AND MISSES* WAISTS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in form and quality. 



112. Mrs. Harriet M. Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SKIRT SUPPORTING SHOULDER BRACE AND PUFF CORSET. 

Report. — Commended for special merit in accomplishing the purpose of its construction. 



113. P. Lenoir, Paris, France. 

CORSETS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in workmanship ; especially for the corsets finished 
with elastic cords. 

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114. Farey & Oppenheim, Paris, Prance. 

CORSETS. 

Report, — Commended for high degree of excellence in fashion, form, and ornamentation. 



115. J086 Cardona Baldnch, Barcelona, Spain. 

WOVEN OPEN WORK, HYGIENICAL, AND SURGICAL CORSETS. 

Report, — Commended for great variety and importance as a national industry, and es- 
pecially for utility and workmanship. 



116. J. M. Ottenheimer & Sons, Stuttgart, Germany. 

WOVEN CORSETS. 

Report. — Commended for good quality and workmanship, combined with economy in 
cost and importance as a national industry. 



117. Gros & Co., Bruchsal, Germany. 

CORSETS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in form and quality, and for economy in cost 



118. James McLintock & Sons, Bamsley, Yorkshire, England. 

DOWN QUILTS, SKIRTS, PILLOWS, JACKETS, AND DRESSING GOWNS. 
Report. — Commended for originality, utility, and fitness for the purpose intended. 



119. Geo. Turner & Co., London, England. 

MILITARY AND TRAVELING EQUIPMENTS, HAMMOCK AND VALISE. 

Report. — Commended for originality, portability, and adaptation to the purpose intended. 



120. J. A. H. Leynen-Hougaerts, Peer, Limbourg, Belgium. 

CHURCH VESTMENTS. 

Report, — Chasubles and church vestments of first-rate execution, fine taste, and at very 
low prices. 

121. Ellas Shadrin, Moscow, Russia. 

CHURCH VESTMENTS. 

Report. — Church images and pieces of vestments, with precious stones and gilt em- 
broideries, all hand-made, of the most elegant style. Commended for originality, artbtic 
taste, and superior workmanship. 

122. Ro3ral War Office, Investment Department, Stockholm, Sweden. 

COMPLETE EQUIPMENT OF FOOT AND MOimTED SOLDIERS. 
Report. — Soldiers' uniforms merit great attention. 



123. J. A. Ek, Stockholm, Sweden. 

MILITARY EQUIPMENTS. 

Report, — Commended for high quality and workmanship. 

317 



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•^Wv"*^'' 



42 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

124. Yates, Wharton, & Co., Newark, N. J., U. S. 

HATS. 

Report. — Commended for good style and workmanship, and economy in cost 



125. R. Dunlap & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

HATS. 

Report, — Commended for fine quality of the material used, and high grade of workman- 
ship, and excellent taste in trimmings. 



126. Haverhill Hat Co., Haverhill, Mass., U. S. 

WOOL HATS. 

Report, — Commended for good styles and great economy in price ; a product for the 
people. 

127. Schuyler, Hartley, & Graham, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

MILITARY HATS AND CAPS. 

Report, — Commended for good and various fashions, high quality. 



128. J. S. Bancroft & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

. HATS. 

Report, — Commended for variety of production, good quality, and fine workmanship. 



129. Christian Nonenberger, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HATTERS' BLOCKS AND TOOLS. 

Report, — Commended for variety of product and general utility, and adaptability to the 
purpose intended. 

130. E. Morris & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SILK, SOFT, AND STIFF HATS. 

Report, — Commended for good material, good style, and workmanship. 



131. John B. Stetson ft Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SOFT AND STIFF FINE FUR-FELT HATS. 

Report, — Commended for fine material used, variety in styles, and fine workmanship. 



132. Blaylock ft Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SILK HATS. 

Report, — Commended for quality of material and workmanship. 



133. Pierson & Herman, Newark, N. J., U. S. 

HAT BLOCKS, FLANGES, AND HATTERS' TOOLS. 

Report, — Commended for good work, and adaptability to the purpose intended. 



134. Jos. Schiller ft Co., St. Louis, Mo., U. S. 

HATS. 

Report. — Commended for good and various fashions, quality, and economy in cost 

318 



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CROUP X. 
135. J. H. Fenton & Brother, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HATS. 

Report. — Commended for variety in styles, and good quality. 



43 



136. Alden Solmans, South Norwalk, Conn., U. S. 

HATS. 

Report, — Commended for good fashions and line quality. 



137. F. H. Amidon's Son, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

HATS AND CAPS. 

Report, — Commended for good material used, good style, and workmanship. 



138. Mrs. Orpha Conant, D wight. 111., U. S. 

HAT OF COMMON JUNE GRASS. 

[Made by the exhibitor in her eighty-fourth year.] 
Report. — Commended for utility and economy, and for skill displayed in workmanship. 



139. Lincoln, Bennett, & Co., London, England. 

HATS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety, good taste, and moderate price. 



140. Tress & Co., London, England. 

PITH AND FELT SOLAR HATS AND HELMETS. 
Report. — Commended for great variety, good taste, moderate prices, and special novelty 
in the Indian and tropical hats. 

14T. Mrs. Trancilla Nash, Jamaica, West Indies. 

HATS AND FLOWER LACE. 

Report. — Exhibits various specimens of hats and flower lace made of Spanish dogger, 
a kind of dry and dyed yucca lea'^es (yucra aid folia) and lace bark {logetta linfearia). 
This exhibit shows how those leaves may be made serviceable. 



142. I. Popp, Riga, Russia. 

FELT HATS. 

Report. — Commended for good taste and quality. 



143. Theodore Weigt, Warsaw, Russia. 

HATS, SILK AND FELT. 

Report, — Commended for good taste and quality. 



144. Edward Loth, Warsaw, Russia. 

STRAW AND FELT HATS FOR LADIES AND CENTLEJfEN. 

Report. — Commended for good taste, good design, fine workmanship. 

319 



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44 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

145. Leon Wilken (firm, Vandrague), Moscow, Russia. 

HATS AND CAPS. 

Report, — Commended for variety, good taste, and high quality of product 



146. Basil Tchistiakof, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

HATS AND CAPS. 

Report, — Commended for variety, good taste, and high quxdity of product. 



147. £. Nazarof, St. Petersburg, Russia* 

HORSE GUARD HELMETS. 
Report, — Commended for high quality of workmanship. 



148. R. Wakamatsu, Minakuchi, Omi, Japan. 

HATS MADE FROM WOOD FIDRE (WISTERIA CHINENSIS). 

Report, — Commended for good workmanship, durability, and economy in cost. 



149. Pierre Nimoz, Paris, France. 

children's AND LADIES' FELT HATS. 

Report. — Commended for nice patterns, good quality of material, flowers and feathers, 
tasteful variety, and fine style. 

150. J. B. Ruffin, Paris, France. 

HATS for LADIES AND CHILDREN. 

Report, — Commended as well made, of good finish, novel patterns, and of elegant style. 



151. Gregorio Sartou, Seville, Spain. 

HATS. 

Report, — Commended for high quality, fine fashion, and lightness of felt hats. 



152. Mateo de Homa, Zamora, Spain. 

HATS. 

Report, — Commended for good taste, various fashions, and moderate prices. He has 
also a school for educating the children of his workmen. 



153. Francisco Villasante, Madrid, Spain. 

HATS. 

Report, — Commended for good taste and moderate prices. 



154. Guillermo Huelin & Son, Malaga, Spain. 

PALMETTO HATS. 

Report. — Very fine and well made patterns; moderate prices. 



155. Juan M. Rojas, Manila, Philippine Islands. 

HATS, MADE OF MANILA STRAW OF THE FINEST BRAU). 

Report. — Commended for very light and good shape, superior material and workmanship. 



320 



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GROUP X. 45 

156. Custodio Job6 Rodrigues, Braga, Portugal. 

HATS. 

Report. — Commended on account of importance to the country and economy in coft 



157. Santos & Brother, Ovar, Portugal. 

HATS. 

Report. — Conmiended for good fashions and high quality. 



158. Maia & Silva, Son, & Qoncalves, Oporto, Portugal. 

HATS. 

Report, — Conmiended for high quality of products. 



159. Costa Braga & Son, Oporto, Portugal. 

HATS. 

Report. — Chief merit consists in the soft felt hats. Commended for very superior qual 
ity, lightness, and good taste. 

160, Widow of A. Roxo, Lisbon, Portugal. 

HATS. 
Report. — Commended for great variety, high quality, and novelty. 



161. Lima Carvalho, Fayal, Portugal. 

STRAW HATS. 

Report, — Commended for good taste, good material, and fine workmanship. 



162. Agricultural Fluminense Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Braxil. 

FELT HATS AND HATS FROM BAMBOO. 

Report. — Conmiended for good taste and workmanship. 



163. Femandes Braga & Co., Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 

FELT STIFF HATS. 

Report. — Commended for good quality and taste. 



164. Francisco Fisher, Sflo Paulo, Brazil. 

SILK AND FELT STIFF HATS FOR LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. 

Report. — Silk hats of good quality and in excellent taste. 



165. Bierrenback & Brother, S80 Paulo, Brazil. 

STIFF* AND SOFT HATS OF SILK AND FELT. 
Report. — Commended for lightness and thinness combined with durability. 



166. Flora P. Reguifio, Bahia, Brazil. 

SILK, FELT, AND BAMBOO HATS. 

Report. — Commended for good quality, fashion, and workmanship, especially in bamboo 
hats. 

21 321 



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40 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

167. Serafin ft Comeiro, Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic. 

HATS. 

Report, — Commended for very fine quality. 



168. Buffeti ft Ma3ra, Buenos A3rre8, Argentine Republic. 

HATS. 

Report, — Commended for good taste and workmanship. 



169. Cesare la Farina, Palermo, Italy. 

HATS. 

Report. — Commended for various fashions, good taste, and moderate prices. 



170. GaeUno Taddei, Florence, Italy. 

STRAW HATS AND BRAIDED STRAW, STRAW SHOES AND SLIPPERS FOR LADIES. 

Report. — Commended for good make, fine patterns, and great cheapness. 



171. Santini Brothers, Florence, Italy. 

STRAW HATS AND BRAIDED STRAW. 

Report. — Great variety in regular trade style, well made, fine material, good finish, very 
moderate prices. 



172. Gabriele Rumieri, Naples, Italy. 

SILK AND FELT HATS. 

Report. — Commended for various fashions and good taste. 



173. Agostino Duranti, Florence, Italy. 
ladies' straw hats. 
Report. — Commended for very fine work, large variety, and excellent quality of material. 



174. Gio Qiacomo Kubli, Florence, Italy. 
STRAW hats. 
Report. — Commended for handsome variety, large manufacture (exporting for England 
and United States), cheapness, and fine workmanship. 



175. Workingmen's Benevolent Association, Falerone, Italy. 

STRAW HATS. 

Report. — Commended as a large variety, well fitted, good material, and low prices. 



176. T. Huckel's Sons, Neutitschein, Austria. 

HATS. 

Report, — Chief merit consists in the soft fur felt hats. Commended for good work and 
high quality of material. 

177. John Skrivau ft Son, Vienna, Austria. 

HATS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety and high quality. 

322 



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GROUP X, 47 

178. P. & C. Habig, Vienna, Austria. 

HATS. 
Report, — G>mmended for variety, good taste, and high quality. 



179. E. Th. Indenniihle, Berae, Switzeriand. 

STRAW HATS. 

Report, — Commended as well made, good finish, first-rate material, and cheap. 



180. Conrad Walser, Wohlen, Switzerland. 

STRAW HATS, PLAITS, IMITATION IN COTTON OF HORSE HAIR BRAIDS. 
Report. — Commended for first-rate execution, cheapness, and fine workmanship. 



181. Chiesa Brothers, Locarno, Canton de Tessin, Switzeriand. 

BRAIDS AND STRAW HATS, CANTON TESSIN A SPEaALTY. 

Report. — Well made, good material, and fine finish. 



182. Daniel Hays, GloversviUc, N. Y., U. S. 

BUCKSKIN AND PECCARY-SKIN GLOVES AND GAUNTLETS. 

Report. — Commended for elegant patterns, good quality, skill, and workmanship. 



183. John C. Hutchinson, Johnstown, N. Y., U. S. 

GLOVES AND GAUNTLETS TRIMMED WITH FUR AND LINED WITH WOOLEN PLUSH. 

Report. — Commended as cheap, well made, and tasteful. 



184. W. S. & M. S. Northrup ft Co., Johnstown, N. Y., U. S. 

GLOVES AND GAUNTLETS (WELL SEWED AND FITTED UP). 

Report. — Commended for fine workmanship and taste in patterns. 



185. F. E. ColweU ft Co., Chicago, lU., U. S. 

HUSKING GLOVES. 

Report. — Commended for novelty and adaptation to a general public want, for husking 



186. Fortune Hegle, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

KID GLOVES. 

Report. — Commended for high degree of excellence in quality, form, and fashion, and 
especially meritorious in the Suede quality. 



187. J. ft R. Moriey, London, England. 

CLOTH, BEAVER, THREAD, AND COTTON GLOVES. 
Report. — Commended for large variety, fitness, and cheapness. 



188. Debenham ft Freebody, London, England. 

GLOVES. 

Report. — ^Very finely cut, sewed, and shaded in colors. Commended for fine workman - 
thip and quality. 

323 



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48 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

189. Sarda (successor of Boyer), St. Petersburg, Russia. 

GLOVES. 
Report. — Good cut ; well sewed ; well finished ; fine workmanship. 



190. Perrin Brothers, Grenoble, France. 

KID GLOVES WITH FINE EMBROIDERY OF ELEGANT MONOGRAMS. 

Report, — Commended for good patterns and elegant taste ; also for cheapness. 



191. Hegle, Glandines, ft Corbeau, Paris, Prance. 
ladies' kid gloves. 
Report. — Well tanned and dyed skins ; good workmanship and taste. 



192. Widow Buscarlet ft Mal6, Paris, France. 
KID gloves. 
Report. — Very well dyed ; fine material j excellent workmanship. 



193. Eugene Berr, Paris, France. 
KID gloves. 
Report, — Well cut and finished ; tasteful patterns ; extraordinary cheapness. 



194. Xavier Jouvin, Paris, France. 

KID GLOVES. 

Report. — Rich variety; first-rate quality; well cut; fine material; superior taste and 
workmanship. 

195. L^n Level, Brussels, Belgium. 
KID gloves. 
Report, — A fine assortment of kid gloves nicely finished; good color; elegant patterns; 
well cut, and very cheap. 

196. Felipe Stampa, Valladolid, Spain. 

KID AND LINED GLOVES. 

Report, — Commended as of good quality, well fitted, and very cheap. 



197. Diogo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal. 

GLOVES OF ALL KINDS. 

Report, — Great variety: colors, cut, and sewing very good; commended tor skill and 
workmanship. 

198. Oporto Glove Co., Oporto, Portugal. 

LAMB AND KID GLOVES. 

Report* — Commended for good colors, elegant patterns, and great cheapness. 



199. Bernardino Antunes da Silva, Lisbon, Portugal. 

REAL KID GLOVES. 

Report, — Well cut and sewed ; good workmanship, and cheapness. 

324 



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GROUP X. 49 

200. A. Cusset, City of Mexico, Mexico. 

KID GLOVES. 

Report. — Great progress for the short time of its existence ; good material ; well cut and 
sewed. 



20I. Eduardo Bossi, Naples, Italy. 

GLOVES FROM LAMB, DOG, AND CAT SKINS. 

Report. — Gloves from lamb, dog, and cat skins; commended for elegant patterns, 
especially in driving gloves ; good finish, and very cheap prices. 



202. J. L. Ranniger & Sons, Altenburg, Qermany. 

LAMB-SKIN GLOVES. 

Report. — Commended for great variety, skill, and workmanship. 



203. Daniel Jeitteles, Esslingen-on-the-Maine, Qermany. 

LEATHER GLOVES. 

Report. — Well cut, well sewed ; great variety of colors, good patterns, and cheapness. 



204. Heinrich Lehmann, Berlin, Germany. 

KID AND WASH GLOVES. 
Report. — Commended for wash gloves of very good quality, good shape, and cheap. 



205. Heinrich Gulden, Chemnitz, Germany. 

GLOVES OP THREAD, SILK, AND CLOTH. 

Report. — Commended for tasteful patterns and cheapness. 



206. John Nep Kubik, Stuhlweissenburg, Austria. 

REAL KID AND WINTER GLOVES. 

Report. — Handsomely lined, well cut, well finished. Commended for skill and work- 
manship. 

207. V. d. Aue & Kollmann, Prague, Austria. 

LAMB-SKIN GLOVES. 

Report. — Commended for excellent quality; large manufacturing for export; at a moderate 
price. 

208. Anton Pilot, Prague, Austria. 

LAMB-SKIN GLOVES. 

Report. — ^Well-made seamless patterns. Commended for cheapness and novelty. 



209. Pranx & Max Stiasny, Vienna, Austria. 

LEATHER GLOVES. 
Report. — Very finely finished ; application of the ridelle, the first house which introduced 
cutting by machinery. Commended for good material and good style. 

325 



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50 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

2IO. Simon Dewidels, Prague, Austria. 

IAMB-SKIN GLOVES (LARGE MANUFACTURE). 

Report, — G>mmended for tasteful style and cheapness. 



211. Ludwig Stoger, Vienna, Austria. 

LADIES* GLOVES (TWO BUTTONS). 

Report, — Commended for very fine cut, fine material, and superior workmanship. 



212. Anton Frese, Prague, Austria. 

LAMB-SKIN GLOVES. 

Report. — Conmiended for good quality, cheapness, and fine workmanship. 



213. Alois Port, Vienna, Austria. 

LADIES* LAMB-SKIN GLOVES (TWO BUTTONS). 
Report. — Nicely cut; good style; excellent workmanship. 



214. J. U. Bencker, Prague, Austria. 

' LAMB-SKIN GLOVES. 

Report. — Commended for fine aniline colors, good material, and low prices. 



215. Edward Branneck, Vienna, Austria. 

LADIES* LAMB-SKIN GLOVES (TWO BUTTONS). 

Report, — Commended as well made and extraordinarily cheap. 



216. Gabriel Mayer, Luxemburg, Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. 

KID SKIN AND GLOVES. 

Report. — Commended for great variety of kid skin and gloves for ladies and gentlemen; 
fine shades of colors; good material; elegance in patterns; and very moderate prices. 



217. Charles Auguste & Co., Luxemburg, Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. 

KID SKINS AND GLOVES. 

Report. — A very nice display of kid skins and gloves; good colors; well sewed. Com- 
mended for high workmanship and great cheapness. 



218. G. Swedmark, Malmd, Sweden. 

LAMB AND KID SKIN GLOVES. 

Report. — Lamb and kid skin gloves, well finished, good colors, elegant patterns, and 
very low prices. 

219. M. Jacoby & Co., Nottingham, England. 

VALENCIENNES AND SILK GUIPURES. 

Report. — Valenciennes and silk guipures, imitations of Swiss curtains, lace curtains, 
black and colored laces, warranted fast. Commended for good make, handsome design, 
and high skill in the various products. 

326 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



GROUP X. 
220. Mrs. R. A. Wicksteed, OtUwa, Canada. 

POINT LACES. 

Report, — Commended for great excellence in taste and workmanship. 



51 



221. MisB Sidney Smith, Dundas, Canada. 

LAC£ WORK HANDKERCHIEF. 

Report, — Commended for excellent taste and fine workmanship. 



222. Mrs. Nunn, Belleville, Canada. 

POINT LACS. 

Report, — Commended as tasteful in design and excellent in workmanship. 



223. Miss Isabella Fairbanks, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

LACE HANDKERCHIEF. 

Report, — Commended for good taste and very fine workmanship. 



224. Verdi, Delisle ft Co., Brussels, Belgium, and Paris, Prance. 

LACE. 

Report, — ^This firm exhibits, in Belgium and France, the most magnificent sets of French 
and Belgian laces. Commended for superior taste, great novelty, and first-rate workman- 
ship. 

225. Herbelot ft Devot, St.-Pierre-les-Calais, Prance. 

LACES. 

Report. — Commended for a fine exhibit of tulle, blond, and imitations of laces; large 
variety of patterns, good style, good finish, and first-rate workmanship. 



226. Dognin ft Co., Paris, Prance. 

INDIA AND CHANTILLY LACES. 

Report, — A most elegant variety, very handsome and new patterns, fine workmanship, 
novelty, and superior taste. 

227. Prances Brothers, St.-Pierre-les-Calais, Prance. 

IMITATION OF SILK GUIPURES, WOOLEN AND SILK LACES. 

Report, — Commended for nice drawings, elegance in style, great variety in patterns, and 
cheapness in prices. 

228. Bacquet Pather ft Co., St.-Pierre-les-Calais, Prance. 

MACHINE-MADE LACES. 

Report, — Commended for superior design, fine taste, and quality. They exhibit some 
very tasteful patterns of Venetian lace, thread lace, and voide ulanaix, showing very high 
improvements in working. 

229. Robert Haxton ft Co., St.-Pierre-les-Calais, Prance. 

IMITATION OF LACES, MADE BY MACHINERY. 

Report, — Conmiended for elegant style in designs and fine workmanship. 



327 



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52 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

230. Collective Exhibit of the Calvados Manufacturers, France. 

LACES. 

Report* — ^A full and magnificent set of these French celebrated laces, very excellent taste 
in designs, elegant patterns, and fine workmanship. 



231. Rini Bergerem, Ypres, Belgium. 

VALENCIENNES LACE. 

Report, — A good display of regular trade ware. Commended for skill and workman- 
ship. 

232. Buchholz 9l Co., Brussels, Belgium. 

LACE. 

Report. — A very nice dress of the finest work and design, and a large variety of el^^ant 
other patterns in vellum lace. Commended for fine workmanship and nice designs. 



233. O. de Vergniers & Sisters, Brussels, Belgium. 

LACE. 

Report, — Very fine Grammont lace for parasols, light loose garments, and coifiures. 
Commended for tasteful designs and elegance in style. 



234. Bruyneel, Senior, Qrammont, Belgium. 

BLACK LACS. 

Report, — Commended for great variety, excellent quality, good patterns, and high skill. 



235. Julie Everaert & Sisters, Brussels, Belgium. 

LACES. 

Report, — Black lace of fine quality, laces for handkerchiefs and fans, and fair variety of 
Dther laces. Commended for elegance in style and high finish. 



236. Saligo Vanden Berghe, Orammont, Belgium. 

BLACK LACE. 

Report, — Nice dresses for ladies, of black lace. Commended for fine execution and 
very elegant style in designs. 

237. Qhys-Bruyneel, Qrammont, Belgium. 

BLACK LACE. 

Report, — Commended for handsome execution of all kinds of black lace, good patterns, 
and fine workmanship. 

238. L. Sacr6, Brussels, Belgium. 

LACES. 

Report, — Splendid display of all kinds of laces for garments, fans, and dresses, in a very 
high style and of superior finish. 

239. Qillon-Steyaert, Courtrai, Belgium. 

VALENCTENNES LACE. 

Report, — A nice display of real Valenciennes laces, with applicated flowers, producing 
good e£fect. Commended for handsome patterns and good finish. 

328 



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GROUP X. 53 

240. B. De Qroote-Vierendeel, Qrammont, Belgium. 

LACES. 

Report, — A foil set of fine black lace for garments, parasols, bonnets, and mantillas, of 
a regular and good make ; fine quality. 



241. Vandezande Goemaere, Courtrai, Belgium. 

VALENCIENNES LACE. 

Report. — Remarkable variety of real Valenciennes lace, and fancy garments of great 
breadth; handsome set of dresses. Commended for superior skill and workmanship. 



242. Asylum of San Manuel, Malaga, Spain. 

LACE WORK. 

Report. — G>mmended for excellent taste and very fine workmanship. 



243. Charity School of the Ladies' Catholic Association, Madrid, Spain. 

LACE AND EMBROIDERED HANDKERCHIEF AND PRIEST*S VESTMENT. 

Report, — Commended for great excellence in design and very superior workmanship. 



244. Lady Augusto de Barros Piemental, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

LACE WORK. 

Report, — Commended for excellent taste and fine workmanship. 



245. D. G. D6erffers Sons, Eibenstock, Germany 

EMBROIDERIES AND LACE CURTAINS. 

Report, — Lace curtains, all hand-made, very fair in design and skill ; also very good 
patterns of embroideries made by machinery. Commended for good work, taste, and 
design. 

246. J. Stramitzer, Vienna, Austria. 

POINT GAUZE TAPE LACE. 

Report, — ^Point gauze tape laces in an elegant style ; good finkh and nice taste. 



247. Bemhard Metzner, Graslitz, Austria. 

LACES, HANDKERCHIEFS, AND FAN DECORATIONS. 

Report. — Commended for variety of laces, lace ruches, handkerchiefs, and fan decora- 
tions, of good style and first-rate workmanship. 



248. The Society " Friends of Handiwork," Stockholm, Sweden. 

LACE WORK AND EMBROIDERY. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in taste and workmanship. 



249. Hirschfeld Brothers ft Co., St. Gallen, Switzerland. 

SWISS LACE CURTAINS. 

Report, — Swiss lace curtains made by hand. Commended for great variety in products, 
high taste in the patterns, very good finish, and superior workmanship. 

329 



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54 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

250. Mrs. Helena Fuchs, St. Louis, Mo., U. S. 

SILK EMBROIDERED LACE DRESS, WITH POINT-LACE TRIMMINGS. 

Report, — Hand-made embroideries, well shaded in silk colors, fine drawing. 



251. St. John's Guild, New Haven, Conn., U. S. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — Commended for artistic taste in design, and skill in workmanship. 



252. Convent of the Sacred Heart, Elmhurst, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

KNIT GOODS AND EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for taste in style and skill in workmanship. 



253. Jeff. O. Bentley, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

EMBROIDERIES AND BRAIDED AND STAMPED GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for superiority of workmanship, tasteful monograms, and fine 
embroidered pocket-handkerchiefs. 



254. Union Benevolent Association, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

EMBROIDERY AND NEEDLE WORK. 

Report, — Commended for excellent taste and good workmanship. 



255. Mrs. W. Q. Weld, Jamaica Plains, Mass., U. S. 

EMBROIDERED PANELS. 

Report, — Commended for artistic taste, skill, and superior execution. 



256. Miss Victoria Walker, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

SILK EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for good taste and workmanship. 



257. Mrs. Sarah E. Anthony, Smyrna, Del., U. S. 

MASONIC AND HISTORICAL EMBROIDERED PICTURE. 

Report, — Commended fny originality in design and excellence in workmanship. 



258. Mrs. M. S. M. Riley, Louisville, Ky., U. S. 

EMBROIDERY AND NEEDLE WORK. 

Report, — Commended for a great display of artistic taste and skill, and very high d^ree 
of excellence in execution. 

259. Mrs. C. Hewitt Pfordt, Albany, N. Y., U. S. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for great taste in design and workmanship, displaying eztraor- 
dinary skill. 

260. Miss Susan E. Hall, Hartley Hall, Lycoming Co., Pa., U. S. 

EMBROIDERY FOR CHURCH PURI*OSES. 

Report, — Commended for artistic taste and skill displayed in designs, and very high 
order of workmanship. 

330 



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CROUP X. 55 

261. Mrs. L. B. Converse, Worcester, Mass., U. S. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in design and taste, with great skill in execution. 



262. Mrs. Jennie Ansorge & Miss Flora Bach, New York, N. Y., U. 8. 

TABLE COVER, EMBROIDERY AND NEEDLE WORK. 

Reporti—ComaktndieA. for good taste and excellent workmanship. 



263. Miss lAzzit Todd, Columbus, Ohio, U. S. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for excellent taste and superior workmanship. 



264. Miss Sarah R. Bodtker, Wisconsin, U. 8. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for great taste in design and skill in execution. 



265. Employment Society, Providence, R. I., U. 8. 

INFANTS* CLOTHING AND EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — Commended for display of good taste in design, and excellence in workmanship. 



266. £. J. Sutes, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

INFANTS' DRESSES AND EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Conunended for good style and workmanship. 



267. Kursheedt ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. 8. 

EMBROIDERIES, PUFFINGS, PLAITINGS, AND FLUTINGS. 

Report, — Commended for skill, taste, and novelty. All exhibited goods are well made 
and of tasteful pattern, especially in ruffling, and ruches, as well as in ladies* collars and 
cuflls. 

268. Brooklyn Female Employment Society, Brookl3m, N. Y., U. 8. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in style and very good workmanship. 



269. St. Rose's Orphan Asylum, Milwaukee, Wis., U. 8. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for great display of taste in design and for fine workmanship. 



270. C. ft £. Harding, lUington Lodge, Norfolk, England. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for excellent taste, skill, and workmanship. 



271. Simon, May, & Co., Nottingham, England. 

EMBROIDERED CURTAINS, MANTLES, AND VESTIBULE LACES. 

Report, — Embroidered curtains, mantles, and vestibule laces, of very tasteful design and 
superior workmanship. Also embroideries with fast warranted colors. 

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56 /REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

272. Grey Nuns of Montreal, Montreml, Canada. 

\ EMBROIDERED HANDKERCHIEF. 

Report, — Commended for great skill in workmanship. 



273. Hocbelaga Convent, Montreal, Canada. 

EMBROIDERY, — PRIESTS* VESTMENTS. 

Report, — Commended for great excellence in design and workmanship. 



274. Convent Jesus and Mary, Quebec, Canada. 

EMBROIDERY, — PRIESTS* VESTMENTS. 

Report, — Commended for great excellence in design and workmanship. 



275. Julius Reicbel, Warsaw, Russia. 

EMBROIDERED SHIRTS AND CRAVATS, PRINTING IN COLORS ON UNEN. 

Report, — Commended for novelty and good finish. 



276. K. Hodjaef, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

SILVER AND GILT EMBROIDERED JACKETS FOR LADIES; ALSO EMBROIDERIES IN PERSIAI* 

AND TURKISH STYLES. 

Report. — Commended for first-rate execution, originality, and taste. 



277. Julius Florand, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

EMBROIDERIES. 
Report, — Silk embroideries on flannel ; point lace, hand-made embroideries ; handker- 
chief, shirts, and collarettes of very good make; commended for elegant style and quality. 



278. M. Komarof, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

GILT AND SILVER EMBROIDERIES, MADE BY HAND ON LINEN, CLOTH, SILK, AND LEATHER. 
Report. — Conunended for very fine, tasteful design and superior skill. 



279. Kretof, Orenburg, Russia. 

EMBROIDERIES, MADE BY HAND ON CLOTH, IN TURKISH STYLE. 

Report, — ^Trimmings and hosiery for ladies, very well made. Commended for good 
taste and fine work. 



280. Meunier & Co., Paris, France. 

EMBROIDERED TOWELS, CURTAINS, PAUNEAUX OR PORTltRES. 

Report. — Embroideries made by hand, after old style, in fast warranted colors; great va- 
riety and novelty in patterns; curtains with embroidered colors on applicated muslin, strong, 
well made, splendid shading of colors, beautiful designs, at comparatively small cost. 
Commended for high skill, taste, and fine workmanship. 



281. Marquis of TalhouSt-Roy, Paris, Prance. 

RAND-MADE SILK EMBROIDERIES OF BLACK SILK IN JAPANESE STYLE. 

Report. — Well-variegated colors, elegant style, high taste, and fine workmanship. 

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CROUP X. 57 

282. Ch. Babey, Calais, Prance. 

EMBROIDERED CURTAINS MADE BY MACHINERY, FAST WARRANTED COLORS. 

Report, — Commended for handsome combination of colors, novelty, and nice drawings; 
well shaded. 

283. I. A. Vessiire-Paulin, Paris, Prance. 

HAND-MADE EMBROIDERIES IN CHILDREN'S CLOTHING. 

Report. — ^Well made; tasteful and elegant patterns; fine workmanship. 



284. Pow Loong, Canton, China. 

EMBROIDERIES ON SILK, MOUNTED IN SCREENS. 

Report. — Embroideries on silk mounted in screens, of a magnificent design and original 
taste, superior workmanship, and fine shading in colors. 



285. S. Nishimura, Kiyoto, Japan. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — Fine display of embroideries on silk; rich colors, partly printed and partly em- 
broidered. Commended for originality in taste and for cheapness. 



286. Tanaka, Kiyoto, Japan. 

PICTURES IN SILK EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — Commended for very peculiar and original pictures in silk embroideries, origi- 
nal taste, high skill, and superior execution. 



287. Provincial Poundling Asylum, Avila, Spain. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for good taste in design and workmanship. 



288. Celedonia Quibelalde, Madrid, Spain. 

EMBROIDERED PICTURE OF KING ALFONSO XII. 

Report, — Commended for artistic skill and taste. 



289. Benita ft Louisa Nin ft Mafie, Barcelona, Spain. 

EMBROIDERY AND TATTING. 

Report. — Commended for a high degree of excellence in taste and workmanship. 



290. Pemale Asylum of Charity, Seville, Spain. 

EMBROIDERY, HANDKERCHIEF, AND CHILD*S SHIRT. 

Report. — Commended for excellent taste and workmanship. 



291. Theodora D4vila, Manila, Philippine Islands. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for excellent taAte and very fine workmanship. 

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58 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

292. Municipal School for Girls, Manila, Philippine Islands. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for high degree of excellence in design and workmanship. 



293. Embroidery School for Women, Rio de Janeiro, Braxil. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for good taste and workmanship. 



294. M. Hirschberg ft Co., Eibenstock, Germany. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report. — An assortment of good patterns of machine and hand-made embroideries and 
lace flowers for ladies' dress; also a tasteful white silk blond shawl. 



295. Edward A. Richter, Vienna, Austria. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — ^Variegated embroideries and working materials; great variety of colors; well 
done; fine, elegant taste; cheapness and workmanship. 



296. Miss Cathrine Fojm, Christiania, Norway. 

EMBROIDERY ON WOOLEN CLOTH. 

Report, — Commended for good workmanship and excellence in design. 



297. Miss R. Sundt, Christiania, Norway. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report. — Commended for good taste and workmanship. 



298. Christiania Drawing Office, Christiania, Norway. 

EMBROIDERY AND PATTERNS FOR EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Commended for high degree of excellence in design and execution. 



299. Mrs. Mina Wasbo, Stavanger, Norway. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — Conmiended for excellence in design and colors. 



300. Drawing School of the Board of Trade, St. Gallen, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — ^This school, supported by the Board of Trade, and managed by the principal 
manufacturers, is a very important institution to sustain the progress of the embroiderers* 
industry. The curtains exhibited by the school are executed after the drawings of the 
scholars, and show the progress made. 



301. Steiger ft Co., Herisau, Switzerland. 

CURTAINS EMBROIDERED BY HAND ON MUSLIN. 

Report, — Commended for tasteful drawings and reasonable prices. 

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GROUP X, 59 

302. Basquin, Hector ft Schweiser, St. Gallen, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — Machine embroideries in cotton and linen of an important extent, great variety 
of very tasteful and well- worked patterns, especially in linen embroideries ; nice samples 
of collars, cufls, and under-garments for regular trade. Commended for quality and skill. 



303. Bion ft Tschumper, St. Qallen, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — ^Mechanical embroideries for ladies* under-garments and dresses, cuffs, collars, 
etc. First-rate design and splendid workmanship in the patterns exhibited by this firm. 
Commended for design, cheapness, and workmanship. 



304. Alder ft Meyer, Herisau, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — Embroidered trimmings made by machinery; very fair collection; patterns of 
good taste and nicely made. 

305. Ikli Brothers, St. Qallen, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report, — A fair assortment of mechanical embroideries, specialty of linen, silk, and 
woolen embroideries for ladies' dresses, application of silk on black necklace for ladies, 
and very good regular trade samples for under-garments, collars, cuffs, etc. Commended 
for skill and workmanship. 

306. C. Stilheli-Wild ft Co., St. Qallen, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERIES. 
Report, — The display shows a large and rich variety of hand-made and mechanical 
embroideries, especially ladies* dresses, silk robes, and costumes. Commended for tasteful 
patterns and fine finish. 

307. Joel Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

RUCHES, LADIES* AND INFANTS* CAPS, RUFFLINGS, AND COLLARETTES. 

Report. — Commended for fitness and cheapness; two hundred various patterns; well 
made, and very moderate prices. 

308. Miss Jeannie Whittemore, Charleston, S. C, U. S. 

WORSTED WORK— PICTURE OF GENERAL WASHINGTON. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in skill and workmanship. 



309. Employees of American Button-Hole Sewing-Machine Co., Philadelphia, 

Pa., U. S. 

SEWING-MACHINE WORK. 

Report. — Commended for excellence of workmanship. 



310. Lina Fuldner, Milwaukee, Wis., U. S. 

NEEDLE WORK. 

^<^rr.— Commended for artistic taste in design and great display of skill in execution. 

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6o REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

311. Bene, Creighton, ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

OSTRICH FEATHERS. 

Report. — ^Well-dyed and variegated feathers. Commended for cheapness, quality, 
color, and finish. 



312. Mrs. Annie T. Auerbach, Troy, Ala., U. S. 

BED-SPREAD OF SATIN AND SILK CROCHET WORK. 

Report, — Conmiended for novelty in design and excellent workmanship. 



313. Working School of Village of Adare, under the Patronage of the Countess of 
Dunraven, Adare, County of Limerick, Ireland. 

NEEDLE WORK^ 

Report, — Commended for embroideries on lawn, executed by the members of her work- 
ing school in the village of Adare, county of Limerick ; well-made robes, insertions for 
dresses, and pin-cushion covers, 

314. Mrs. De B. McDonald, Montreal, Canada. 

GOBELIN TAPESTRY. 

Report, — Commended for great excellence in taste, skill, and workmanship. 



315. Mrs. Sutcliffe, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

NEEDLE WORK — «* LAST SUPPER." 

Report, — Commended for superior skill and workmanship. 



316. The Misses Farrell, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

FANCY WOOL WORK. 

Report, — Commended for very good taste and great skill in execution. 



317. Miss Park, Watertown, Canada. 

KNITTING AND TATTING. 

Report, — Commended for great taste and skill in workmanship. 



318. Alfred Bailey, Douai, France. 

TULLES AND GIMP FOR FURNITURE, LACE IMITATIONS. 

Report. — ^Imitation of Valenciennes of good style; nice drawings; fine workmanship. 



319. B. 9t C. Dieutegard, Paris, France. 

SILK AND WOOLEN TRIMMINGS FOR DRESSES AND FURNITURE. 

Report, — Commended for large variety, elegant and tasteful patterns, good quality of 
material, and superior workmanship. 



320. Government of Venezuela. 

ORNAMENTAL HAIR, FEATHER, AND NEEDLE WORK. 

Report. — I. Representation of Washington, made of the hair of General Bolivar, Liher- 
ator of South America, and of several other generals ; the property of General Guzman 

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GROUP X. 6 1 

Blanco ; artist, Faustino Padron. Commended for originality of conception in preparation 
and treatment of material. 

2. Collection of hammocks embroidered with feathers. Commended for brilliant effects 
produced by grouping in fringes gorgeously colored natural feathers of tropical birds. 

3. pin-cushion in needle work. Commended for its delicacy and beauty. 

4. Embroidered handkerchiefs. Commended for the extraordinary fineness and delicacy 
of the needle work. 

5. Basket with artificial flowers made of feathers. Commended for beauty of design 
and taste in comp>osition of colors. 

6. Handkerchiefs. Commended for delicate embroidery. 

7. Gold embroidered saddle cloth furnished by G. Sprengle, Caracas. Commended for 
elegance and richness of fabric and of color, and for taste in design. 

8. Two bouquets, one in a basket and the other in a pot of natural flowers, contributed 
by Wm. G. Boulton. Commended for exquisite beauty and brilliancy of color of flowers 
and foliage. 

9. Wax fruit, seed, and flowers. Conmiended for utility in illustration. 



321. Baroness de Surupy, Rio de Janeiro, Braxil. 

CROCHET WORK IN WORSTED YARN. 

Report. — Commended for skill and taste displayed in design and combination of colors. 



322. W. Schmidl's Sons, Vienna, Austria. 

HABERDASHERY, TRIMMINGS, SILK AND WOOLEN BRAIDS (HAND-MADE). 

Report. — Great variety of trimmings ; inside cotton, covered with silk. Commended for 
good taste in patterns and cheapness of prices. 



323. John Blanzincic ft Sons, Vienna, Austria. 

MILITARY TRIMMINGS. 

Report, — Commended for good taste and workmanship. 



324. Miss Anna Krets, Christiania, Norway. 

NEEDLEWORK IN CLOTH AND FEATHERS. 

Report. — Commended for novelty in design and excellence in workmanship. 



325. J. M. Fyrwald, Stockholm, Sweden. 

MILITARY TRIMMINGS. 

Report, — Commended for high quality. 



326. Charlotta Bagge, Kramfors, Sweden. 

PILLOW CUSHION. 

Report. — Commended for excellent taste and good workmanship. 



327. Isler, Aloyse, 9t Co., Wildegg, Canton of Aargau, Switzerland. 

BRAIDS FOR HATS MADE OF HORSE HAIR AND IMITATION OF HORSE HAIR IN COTTON. 

Report. — Commended for great variety, excellent make, and cheapness. 
22 337 



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02 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

328. W. A. Drown ft Co., PhiladelphU, Pa., U. S. 

UMBRELLAS AND PARASOLS, CUT AND COVERED WITH A SUPERIOR FITNESS, STICKS AND 
HANDLES OF THEIR OWN MAKE. 
Report, — Commended for excellent finish and careful selection of good material. 



^ 329. Joseph F. Tobin, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WHALEBONE GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in preparing the whalebones for all purposes 
intended, and canes, perfect workmanship of his products. 



330. Heiter A Gans, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

UMBRELLAS AND PARASOLS WITH AUTOMATIC RUNNER. 

Report, — Commended for very good improvement, convenient and useful; also for 
invention, and qtiality. 



331. Thos. Miller, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

UMBRELLAS. 

Report, — Commended for a high degree of excellence in style, and special regard to 
strength combined with light weight. 



332. Ellis, Knapp, ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

UMBRELLAS AND PARASOLS WITH BURGLAR-PROOF RUNNER. 
Report. — Commended for superior mechanism, workmanship, and novelty. 



333. Qlendenning ft Truitt, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

WHIPS AND VARIOUS RIDING ARTICLES. 

Report, — Commended for quality, skill, and fine workmanship. 



334. Swain ft Adency, London, England. 

WHIPS. 
Report, — All the articles exhibited are very well made. Especial attention may be called 
to the whips, which are first-rate in taste, quality, and fitness. Commended for quality and 
fine make. 

335. Davis ft Wilson, Birmingham, England. 

MOUNTING FOR WALKING STICKS, WHIPS, AND UMBRELLAS. 

Report, — A fine set of superior mountings for walking sticks, whips, and umbrellas ; 
perfect execution ; great variety of styles ; and at very moderate prices. 



336. William Henry Martin, London, England. 

UMBRELLAS, WALKING STICKS, AND WHIPS. 

Report. — A first-rate assortment of umbrellas, walking sticks, and whips. The umbrellas 
especially are of the best and finest execution, and are commended as standard in quality 
and workmanship. 

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GROUP X. 63 

337. Antonio Noailles, Zaragoza, Spain. 

WALKING CANES OF DOMESTIC WOOD. 

Report, — ^Very finely carved and finished. Commended for tasteful designs and origi- 
nality. 

338. Manuel Antonio Diogo, Oporto, Portugal. 

SILK UMBRELLAS, WITH IVORY HANDLES. 

Report, — ^Very good work ; extremely moderate prices. 



339. Mustapha Ousta, Broussa, Turkey. 

EBONY CANE, INLAID WITH SILVER. 
Report, — Conmiended for very fine work, tasteful designs, and first-rate execution. 



340. Righini Brothers, Turin, Italy. 

UMBRELLAS AND PARASOLS. 

Report. — Umbrellas and parasols, especially for traveling. Commended for ingenuity, 
good finish, cheapness, and novelty. 



341. Berlin Umbrella Factory (Joseph Sachs ft Co.), Berlin, Qermany. 

UMBRELLAS. 

Report, — Commended for good shape, ingenious mechanism, and extraordinary cheap- 



342. Althof, Bergmann, ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

MECHANICAL TOYS. 

Report, — Commended for very ingenious mechanisms, imitating very naturally the motion 
of the human body, originality, fitness, and cheapness. 



343. Robert Nickle, Rochester, N. Y., U. S. 

MAGICAL APPARATUS AND TOYS. 
Report. — Commended for quality, skill, and fine workmanship. 



344. W. C. Goodwin, New Haven, Conn., U. S. 

TOY MONEY-SAFES. 

Report, — Commended for novelty in design and construction, recording each coin as it is 
dropped in. 

345. Eugene Begg, Paterson, N. J., U. S. 

MODEL LOCOMOTIVE, TRAIN OF PASSENGER CARS, AND TRACK. 

Report. — The locomotive is driven by the flame of an alcoholic lamp. The train includes a 
tender and Pullman and ordinary passenger cars, supported on two four-wheel trucks. The 
track is a long oval, of twenty-five feet in length. The locomotive and cars are richly and 
tastefully finished and of substantial construction. Commended for elegance of design, and 
as being admirably suited for purposes of illustration and instruction. 

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64 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

346. Mrs. R. E. Jenkins, Bordentown, N. J.» U. S. 

DOLLS' SHOES. 
Report, — Commended for good finish. 



347, Pope Manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

RIFLE AIR-PISTOU 

Report, — Comnxended for ingenious mechanism of a cheap and serviceable instruipent 
for exercise and amusement, also for beginners in practicing marksmanship ; also for ongi> 
nality and novelty, as well as for the fitness. 



348. W. B. Carr ft Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. 

BASE BALLS. 

Report.—y^eX-mzAt base balls. 



349. L. H. Mahn, Jamaica Plains, Mass., U. S. 

BASE BALLS. 

Report, — Commended as very well sewed and of good material and design. 



350. J. D. Shibe A Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

BASE BALLS. 

Report. — Well-constructed triple ball, well sewed. 



351. Peck ft Snyder, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

BASE BALL SUPPLIES. 

Report, — Suits well made. 

352. Reach ft Johnston, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

BASE BALL AND SPORTING GOODS. 

i?^^f/.^— Suits well made and of tasteful design. 



353. Z, Iwai, Naro, Yamato, Japan. 

TOYS. 

Report, — ^The bodies of animals are well executed and of high finish. Commended for 
originality and splendid finish. 

354. Faivre, Paris, France. 

GREAT VARIETY OF TIN TOYS. 
Report.— y try well fitted up. Conmiended for cheapness, skill, and workmanship. 



355. F. F. Jumeau, Paris, France. 
dolls' heads and bodies. 
Report, — A fine collection, dressed in a most fashionable style ; the heads of the finest 
imitation, superior taste, and excellent workmanship in mechanical construction. 

340 



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GROUP X. 



65 



356. Trufy, Paris, France. 

FINE MECHANICAL TOYS. 

Report, — Commended for very gck)d execution and combination of movements, great 
variety, skill, and workmanship. 



357. I. A. Issmayer, Nuremberg, Germany. 

TIN TOYS. 
Report, — Commended for improvement and introduction of novelties' in the assortment 
of tin toys, great variety, skill, and cheapness. 



358. L. Uebelacker, Nuremberg, Germany. 

MAGNETIC TOYS. 

Report, — Commended for large variety, good workmanship, and very moderate prices. 



359. J. D. Oehm & Sons, Grunhainichen, Germany. 

WOODEN TOYS. 

Report, — Regular trade ware of a very popular style and extraordinary cheapness. 



360. Cuno & Otto Dressel, Sonneberg, Germany. 

DOLL LADIES AND HEADS. 

Report. — Commended for great variety, solid material, and cheapness, especially heads 
with good-looking features. 

361. L. Schttnemann, Magdeburg, Germany. 

DRESSED DOLL LADIES. 

Report, — Fine and various dresses. Commended for good workmanship and great variety 
of patterns. 

362. Heinrich Sichling, Nuremberg, Germany. 

DRESSED DOLLS (FOR WHOLESALE TRADE). 

Report. — Commended as well finished, of various patterns, and great cheapness. 



363. Ernst Plank, Nuremberg, Germany. 

MAGIC LANTERNS, MODELS OF STEAM ENGINES, AND TINNED WORK. 
Report. — Commended for good finish and fine workmanship. 



364. Barth & Wagner, Rodacb, Germany. 

TOYS. 

Report. — Performing animals, very well imitated from nature. 
Good work, at very low prices. 



365. J. G. Nermann, Nuremberg, Germany. 

VARIETY OP TIN CAST WARE IN FANCY SOLDIERS OP ALL COUNTRIES 

Report. — Commended for good patterns, very moderate prices, fitness, and workmanship. 

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66 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

366. C. Baudenbacher, Niiremberg, Germany. 

MAGICAL APPARATUS. 

Report. — Commended for ingenious combination of mechanism, large variety in patterns, 
elegant appearance, and novelty. 

367. Miss Elizabeth Sahler, Kingston City, N. Y., U. S. 

WAX FLOWERS. 

Report. — Commended for artistic taste and skill, especially in autumn leaves. 



368. Mrs. J. H. Martin, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

FEATHER FLOWERS. 

Report. — Commended for elegant style, well-shaded colors, taste, and workmanship. 



369. Miss A. De Etu Bloodgood, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WAX FLOWERS, LEAVES, SHELLS, AND FRUIT. 

Report. — Commended in that the exhibitor excels in the natural .effects produced in va- 
riegating and in shading of colors, especially of fruit and flowers ; also for perfection of 
taste and accuracy in imitating the structure of flowers. 



370. Birge ft Berg, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS OF VARIOUS COLORS AND SHADES. 

Report. — Commended in that the exhibitors show high progress in regard to fine work- 
manship ; for natural effect produced, superior finish, and taste in arrangement ; for a new 
industry, as this one is in the United States ; also for their patented cartoons, which give 
a better appearance to flowers, and keep them in good state after packing. 



371. Bender ft Philips, Hoboken, N. J., U. S. 

SHEET WAX AND WAX-FLOWER MATERIALS. 

Report. — Commended for skill and good workmanship. 



372. General Hospital, Quebec, Canada. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 
Report. — Commended for a great display of artistic taste and skill. 



373. Madame F. de Richelieu, Windsor, Victoria, Australia. 

FLOWERS MADE FROM FISH SCALES. 

Report. — Flowers made from fish scales, very nicely executed, and hand-made. Com- 
mended for artistical workmanship and skill. 



374. L. Delivre, Paris, France. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 

Report. — Commended for good finish, taste, and workmanship, especially the roses, which 
are very like nature. 

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GROUP X, 67 

375. L. Hielard ft Co., Paris, France. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS AND OSTRICH FEATHERS. 

Riport, — Commended for great and rich variety, elegant styles and finish, taste, skill, and 
workmanship. 

376. Oosse-Perier, Paris, Prance. 

ARTIFICIAL FIELD FLOWERS AND VIOLETS. 

Report. — Superior in the imitation of colors and structure, good taste, and low prices. 



377. General Guzman Blanco, President of Venezuela. 

BOUQUETS MADE OF NATURAL FEATHERS. 

Report, — Commended for taste and skill as shown in remarkably gorgeous and life-like 
effects, by combinations of brilliant and variously colored feathers in natural hues, to pro- 
duce, with little other aid than that of the scissors, numerous flowers of great richness and 
beauty. 

378. Guilbermina d'Oliveira Pinho, PonU Delgado, Portugal. 

FEATHER FLOWERS. 

Report, — Commended for excellent taste, nice material, and fine workmanship. 



379. Maria Magdalena de Souza, Ponta Delgado, Portugal. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 

Report, — Commended for very fine taste, good execution, and originality displayed in the 
manufacture of artificial flowers from the pith of the fig-tree and from stearine. 



380. Mrs. Silveira de Souza, Sta. Catharina, Brazil. 

FLOWERS MADE FROM FISH SCALES AND EGG SHELLS. 

Report, — Flowers made from fish scales and ^g shells. Commended for very fine taste, 
high skill, and originality. 

381. Misses M. ft £. Natti, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

FLOWERS MADE FROM FEATHERS. 

Report, — Great variety of flowers entirely made from feathers; very well shaded in 
national colors ; fine structure and high taste. 



382. Miss Antonia Alcocer, City of Mexico, Mexico. 

WAX FLOWERS AND FRUITS. 

Report. — Commended for good style and excellent imitation of nature, skill, and work- 
manship. 

383. Miss M. Pensado, Jalapa, Mexico. 

FLOWERS MADE FROM HORN SHAVINGS. 

Report, — Made in a very splendid manner, fine workmanship and taste. 



384. Countess Pauline Baudissin, Vienna, Austria. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 

Report. — Commended for natural appearance, well-variegated colors, skill, taste, and 
workmanship. 

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68 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

385. Miss Pauline Hoist, Drammen, Norway. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 

Report, — Commended for the skill and artistic taste displayed. 



386. New York Button Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. 

METALLIC AND COVERED BUTTONS. 

Report. — Commended for utility, quality, and cheapness. 



387. Scovill Manufacturing Co., Waterbury, Conn., U. S. 

METALLIC BUTTONS FOR MILITARY, ETC, FOR FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC MARKETS, ALSO 
LASTING AND OTHER COVERED BUTTONS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence of quality, taste, and variety in designs. 



388. National Button Co., Easthampton, Mass., U. S. 

IVORY AND CLOTH BUTTONS. 
Report, — Commended for quality, durability, and cheapness; strong and well made. 



389. Porter Brothers ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

METALLIC PANTALOON BUTTONS. 

Report, — Commended for novelty, utility, and economy. 



390. Waterbury Button Co., Waterbury, Conn., U. S. 

LARGE VARIETY OF PATTERNS, METALLIC AND COVERED BUTTONS. 

Report. — Commended for originality of design; fine goods in every respect; a large and 
important business ; variety in design. 



391. James Fenton, Birmingham, England. 

PEARL BUTTONS. 

Report, — ^The pearl buttons for shirts exhibited by this firm are first-rate in quaUty and 
workmanship ; an excellent display. 



392. F. Bapterosses, Paris, Prance. 

BUTTONS AND PEARLS OF EVERY SIZE, MANUFACTURED ON A VERY LARGE SCALE. 

Report. — Commended for superior finish, novelty, design, and cheapness. 



393. P. Feu ft Sons, Barcelona, Spain. 

METALLIC BUTTONS, 
Report. — Great and handsome variety. Commended for good style, high finish, and 



taste. 



394. H. Schalck, Lisbon, Portugal. 

BUTTONS, AND HOOKS AND EYES. 

Report, — Commended for good workmanship and low prices. 

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GROUP X, 69 

395. Goncalves Ribas ft Co., Oporto, Portugal. 

BUTTONS. 

Report, — Great variety of patterns ; silk with glass metal, cotton lasting. Commended 
for skill and cheapness. 

396. Eduard Peine, Hamburg, Germany. 

IVORY AND TORTOISE-SHELL SLEEVE BUTTONS. 

Report. — Commended for very good patterns, large assortment, good finish, and cheap- 



397. Turner's Sample Office, Vienna, Austria. 

BUTTONS. 
Report, — ^Tasteful and cheap sleeve buttons, of mother of pearl and ivory. Commended 
for fine workmanship and taste. 

398. Franz Anton Puschner, Tyssa, Bohemia, Austria. 

BUTTONS. 

Report, — Buttons in metal in great variety ; extraordinary cheapness. 



399. Collective Exhibit of Vienna Pearl Button Manufacturers, Vienna, Austria : 

Vincenz Schftdelbaur, Josef Jaruschka, Ignaz Krehan, Wilhelm Schwan, 

Adalbert Wittek, Karl Steindl, Peter Wielander. 

PEARL BUTTONS. 

Report, — All the exhibitors show a display of mother of pearl buttons, nearly all in the same 
style. After our judgment, we think it would be an injustice to select any one of them. • 



400. Oakville Co., Waterbury, Conn., U. S. 

FINS OP ALL SIZES. 

Report, — Commended for quality and cheapness, especial excellence in the finish of the 
points. 

401. I. W. Stewart, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

VARIETY OF NURSERY AND SHAWL PINS. 
Report. — Commended for good workmanship and finish, and cheapness. 



402. Kirby, Beard, ft Co., Birmingham, England. 

NEEDLES AND PINS. 
Report. — Commended for the excellent quality and fitness of the exhibited products. 



403. Henry Millward & Sons, Redditch, England. 

NEEDLES. 

Report, — All kinds of needles, and similar articles, of first-rate quality and fine work- 
manship. 

404. David Evans, Redditch, England. 

NEEDLES. 

Report. — Sewing needles of various sizes and kinds, including sewing-machine needles, 
showing the various stages of manufacture from the original steel wire to the finished prod- 
uct. An instructive exhibit of products of standard excellence. 

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^o REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

405. James Smith ft Son, Astwood Bank, near Redditch, England. 

HAND-SEWING NEEDLES. 
Report, — Large exhibit of hand-sewing needles, which are of excellent finish, very well 
tempered, and elastic, the points sharp and well tapered. Commended for quality, skill, 
and fitness in use. 



406. Naz, Kuhn, & Silberman, Philadelphia, Pa., U. ^. 

TOBACCX) PIPES. 

Report, — ^Tobacco pipes nicely carved on wood, good finish and domestic work. Com- 
mended for quality, design, and style. 



407. Fred. Julius Kaldenberg, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

PIPES OF MEERSCHAUM AND AMBER. 

Report, — Commended for great perfection in style, superior workmanship, and introduc- 
tion of a new domestic industry. 



408. Wm. Demuth A Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

BRIER AND APPLE WOOD PIPES. 
Report, — Commended for popular style and cheapness. 



409. Bernstein Brothers, Ostrolenka, Lomza, Russia. 

AMBER JEWELRY AND SMOKERS* ARTICLES. 

Report. — Commended for very good finish, fine material, and reasonable prices. 



410. Baudier, Ulbrich, ft Co., Paris, France. 

MEERSCHAUM AND BRIER WOOD PIPES. 

Report, — Commended for very popular style, good finbh, and first-rate materiaL 



411. Widow Hasslauer ft de Champeaux, Givet, France. 

CELEBRATED GAMBIER CLAY PIPES. 

Report, — Conmiended for a complete assortment, very popular style, excellent quality, and 
good material. 

412. Qebhard Ott, Nuremberg, Germany. 

BRIER WOOD PIPES. 

if^or^.— Commended for excellent style and finish, great variety of shapes, and moderate 
prices. 

413. Arnold Trebitsch, Vienna, Austria. 

SMOKERS' ARTICLES. 
Report, — Exhibit of smokers' articles, in imitation of meerschaum and amber. Com- 
mended for great perfection, good imitation, extraordinary cheapness. 



414. Franz Heiss, Vienna, Austria. 

SMOKERS' ARTICLES, IN GENUINE MEERSCHAUM AND AMBER. 

Report. — An immense assortment of patterns, very finely carved. Commended for good 
style, quality, workmanship, and cheapness. 

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GROUP X, 71 

415. Hermann Kemperling, Vienna, Austria. 

SMOKERS' ARTICLES, OF CHERRY WOOD. 

Report, — Commended for good qualities of work, very low prices, and large and hand- 
some variety. 

4i(>. P. Qoedwaagen, Gouda, Netherlands. 

CLAY PIPES. 

Report, — Gay pipes in a very large assortment, good material, popular style, very cheap. 



417. F. Armstrong, Bridgeport, Conn., U. S. 

DUPLEX VENTILATED METALUC GARTERS AND ARMLETS. 

i?^r/.-r-Commended for novelty of patterns and durability. 



418. Independent Comb Co., Wappinger Falls, N. Y., U. 8. 

LADIES' HORN AND RUBBER COMBS, DRESSING COMBS, PIPE STEMS, AND BITS. 

Report. — Commended for skill and workmanship, and especially for variety of style of 
rubber pipe stems and for cheapness. 



419. S. Harris ft Sons' Manufacturing Co., Clinton, Mass., U. S. 

HORN COMBS. 

Report, — Commended for large variety and general good finish. 



420. W. H. Noyes, Newburyport, Mass., U. S. 

HAND-MADE HORN COMBS AND BARBERS' DRESSING COMBS. 

^<^w/.— Commended for quality and fitness. 



421. J. S. Adams ft Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

TORTOISE-SHELL JEWELRY AND COMBS. 

Report, — Commended for good design and finish and tasteful style of workmanship. 



422. Henry Carlisle ft Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

TORTOISE-SHELL AND HORN COMBS. 

Report, — Commended for superior fitness and workmanship, especially in the careful 
selection of material. 

423. Pratt, Read, ft Co., Deep River, Conn., U. S. 

IVORY COMBS. 

Report, — Commended for superior excellence of work and finish, and for general adap- 
tation to intended use. 

424. D. S. Spaulding, Mansfield, Mass., U. S. 

TORTOISE-SHELL JEWELRY, BACK-COMBS, AND FANCY GOODS. 

Report. — ^Excels especially in belts and necklaces. Commended for style and finish. 



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72 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

425. Celluloid Manufacturing Co., Newark, N. J., U. 8. 

TOILET brushes; JEWELRY MADE FROM CELLULOID. 

Report, — Commended for novelty of material used, and very fine finish. 



426. Joslin Palmer ft Williams, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

HORN JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for taste in design and general excellence of finish. 



427. Lewisohn Brothers, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

HUMAN HAIR. 
Report, — A fine exhibit, excellently prepared, showing skill and workmanship. 



428. Sarah E. Bonney, Sterling, Mass., U. S. 

FEATHER FANS. 

Report, — Commended for originality, good taste and finish, and fine workmanship. 



429. Fred. W. Ansley, St. Augustine, Fla., U. S. 

JEWELRY OF NATIVE FLORIDA MATERIAL, AND ESPEaALLY OF THE SEA BEAN AND OF 
ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS MADE OF FEATHERS. 

Report, — The flowers are very tastefully variegated in colors and shades. Commended 
for skill and fitness. 



430. Emil W. Moutoux, New York, N. Y., U. 8. 

HAIR PICTURES AND DEVICES FOR BREASTPINS, OF ORNAMENTAL DESIGN AND TASTEFUL 

STYLE. 

Report, — Conmiended for skill, taste, and workmanship. 



431. F. Qrote & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

CARVED AND TURNED IVORY FOR TOILET AND TRAVEUNG l^E. 
Report, — Commended for fitness and workmanship, especially for superior quality of 
billiard balls. 



432. J. S. Cummings & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SILK NECKWEAR. 

Report, — Commended for variety in design, quality of material, and good workmanship. 



433. Harriet F. Bailey, Walworth, Wisconsin, U. S. 

ORNAMENTAL PAPER CUTTING. 

Report, — Commended for beauty of design and perfection of workmanship; worthy of 
special mention for the artistic ability exhibited. 

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GROUP X, 'Ji 

434. Emil Wahl, PhUadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GREAT VARIETY OF FANCY BONE WORK, IN CROCHET NEEDLES AND BUTTONS. 
Report, — Commended in that the specialty of buttons for common use are of good qual- 
ity and at very low prices. 

435. National Suspender Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SUSPENDERS. 

Report, — Commended for originality in the production of several designs upon one ma- 
chine at once; of good quality and workmanship. 



436. A. L. Wniis, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

ICE CREEPER AND SANDAL COMBINED. 

Report. — ^Attachment for the shoes, to be used in walking upon ice ; highly commended 
for safety and utility. 

437. Charles Jeffreys, London, England. 

SHOW CASES AND JEWELRY BOXES. 

Report, — I. Dust-excluding show cases. 

2. Velvet-lined and covered jewelry boxes to accompany articles sold. 

3. Cases for shop display. 

All of convenient and tasteful devices, admirably suited to the purposes intended. 



438. Welsh, Margetson, ft Co., London, England. 

SCARFS AND NECKTIES. 

Report, — Commended for variety, good quality, and good work. 



439. Crown Perfumery Co., London, England. 

BUFFALO HORN COMBS. 

Report, — Commended for high degree of excellence in quality, style, and general finish. 



440. J. Johnson ft Co., London, England. 

SHELL BOXES. 

Report, — ^A good variety of shell boxes, in a very tasteful and new style, and in the very 
perfect way of preparing sheik. Commended for the cheapness of goods. 



441. Miss Lizzie Farquharson, Whitby, Canada. 

PAINTING ON VELVET, DESIGNS FOR PAINTING. 

Report, — Commended for artistic taste and skill in designs. 



442. Henry Steiner, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 

SILVER-MOUNTED EMU VASES AND ORNAMENTS. 

Report. — Silver-mounted emu vases and ornaments of good make and original taste, 
although damaged by shipwreck. Commended for taste and originality. 

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74 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

443. Ford Brothers, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

PITH SUNSHADES FOR HORSES. 

Report. — ^The pith sunshades for horses are of a very useful, original, and practical form 
to protect horses from the heat of the sun. Commended for the originality and utility of 
this improvement. 

444. Mrs. Young, Hawaii. 

WREATH OF MOSSES AND SHELLS. 

Report, — A wreath of mosses and shells, of fine execution, taste, and workmanship. 



445. Augustus Stroem, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

FRAMES FOR PHOTOGRAPHS AND BRONZE MIRRORS. 

Report. — Commended for very fine work, tasteful execution, and excellent material. 



446. E. Cliray, Paris, France. 

FANCY TORTOISE-SHELL WARE, GLOVE BOXES AND TOILET ADORNMENTS. 
Report. — Commended for first-rate material, taste, and workmanship. 



447. H. Didout ft Son, Paris, France. 

CLASPS FOR POCKET BOOKS, PURSES, AND CIGAR CASES. 

Report, — Great variety ; well made ; good adaptation ; extraordinary cheapness. 



448. Alexandre, Paris, France. 

FANS. 

Report, — ^A nice display of fans, of the most elegant style, in ivory, shell, and tortoise- 
shell, with very fine pictures on silk. Commended for taste, fine finish, and skill. 



449. V. C. Voisin, Paris, France. 

CRAVAT CLASPS AND PINS OF EVERY SIZE. 

Report, — Commended for great variety, good adaptation, fitness, skill, and cheapness. 



450. F. Qirondeau, Paris, France. 

FANCY BRONZE BOXES, WITH ENAMEL. 

Report. — Commended for great variety, tasteful design and color, elegant style, .and 
very moderate prices. 

451. Alexis Musset ft Co., Paris, France. 

WIGS AND DISPLAY OF HUMAN HAIR IN VARIOUS COLORS 
Report. — Well made ; fine workmanship, and good colors. 



452. Association for Women's Work, Kijroto, Japan. 

VARIETY OF WOMEN'S WORK. 

Report. — ^This association, having been in existence but a few years, is commended for 
having admirably succeeded in producing very good work. 

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GROUP X. 75 

453. First Japanese Manufacturing and Trading Co., Tokio, Japan. 

CIGAR AND CARD CASES, AND MATCH BOXES. 

Report, — Commended for fine workmanship, elegant finish, zxiA comparatively cheap 
prices. 

454. Princess Nabeschima, Yeddo, Japan. 

BOX. 

Report. — ^A beautiful box, partly woven, partly worked; colors handsomely blended; 
fine workmanship ; very good taste. 



455. Ch. Minoda, Tokio, Japan. 

BOXES, BOOKCASES, FANS, AND PIPES. 

Report. — Commended for fine workmanship and elegant finish in wooden work and 
shell articles. 



456. S. Mochiami & Co., Kijroto, Japan. 

FANS OF IVORY, WOOD, AND SHELL, WITH VERY FINE PICTURES. 
Report. — Commended for elegant style, skill, and workmanship. 



457. Kimura & Sumu, Kij^to, Japan. 

FANS. 
Report. — Embroidering in elegant style, and pictures for fans, of first-rate execution. 
Commended for high skill, and novelty. 



458. Ho. A. Ching, Canton, China. 

CARVED IVORY FANS. 

Report. — A nice display of carved ivory fans. Commended for exquisite quality, fine 
carvings, and low prices. 

459. Leen Shing, Canton, China. 

FANS. 

Report. — Fans, lacquered wood, and ivory, both of a first-rate finish, taste, and originality. 



460. Yut Shing, Canton, China. 

LACQUERED FANS. 

Report. — Lacquered wooden fans of the most elegant style and finest lacquer. Com- 
mended for high workmanship and fine finish. 



461. Pantaleon de la Pefta, Madrid, Spain. 

HUMAN HAIR AND WIGS. 

Report. — Commended for fine execution, good material, and great skill. 



462. Massaguer & Lledo, Barcelona, Spain. 

PAPER AND SILK FANS IN EVERY QUALITY AND STYLE. 
Report. — Medium quality of good workmanship and at low prices. 

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^6 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

463. Alejandro Sans, Valencia, Spain. 

FANS OF PAPER AND WOOD. 

Report.— \ try popular style; well finished; extraordinary cheapne 



464. Antonia Salvi & Son, Barcelona, Spain. 

DRESS COMBS OF SHELL, HORN, AND BUFFALO. 

Report, — Very well made, good material, fine workmanship. 



465. S. W. Dabney, Fayal, Axores Islands. 

PICTURE FROM PITH OF FIG-TREE. 

Report. — Commended for elegant design and first-rate workmanship. 

466. N. Bourgeois, Buenos A3rres, Argentine Republic. 

HAIR PICTURE AND CHAINS MADE FROM HUMAN HAIR. 

Report, — Hair picture and chains made from human hair, well finished. Commended 
for good taste and workmanship. 



467. Luigi Olivieri, Venice, Italy. 

FANCY ARTICLES. 

neport, — Fancy articles in mosaic, bonbonniires, vases ; also necklaces and bracelets from 
blown and worked glass, shell jewelry of splendid finish. Commended for good taste and 
cheapness. 

468. Mariano Labriola, Naples, Italy. 

TORTOISE-SHELL WORKS. 

Report, — Tortoise-shell works in an excellent style. Commended for first-rate material 
and workmanship, exquisite taste, and finish. 



469. Schlenk & Lutxenberger, Nuremberg, Qermany. 

COMBS, HORN AND IMITATION OF TORTOISE-SHELL. 

Report, — Commended for very good finish and very low prices. 



470. Gottfried Probst, Nuremberg, Qermany. 

COMBS OF BUFFALO-HORN AND IMITATION SHELL. 

Report, — Commended for good workmanship, fine shapes, and cheapness. 



471. Jean Schlegel, Nuremberg, Qermany. 

ARTICLES OF TORTOISE-SHELL INLAID WITH GOLD. 

Report, — Commended for high finish, novelty, and fine workmanship. 



472. Heinr. Ad. Mejrer, Hamburg, Qermany. 

IVORY GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for perfection in carving and finish, excellent material, and supe- 
rior workmanship. 



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GROUP X. y-j 

473. Adalbert Hawsky, Leipsic, Qennany. 

PAPER BALLOONS AND LANTERNS FOR ILLUMINATIONS. 

Report, — Commended for large variety, tasteful patterns, and cheapness. 



474. M. Krauliz, Vienna, Austria. 

FRAMES FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC CARDS. 

Report. — Commended for large variety, tasteful patterns, and very cheap prices. 



475. Clemens Lux, Vienna, Austria. 

FANCY BRONZE GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for the fine taste of plain goods of an excellent finish. 



476. Franz Berg^ann, Vienna, Austria. 

BRONZE ARTICLES. 

Report. — Commended for high finish, great variety, and good taste. 



477. B. Heller's Sons, Yeplitz, Austria. 

BRONZE AND BONE JEWELRY. 

Report. — A large assortment of patterns, all of good quality and new style. 



478. John Kuzel & C. Jankowsky, Vienna, Austria. 

TURNERS' ARTICLES (WOOD MOUNTED WITH BRONZE). 

Report. — A nice display of various patterns for different uses. Commended for good 
style, novelty, fine workmanship, and cheapness. 



479. John Umann, Tiefenbach, Austria. 

PAPER WEIGHTS AND INKSTANDS, MADE FROM CRYSTAL GLASS. 

Report. — Commended for excellent quality, fine workmanship, and low prices. 



480. Oustav Lerl ft Sons, Vienna, Austria. 

BRONZE JEWELRY (ROCOCO WITH STONES). 

Report, — Commended for fine workmanship, good patterns, and novelty. 



481. John Zekert, Meistersdorf, Austria. 

CRYSTAL GLASSWARE, MOUNTED WITH BRONZE. 

Report. — Crystal glassware, mounted with bronze. Commended for superior taste, ex- 
traordinary cheapness, and first-rate workmanship. 



482. Franz Wagner. Meistersdorf, Austria. 

CRYSTAL GLASS AND BRONZE WARE. 

Report. — Crystal glass and bronze ware of the highest taste and finest finish. 
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REPORTS ON AWARDS. 



483. Josef Osterritter, Viexma, Austria. 

FANS. 

Report. — Fans of shell, tortoise-shell, ivory, and leather, with and without feathers. 
Commended for fine taste, fine combination, first-rate material, and workmanship ; also low 
prices. 

484. Qeorge Danberger, Vienna, Austria. 

BRONZE. 

Report, — Bronze fancy articles in great variety, style, and cheapness. 



485. A. F. Bechmann, Vienna, Austria. 

FANCY BRONZE WARE. 

Report. — Fancy bronze ware of the highest style. Commended for very fine taste, hand- 
some enamel, splendid workmanship, and finish. 



486. Franx Beihl, Vienna, Austria. 

BRONZE FANCY GOODS. 

Report. — Bronze fancy goods in various patterns. Commended for fair style and cheap- 



487. Josef Frank, Vienna, Austria. 

BRONZE WARE. 

Report. — Bronze ware of nice design, tasteful variety, and at very moderate prices. 



488. Dziedzinski ft Hanusch, Vienna, Austria. 

BRONZE GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for superior style, finest workmanship, and excellent taste, and for 
well-selected materials. 

489. Anton Bohm, Vienna, Austria. 

BRONZE WARE. 

Report. — Bronze ware in religious styles. Commended for tasteful execution, good de- 
sign, and finish. 

490. Johann Bambula, Vienna, Austria. 

FRAMES FOR FANCY LEATHER GOODS. 

Report. — Frames for fancy leather goods. Commended for excellent make, handsome 
patterns, novelty, and cheapness. 

491. L. Schutte, Vienna, Austria. 

ARTICLES OF TORTOISE-SHELL. 

Report. — Articles of tortoise-shell, with boxes, medallions, sleeve buttons, etc. Commended 
for very good finish and first-rate material and style. 



492. F. J. Berg, Qoteberg, Sweden. 

HUMAN HAIR WORK IN WIGS. 

Report. — Human hair work in wigs. Commended for splendid finish, fine material, and 
elegant workmanship. 

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GROUP X. 79 

493. Alma Nilsson, Landskrona, Sweden. 

JEWELRY MADE FROM FISH SCALES. 

Report, — ^Jewelry made from fish scales, of a splendid finish, fine workmanship, and good 



taste. 



494. Ed. S. Mawson ft Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SEAL SACKS, CAPS, GAUNTLETS, GLOVES, ETC. 

Report, — Commended for good display, fitness, and elegance of pattern. 



495. Durgee ft Hallet, Rahway, N. J., U. S. 

RAW, PICKED, DRESSED, AND DOMESTIC DYED SEAL FURS. 

Report. — Commended for general skill and utility. 



496. W. H. ft R. Burnett, Newark, N. J., U. S. 

FURS AND OPERA CLOAKS. 

Report. — Commended for good patterns, rich variety, and good material. 



497. F. B0088 ft Brother, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

FANCY FUR ROBES AND VELVET SACK. 
Report. — A great and magnificent variety of fancy fur robes, made from white fox, black 
bear, natural beaver, plucked, and red fox; also a fine velvet sack lined with royal ermine 
and trimmed with chinchilla; Alaska seal sack, and Shetland seal sack, with sea-otter trim- 
mings; hats, caps, gloves, and gauntlets, all fitted up in a very tasteful style, and well sewed. 
Commended for taste, good quality, and excellence in fitness. 



498. Otto Kaehler, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

STUFFED ANIMALS, AND RAW AND DRESSED SKINS. 

Report, — A good set of stufied animals, raw and dressed skins, and fur robes ; also a new 
l>attcm of dusters made from tails, and a very nice pattern of muffs for ladies, with crossed 
compartments able to contain all the small objects necessary to a lady ; elegant and service- 
able. 

499. Geo. C. TreadwcU ft Co., Albany, N. Y., U. S. 

SEALSKINS. 
Report. — A very important variety of sealskins, showing the perfection attained in pluck- 
ing and dyeing the raw seal furs, and makes a domestic industry of these heretofore im- 
ported furs. Commended for superior workmanship and quality. 



500. J. A. Sumbach ft Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

LADIES* FINE FURS. 

Report. — A good display of Russian sable, silvered fox, cross fox, and sealskin. Com- 
mended for great variety, elegant style, and fine workmanship. 



501. Re3molds ft V31kel, Montreal, Canada. 

WOLF ROBES AND RUGS. 

Report. — ^Very fair wolf robes and rugs, ladies* musk-rat pelerines, caps, muflfe, ganntleta, 
Indian buckskin leggings and hunting overcoats, all in great and handsome variety. Com- 
mended for quality and fitness for use. 

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So REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

502. Hudson Bay Co., Montreal, Canada. 

RAW FURS AND ESQUIMAUX SEALSKIN COAT. 
Report. — A fine display of raw furs, white bear, brown and black bear, mink, lynx, white, 
gray, and blue wolf, beautiful red, silver, and croi» fox, and other fine varieties of skins. 
There is to be mentioned also a very fair Esquimaux sealskin coat, and dressed reindeer 
skins. Commended for great variety and superior quality of furs. 



503. Thibault, Lanthier, & Co., Montreal, Canada. 

FURS, ERMINE, AND MUFFS. 
Report. — Two splendid cases of furs, ermine mufis, silk muffs with trimmings of ermine, 
Northshore otter coat for gentlemen, South Sea seal sacks. Northern Canada mink sacks, 
blue and silver raccoon, ladies* velvet bonnets, grebe and silver- pointed sea-otter mufi&, silk 
opera cloak lined with royal ermine, and a beautiful variety of other skins. Commended 
for quality, taste, cheapness, and superior workmanship. 



504. C. Kaiser & Son, Halifax, Canada. 

NATURAL RACCOON AND BLACK-BEAR ROBES. 

Report. — Splendid natural raccoon and black-bear robes, red, blue, and cross fox skins, 
musk-rat and Canada mink muffs and boas, and sealskin sacks. Commended for good 
patterns and fine workmanship. 

505. Miss Kate Farrell, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

CARRIAGE RUG OF WORSTED YARN. 

Report. — Commended for skill and taste, both in color and design. 



506. Hector Evelyn Liardet, Wellington, New Zealand. 

FEATHER FURS. 
Report. — A variety of ladies' muffs, tippets, and cuffs, made from the skins of white, 
mottled, gray, and brown albatross, the white-back ganol, and the gray, green, and speckled 
cormorant. Commended for specialty, novelty, good work, durability, and cheapness. 



507. Commissioners for Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

FURS. 
Report. — Plain rugs made from skins of native animals, viz., the bear or sloth, opossum, 
and cat ; also fancy rugs of different kinds of skins, in tasteful designs, well made, and 
cheap. 

508. P. A. Jennings, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 

FURS. 
Report. — His exhibit consists of a muff, collarette, and pair of cuffs, very neatly made 
from the skins of the platypus ; also two stuffed platypus skins, male and female. Com- 
mended for specialty, novelty, and good workmanship. 



509. Wcdcmikof & Mikhailof, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

FUR AND TRIMMINGS MANUFACTURED INTO LADIES* CLOAKS. 

Report. — A handsome display of fur and trimmings manufactured into ladies* cloaks ; 
red and velvet costumes in Russian style, trimmed with sable; opera cloak of blue velvet, 
lined and trimmed with white Thibet kid fur, of a splendid effect. Commended for good 
material, tasteful patterns, and elegance in style 

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GROUP X. 8 1 

510. Maurice Gruenwald, Riga, Russia. 

FURS. 
Report. — A very fine collection of silver and black fox raw skins; dressed furs of sable, 
ermine, sealskin, lynx, white, black, and gray Astrakan, Angora, Thibet, marten, brown 
and black bear; silver musk-lined furs, in red and blue fox, hare, and stjuirrel; seal hunt- 
ing-jackets, muffs, caps, gloves; waistcoats of superior quality .and at reasonable prices. 
Commended for the beautiful selection and superior workmanship. 



511. Odnoushefsky & Sons, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

FURS. 
Report. — A handsome exhibit of muffs, collars, and gorgettes, in sable, stone-marten, 
and musk-rat ; fine robes in white Thibet skins of the most elegant effect ; black sable skins ; 
also a carpet composed of a great variety of furs. Commended for skill and quality. 



512. Revillon Brothers, Paris, France. 

FURS MADE INTO CLOTHING. 

Report. — An elegant and fine display of fur trimmings and of furs manufactured into 
clothing. There are some seal cloaks, trimmed with silvered beaver ; opera cloaks lined 
with red fox belly and trimmed with beaver ; velvet cloaks lined with silk and trimmed 
with chinchilla; jackets and paletots for ladies and gentlemen, trimmed with Russian sable, 
silver and fox, of the most magnificent style ; also muffs and boas in chinchilla, ermine, 
grebe, mink, skunk, and wolverine. Commended for quality, style, and elegance in the 
patterns. 

513. A. S. Rustad, Drammen, Norway. 

FURS. 

Report. — His exhibit consists of carpels of white polar bear, black bear, and eider down, 
trimmed with eider heads ; a lady's sack of white rabbit ; a lady's cloth sack, with white 
kid lining and black Astrakan trinmiing; a man's wolf-skin coat; and a pair of North 
Sea sealskin boots, all of fair workmanship and moderate prices ; also dressed red fox, 
lynx, badger, otter, and cat lynx, all of good quality. 



514. C. Brandt, Bergen, Norway. 

FURS. 

Report. — A large assortment of dressed furs, mostly native, consisting of carpels in polar 
bear, grizzly bear, black bear, lynx, gray wolf, red, cross, and white fox, and reindeer; a 
beautiful carpet of loon skins, and another of bird skins ; also eider-down carpets, trimmed 
with eider-ducks* heads, a dressed loon skin, white bear skins, and ten otter skins, all of 
good workmanship and at fair prices, forming a good exhibit. 



515. P. N. Bergstrom, Stockholm, Sweden. 

FURS. 

Report. — A very large stock of dressed native furs ; a good variety of men's coats, caps, 
boots, women's fur mantles, sacks, muffs, boas, and bonnets ; all of good workmanship 
and design, at reasonable prices; forming together an excellent exhibit. 

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82 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

516. D. Forsell & Co., Stockholm, Sweden. 

FURS. 

Report. — An immense stock and great variety of dressed native furs of excellent 
quality; men*s fur clothing, consisting of caps, coats, gloves, gauntlets, etc.; women's 
sacks, hoods, muffs, and boas, of varied material and good workmanship, at reasonable 
prices; also a parior carpet, 14 X 11 ^eet, in many sorts of furs, of exquisite artistic de- 
sign and good workmanship; forming in the whole a standard collection. 



517. Crouch & Fitzgerald, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

TRUNKS. 

Report, — Ladies' traveling trunk of excellent construction and design. 



518. J. Lagowitz & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

TRUNKS AND BAGS. 

Report. — Commended for large assortment, good workmanship, and moderate cost. 



519. J. C. GUlmore & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

TRUNKS. 

Report. — Conmiendcd for high degree of excellence in the general construction, and 
useful improvement in the rubber comer protectors. 



520. J. C. Hacker, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

FANCY LEATHER WORK. 

Report. — Commended for a high degree of excellence in general finish. 



521. J. Fourestier Simpson, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PATENT TRUNK FASTENER AND LOCK COMBINED. 
Report. — Commended for novelty, utility, and low cost. 



522. Edward Simon & Brothers, Newark, N. J., U. S. 

TRUNKS AND BAGS. 
Report. — Commended for good quality and workmanship, in view of price. 



523. T. B. Peddle & Co., Newark, N. J., U. S. 

TRUNKS, VALTSF3, BAGS, AND STRAPS. 

Report. — Commended for a large and varied exhibit, excellent style, and workmanship. 



524. C. F. Rumpp, PhUadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

FANCY LEATHER WORK. 

Report. — A very nice and tasteful collection of home-made patterns in purses, wallets, 
cigar cases, pocket books, etc., at very reasonable prices. Commended for style of pattern 
and workmanship. 

525. Q. F. Kolb & Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

CASES FOR JEWELRY AND SILVER WARE. 

Report. — Commended for well-made and good patterns, double hinge as a usefixl 
improvement, workmanship, utility, and novelty. 

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GROUP X. 83 

526. H. H. Peacock, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

FANCY CASES OF MOROCCO, VELVET, AND WOOD MARQUETRY. 
Report, — Commended for workmanship, quality, and Btness. 



527. Richard Hoe ft Sons, London, England. 

PORTMANTEAUS, HAT-CASES, AND BAGS. 

Report, — ^The portmanteaus, hat-cases, and bags are very well made, in a very practical 
form, and good finish. Commended for substantial material and workmanship. 



528. Mrs. Constant, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

LEATHER WORK FOR MIRROR-FRAME. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in tasteful design and great skill in execution. 



529. Mrs. Neville, Ottawa, Canada. 

LEATHER WORK. 

Report, — Commended for artistic skill and taste in design and execution. 



530. W. E. Clarke, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

TRUNKS, VALISES, BAGS OP CALF LEATHER AND WOOD, WITH NICKELED IRON BUCKLES. 

Report, — Commended for fitness and quality as well as cheapness ; abo for fine work- 
manship and good appearance. 

531. R. Zimmermann, Moscow, Russia. 

TRUNKS AND VALISES. 

Report, — Conmiended for practicability in design and excellence in finish. 



532. William Nissen, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

TRUNKS AND VAUSES. 

Report, — Commended for large and varied assortment of substantial make and excellence 
of design. 



533. William Nissen, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

LEATHER OVERCOAT. 

Report. — Leather overcoat of fine texture, softness, hair-side out, glossy and black, 
sleeves and pockets lined with Italian cloth, body and skirts of fine heavy flannel. The 
whole is finely made, of most thorough sewing, in superior style as a water-proof garment. 
Commended for strength, durability, flexibility, and water-proof quality. 



534. Lamarre, Paris, France. 

FANCY GOODS IN LEATHER AND TORTOISE-SHELL; ALBUMS, ETC. 

Report, — Commended for good variety of patterns, fine finish, and elegant taste. 



535. W. Walcker, Paris, France. 

TRUNKS, VAUSES, TOILET BOXES, AND TRAVELING ARTICLES. 
Report, — Commended for great variety, good adaptation, and novelty. 

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536. J086 d'Axevedo David, Oporto, Portugal. 

LEATHER-COVERED WOODEN TRUNKS. 
i?<;^/<^.— Commended for very strong mak/^ and cheapness. 



537. Fran9oi8 Vit6, Berlin, Qermany. 

FANCY LEATHER GOODS. 

Report, — Commended as well finished and at very low prices. 



538. Michael Seewald, Vienna, Austria. 

LEATHER INKSTAND AND CANDLESTICKS. 

Report, — Leather inkstand and candlesticks; manufactured on a large scale. Com- 
mended for cheapness, novelty, and good finish. 



539. Rodeck Brothers, Vienna, Austria. 

FANCY LEATHER GOODS. 

Report, — A large variety of patterns, every piece nicely finished. Commended for great 
novelty in design and fine workmanship. 



540. Eugenic Mattaldi, Buenos Ajrres, Argentine Republic. 

A TRUNK REPRESENTING A COUCH, A DINING-TABLE, A WRITING-DESK, AND A TOILET- 
TABLE. 

Report. — A trunk representing a couch, a dining-table, a writing-desk, and a toilet-table; 
very ingenious and useful. Commended for originality. 



541. Giintsche ft Schroeder, Buenos Ajrres, Argentine Republic. 

TRUNKS AND VALISES OF LEATHER. 

Report. — ^Trunks and valises of leather. Commended for good and strong make, durable 
and fine workmanship, and cheapness. 



542. Isaac Bedichimer, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GOLD AND SILVER EMBLEMS. 

Report, — Commended for the beauty of design, the carefulness in finish, and adaptation 
to the purposes required. 

543. W. H. Horstmann ft Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

FLAGS, INSIGNIA, AND EMBLEMS. 

Report, — Commended for the excellence of workmanship, variety of exhibit, and correct- 
ness in design. ' 

544. Schuyler, Hartley, ft Graham, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SOCIETY GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for superior workmanship, and adaptation for special occasions 
and presentations. 

545. James A. Haas ft Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

METALLIC EMBLEMS. 

Report, — Commended for character of finish and appropriate designs. 

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GROUP X. 85 

546. J. H. WUson, PhUadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SOCIETY SWORDS, CAPS, AND REGALIA. 
Report, — Commended for workmanship and variety. 



547. Clarence A. Hart, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PAINTED SILK BANNERS AND PAPER FRINGE. 

Report, — Commended for the adaptation to the purposes designed, and the economy in 
their production. 

548. J. P. Reynolds & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

ESCUTCHEONS FOR MILITARY AND NAVAL SERVICE. 

Report, — This exhibit consists of highly ornate decorated designs of shields, on which, 
by a most ingenious device, any soldier may have recorded, for permanent preservation, 
his whole military record in very small space. 

Commended for originality, ingenuity, and admirable adaptation to the purpose for which 
it is designed. 

549. John C. Meyer, New Orleans, La., U. S. 

BADGES AND INSIGNIA FOR SOCIETIES. 

Report. — Commended for taste in design and excellence in workmanship. 



550. George P. Pilling, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SOCIETY JEWELS. 

Report. — Commended for good workmanship, variety, and finish. 



551. M. C. Lilly & Co., Columbus, Ohio, U. S. 

MASONIC GOODS AND SOCIETY SUPPLIES. 

Report. — Commended for the beauty of design in the embroidery, and skill in workman* 
ship. 

552. Camille Piton, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

TROPHIES REPRESENTING AMERICA, EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA. 

Report. — Commended for artistic talent displayed in the arrangement of colors, and har- 
mony in variety, beauty in design, and skill in execution. 



553. Mayaud Brothers, Paris, France. 

MEDALS AND ORNAMENT. 
Report. — A great variety of religious articles, rosaries, and crucifixes; four thousand dif- 
ferent patterns, ranging from the commonest to the finest styles. Commended for fitness, 
cheapness, and workmanship. 

554. National Museum of Egypt, Cairo, Egypt. 

NATIONAL COSTUMES. 

Report. — A collective exhibit of varioiLS articles worn in Egypt, consisting of a crown of 
■•braided gold, jackets, vest, caps, shawls, and dress scarfs in silk richly embroidered; Arab 
dress in brown wove silk embroidery; the dress worn by the Archbishop of Abyssinia, a 
very curious, costly, and rare garment, seldom to be obtained, and held in great esteem as 
a national vestment; a cap made by King Meteza of Ouganda with his own hands, and 
presented by him to the Egyptian Government. 

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86 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

555. His Highness Sidi Mohammed Essadole (Bey of Tunis). 

NATIONAL COSTUMES. 

Report, — A very large and rare collection of costly costumes of the country, presenting 
the most elaborate workmanship^nd finish; bridal and female costumes; tribal coats; boys* 
suits of velvet and gold; men's costumes, elaborately finished with silver braid; the common 
people's capote and burnouse ; also the burnouse and hood worn by the wealthy classes. 
Commended for the variety of the exhibit and elaborate workmanship displayed. 



556. Haim Vidal & Co., Constantinople, Turkey. 

NATIONAL TURKISH COSTUMES. 

Report, — An exhibit of rare and costly Turkish costumes, consisting of richly embroidered 
sacks, coats, and vests; the holiday costumes of the Sultan's guards, richly embroidered 
with gold on crimson velvet; ladies' dresses of silk, elaborately embroidered alike on both 
sides with gold embroidery; the native burnouse, also richly embroidered with gold on 
silk ground; silk velvet and cashmere scarfs of silk and gold capuchin for the neck; and 
opera head covers of fine cashmere. Commended for the large and elaborate display and 
fine finish of the goods. 

557. Royal Swedish Commission, Stockholm, Sweden. 
peasants' costumes. 
Report, — A collective exhibit of eight groups of peasants in their national costumes, pre- 
senting the different phases of society in their native apparel. The execution of these de- 
mands a special note, being very life-like, instructive, and attractive. Commended for the 
execution, variety, and design. 

558. William Gram, Christiania, Norway. 
national costumes and figures. 
Report, — These groups are well executed, and present the peculiar habits, manners, and 
dress of the Laplander in the most perfect manner, and are instructive, historical, and use- 
ful for educational purposes. Commended for execution and design. 



559. H. C. Jones & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 
brush blocks. 
Report. — Commended for an improved method in boring, resulting in a redaction of 



cost. 



560. Charles P. Sellers, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

corn brooms and whisks. 
Report, — Commended for good substantial form, excellence of material, and workman- 
ship. 

561. C. T. Raynolds & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

artists' pencils and brushes. 
Report. — Commended for quality, fitness, and workmanship. 



562. Miles Brothers & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

VARIEIY OF brushes AND PENCILS. 

Report, — Commended as well made and of good api)earance; shaving brushes espeaally 
for quality, and full adaptation for the purposes intended. 

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GROUP X. 87 

563. E. Clinton & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

BRUSHES AND PENCILS. 
Report, — Commended for superior quality, skill, and fitness. He excels in every line 
of brushes and pencils, and seems to be able to compete with any other country. 



564. George Barton, Kent, & Co., London, England. 

BRUSHES AND IVORY WORK. 

Report, — Brushes and ivory work of very fine finish, especially the hair brushes. Com- 
mended for fine workmanship and good taste. 



565. Q. R. Qrind, London, Ontario, Canada. 

CORN BROOMS AND WHISKS. 

Report, — Commended for excellent quality, great variety, very low prices, fitness, and 
workmanship. 

566. C. Boeck, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

BRUSHES. 
Report, — A very good set of hair and painting brushes, horse brushes, well made and 
durable ; also an improvement in hair brushes, for regulating the softness and stiffness of 
the brush. Commended for general quality and novelty. 



567. Whitehead & Turner, Quebec, Canada. 

BRUSHES OF ALL KINDS. 
Report. — Commended for excellent quality and moderate prices. 



568. Deschamps, Maurey, & Co., Paris, France. 

BRUSHES OF ALL KINDS. 

Report. — Commended as well made, of good material, and superior fitness. 



569. Pitet, Sr. & Jr., Paris, France. 

PENCILS AND PAINTING BRUSHES. 
Report, — A great variety, ranging from the most popular styles to the most artistic ones. 
Commended for fine finish. 

r 

570. A. Dupont, Beauvais, France. 

TOOTH BRUSHES. 

Report. — Commended for superior fitness, durability, and cheapness. 



571. F. Loonen, Paris, France. 

BRUSHES. 

Report, — A splendid display, mounted in ivory and carved very tastefully ; a mirror of 
very elegant style. Commended for good material, superior taste, and elegance in work- 
manship. 

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88 RF.POA'TS ON AWARDS. 

572. Antonio Raymundo de Carvalho, Lisbon, Portugal. 

BRUSHES. 

Report. — Commended for great variety, very tasteful and nice patterns, durability, fine 
workmanship, and low prices. 

573. Luigi Giacomini & Co., Trcviso, Italy. 

CLOTH BRUSHES. 

Report, — Cloth brushes of good workmanship, finish, and extraordinary cheapness. 



574. Dionys Pruckner, Munich, Germany. 

TOILET, CLOTH, AND HAT BRUSHES. 

Report, — Commended for good workmanship and low prices. 



575. Glendale Elastic Fabric Co., East Hampton, Mass., U. S. 

WOVEN AND BRAIDED ELASTIC RUBBER FABRICS. 
Report. — A large variety of goods of fine quality, style, and workmanship, with special 
mention of corded edge fabrics. 



576. East Hampton Rubber Thread Co., East Hampton, Mass., U. S. 

INDIA RUBBER THREAD. 

Report. — Commended for quality, skill, workmanship, and fitness for purpose intended. 



577. New York Belting & Packing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

EMERY VULCANITE. 

Report. — Commended for originality, durability, evenness of grit and texture, and the 
facility with which the form of the grinding surface may be renewed or modified. 



578. New York Belting ft Packing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

INDIA RUBBER GOODS. 

Report, — The exhibit includes valve gum, packing, fibrous, and sheet used for pistons; 
a great variety of hose, car springs, and carriage springs, of great homogeneity of composition 
and perfection of curing. Commended for finish and high grade of merchantable excel- 
lence. 

579. New York Belting ft Packing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

TEST HOSE — VULCANIZED RUBBER. 

Report, — Vulcanized hose for fire-engines. The duck, which is of excellent fabric, is 
saturated with carbolic acid, coated with rubber, and fashioned into tubing so as to dis- 
perse the warp and filling obliquely to the axis of the hose, and to give the highest degree 
of flexibility and elasticity consistent with strength. The hose is lined and coated with 
rubber, smooth and of excellent composition, the whole fashioned and cured with care. 
It burst under direct pressure in two experiments at four hundred and twenty-^ve pounds 
and four hundred and fifty pounds. Commended for durability, flexibility, and strength. 

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GROUP X. 89 

580. New York Belting ft Packing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

RUBBER BELTING. 
Report. — The belting is of various widths to forty-eight inches, of thickness from three 
to five ply, of length to three hundred and twenty feet. In strength, as determined by 
experiment under direction of Captain Albert, a three-ply three-inch belt gave way at three 
thousand pounds. In adhesion, a six-inch belt with a weight of fifty pounds at either end 
over a fifteen and three-quarter inch exterior diameter, smooth cast-iron fixed pulley, 
slipped at seventy pounds. The thickness of the belt was three-ply, seven thirty-seconds 
of an inch. Conmiended for adhesion, strength, smooth finish, and care in workmanship 
and curing. 

581. National Rubber Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

INDIA RUBBER GOODS AND MANUFACTURES. 

Report. — A large variety of well-made rubber goods, especially rubber shoes. Com- 
mended as well made, good style, and, with regard to " Snow Excluder," for originality and 
fitness for purpose intended; rubber clothing, reversible coats, commended as of good 
workmanship; "flocked clothing," commended as of fine finish and original design; 
" flocked piano covers," commended for originality, utility, and workmanship ; Chaflee's 
perforated cellular door mats and curry combs, commended for utility and fitness for pur- 
pose intended; flexible backgammon boards, inlaid with flannel, commended for origi- 
nality ; nursery sheeting, commended for utility and fitness for purpose intended. 



582. National Rubber Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

BELTING. 
Report. — The belting is made of fine quality of duck and composition carefully prepared 
and cured. A three-inch three-ply belt, five thirty-seconds of an inch in thickness, gave 
way under a strain of thirty-five hundred pounds. In adhesion, as shown by experiments 
under direction of Captain Albert, a six-inch four-ply belt, seven thirty-seconds of an inch 
in thickness, over a smooth cast-iron pulley of extreme diameter of fifteen and three-quarter 
inches, with a weight of fifty pounds at either end, slipped with additional weight of sixty 
and three-quarter pounds (the pulley being rigid) added to one side. Commended for its 
strength, adhesion, finish, and care in workmanship and curing. 



583. National Rubber Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

FIRE HOSE. 

Report. — Two and a half inches calibre, four-ply, cloth wound round the mandril, with 
warp parallel to the axis of the hose, of smooth interior, thorough workmanship, and care- 
ful curing. A section of fifty feet in length and weighing fifty-nine pounds sustained, 
without bursting, a pressure of five hundred pounds. Commended for quality in compo- 
sition, care in making up, and for strength. 



584. National Rubber Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

RUBBER SHOE MANUFACTURE. 

Report. — The exhibit consists of a complete set of material and machinery manufactured 
by William E. Kelly, of New Brunswick, New Jersey, and complement of operatives for 
producing vulcanized rubber shoes, including the breaking down, cleaning, and air-cunng 
of Para rubber, grinding in of composition, stamping, embossing, spreading on cloths, cut- 
ting into patterns, making the shoes in green condition, and curing by heat. Commended 

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90 



REPORTS OX AWARDS. 



for taste and skill as an industrial display of the most approved apparatus for exhibiting in 
detail all the steps of the processes by which vulcanized rubber shoes are made, from the 
crude rubber and cloth to the final curing. 



585. Gutta Percha & Rubber Manufacturing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

FIRE HOSE. 

Report. — This hose is wound with duck coated with carbolized rubber composition, 
with warp of the duck parallel to the axis of the hose. A section fifty feet in length, of 
two and one-half inch calibre, four-ply hose, and weighing sixty -seven and one-half pounds, 
burst at a pressure of four hundred and thirty-five pounds. Commended as well made, 
carefully cured, and adapted to the purpose intended. 



586. India Rubber Comb Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

HARD RUBBER GOODS. 

Report, — A large exhibit of manufactures of fine quality, design, and workmanship, es- 
pecially ten-pin balls. Commended for originality, skill, and fitness for purpose intended. 

Rubber-coated calender rolls. Commended for originality, skill, and fitness for purpose 
intended. 

Tubes of large calibre. Commended for originality, skill, and finish. 



587. Clark S. Merriman, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WATER-PROOF LIFE-SAVING DRESsl 

Report, — Commended for invention, fitness for purpose intended, and utility. 



588. Crane & Co., Newark, N. J., U. S. 

FLEXIBLE RUBBER BITS. 

Report, — Commended for utility, and fitness for purpose intended. 



589. Nashawannuck Manufacturing Co., E^st Hampton, Mass., U. S. 

ELASTIC RUBBER SUSPENDERS AND WEBS. 

Report. — Commended for fine workmanship and neatness of patterns of suspenders and 
webs. 



590. Vulcanite Jewelry Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

VULCANITE JEWELRY. 

Report. — Commended for good quality and workmanship. 



591. Goodyear Rubber Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

RUBBER GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for quality and workmanship. 



592. W. B. S. Taylor, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

FLEXIBLE TUBING. 

Report. — Commended for invention, utility, and fitness for purpose intended. 

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GROUP X, 91 

593. Austin G. Day, Seymour, Conn., U. S. 

KERITE. 

Report, — Commended for originality, economy, and cost. This exhibitor also shows a 
large number of rubber-producing plants, including twenty different varieties. 



594. Gossamer Rubber Clothing Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

GOSSAMER WATER- PROOF CLOTHING. 

Report, — Commended for adaptation to public wants, and low cost. 



595. Gutta Percha ft Rubber Manufacturing Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

VULCANIZED RUBBER GOODS. 

Report. — ^The exhibit includes fibrous and sheet packing, piston packing, valve gum, 
billiard cushions, four-ply belting, seven thirty-seconds of an inch thick, six inches wide, 
which slipped on a closed pulley fifteen and three-quarter inches exterior diameter, under 
a strain of fifty pounds at either end, upon the addition to one end of forty-eight and three- 
quarter pounds ; garden and mining hose, carbolized in the composition. Commended for 
quality, extent of variety, and adaptation to purpose intended. 



596. Davidson Rubber Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. 

RUBBER GOODS AND MANUFACTURES. 
Report. — A fine exhibit of soft rubber goods, including druggists', surgical, medical, 
stationery, and light goods of very superior qua^ty, design, and finish, with special mention 
of pure rubber mattresses of excellent design and workmanship, gloves of good style and 
finish, water and sponge bags, dress shields, well fitted for purpose intended, seamless tubes, 
of good quality and workmanship and not liable to split. 



597. J. Dickson ft Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

ENGRAVING ON VULCANIZED RUBBER. 

Report. — Commended for invention, utility, economy, and cost. 



598. G. M. Mowbray, North Adams, Mass., U. S. 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA FOR TRUSSES AND INSULATORS. 

Report. — Well-purified gutta percha, adapted to puqwse intended. 



599. New Brunswick Rubber Co., New Brunswick, N. J., U. S. 

RUBBER BOOl^ AND SHOES. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in form and finish, good quality, and workmanship. 



600. Andrew Albright, Newark, N. J., U. S. 

HARD RUBBER COATED HARNESS AND CARRIAGE TRIMMINGS. 

Report. — Commended for originality and fitness for the purpose intended, fine workman* 
ship, and finish. 

601. J. C. Hempel, Baltimore, Md., U. S. 

RUBBER DIAPER. 

Report. — Commended for quality and fitness for the purpose intended. 

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92 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

602. Moulded Heel Stiffening Co., Lynn, Mass., U. S. 

MOULDED RUBBER COUNTERS FOR SHOES. 

Report, — Commended for utility, fitness for purpose intended, and economy. 



603. Simon, May, ft Co., Nottingham, England. 

GORINGS, GUSSETING, AND BOOT WEBS. 

Report, — Commended for a great variety of goods, of fine quality and workmanship. 



604. H. Schrader, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

VULCANIZED RUBBER PRODUCTS. 

Report. — ^The exhibit includes belting, smooth, and of fine finish, garden hose, hemp 
hose lined with rubber, and rubber speaking tubes, billiard cushions, pulleys, packing, gaskets, 
and valve gum, in various forms. Commended for beautiful finish, homogeneity in composi- 
tion, and for splendid curing. 

605. Russian American India Rubber Co., St. Petersburg, Russia. 

RUBBER GOODS AND MANUFACTtTRES. 

Report, — A fine exhibit of a large variety of rubber goods, including clothing, shoes, 
druggists*, medical, and surgrical goods of soft rubber. Commended for good workmanship, 
quality, and design, and finish, especially for a coachman^s coat of checked cotton covered 
with rubber of very fine surface and perfectly white ; also cylinder cover of soft rubber 
with hard rubber surface. 

606. G. Magnus ft Co., Berlin, Germany. 

HARD RUBBER BILLIARD BALLS. 

Report. — Commended as of excellent quality, and well fitted for purpose intended. 



607. Bally ft Schmitter, Aarau, Switzerland. 

ELASTIC GORING. 

Report, — A large assortment of silk, cotton, and linen elastic goring, of fair quality and 
low prices, 

608. United States Navy Department, Washington, D. C, U. S. 

UNITED STATES FLAGS AND NAVAL COSTUMES. 

Report. — Commended for the elaborate display and historical value of the national flags 
and pennants and naval costumes. 



609. United Sutes War Department, Washington, D. C, U. S. 

FLAGS AND MILITARY COSTUMF^. 

Report. — Commended for the character of the workmanship, and historical value and 
liberality of numerical exhibits. 



610. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum, Washington, D. C, U. S. 

SKINS AND FURS. 

Report. — This institution, which, in a collective exhibit, shows the most complete and 
systematic display of the various series and gnidcs of excellence in crude dressed with long 
hairs, plucked and dyed fur seals of Alaska and South Pacific, as well as other furs. 

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GROUP X, 93 

We consider also as a duty to mention the names of the gentlemen who selected their 
finest specimens and placed them at the service of the institution. 

Among them we mention Mr. Chas. Herpich, of New York, Messrs. Treadwell & Co., 
of Albany, Mr. Bowsky, of New York, and Messrs. Renfrew & Co., of Canada. 

It is very interesting to see how far this industry was brought in the United States, and, 
as a show for public instruction, the Smithsonian exhibit is a true success. 



6i I. The Royal School of Art Needle Work, South Kensington, London, England. 

EMBROIDERY AND NEEDLE-WORK. 

Report, — Commended for design and beautiful shade of colors, and for its eminent suc- 
cess in showing the capabilities of needle-work as a decorative art. The embroideries from 
classical and floral designs are admirably executed, and beautiful in effect. The whole 
exhibit is recognized as artistic in design and faithful in execution, noble in its object, and 
practical in its uses. 



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SIGNING JUDGES OF GROUP X. 



The figures annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written by them 
respectively. 

Wm. O. Linthicum, I, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 
25, 26, 44, 45, 56, 64, 67, 71, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 
92, 93. 94, 95, 96, 97i 98, 99» i<»» io7, 108, 118, 154, 155, 161, 318, 432, 438. 

E. N. HoRSFORD, 7, 8, 14, 27, 320, 345, 377, 404, 423, 437, 533, 548, 577, 578, 579, 
580, 582, 583, 584, 585, 595, 604. 

M. P. Empey, 13, 506, 507, 508, 513, 514, 515, 516. 

B. F. Britton, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47. 4S, 
49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 90, 103. 
119, 138, 141, 186, 196, 220, 221, 222, 223, 242, 243, 244, 248, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256, 
257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274, 287, 288, 
289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 296, 297, 298, 299, 308, 310, 312, 314, 315, 316, 317, 321, 324, 
326, 331, 337, 338, 344, 353, 3^7, 37 1, 372, 373, 378, 385, 389, 393, 394, 395, ^09, 419, 
426, 427, 436, 439, 441, 443, 445, 461, 462, 463, 464, 505, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522. 
523. 527, 528, 529, 531, 532, 559, 564, 572. 

DiETZ-MONNIN, 58, 120, 121, I44, I49, I50, I70, I7I, I73, I74, I75, 179, 180, 181, 
182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 
214, 215, 219, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234,' 235, 236, 237, 238, 
239, 240, 241, 245, 246, 247, 249, 250, 253, 267, 271, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 
282, 283, 284, 294, 295, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 313, 319, 322, 327, 328, 

329, 332, 333, 341, 342, 343, 346, 347, 357, 35^, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 3^4, 3^5, 3^6, 
368, 369, 370, 381, 384, 396, 397, 398, 399, 412, 413, 414, 415, 422, 425, 428, 434, 45i» 
469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 
487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 509, 510, 
511, 512, 530, 537, 538, 539, 560, 561, 562, 563, 570, 574, 610, 611. 

MODESTE KiTTARY, IOI, I02, IO4, IO5, I06, IO9, IIO, III, 112, II3, II4, II5, II6, 
117, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 

140, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 

165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 172, 176, 177, 178, 323, 325. 

Edward Kanitz, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 216, 217, 
218, 285, 286, 311, 330, 334, 335, 336, 339. 340, 354, 355, 35^, 374, 375, 376, 379. 380, 
382, 383, 386, 387, 388, 390, 391, 392, 400, 401, 402, 403, 405, 406, 407, 408, 410, 411, 
416, 417, 418, 420, 421, 424, 429, 430, 431, 44c, 442, 444, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 452, 
453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 465, 466, 467, 468, 492, 493, 524, 525, 526, 534, 
535, 536, 540, 541, 553, 565, 566, 567,*568, 569, 571, 573. 

W. H. Chandler, 309, 348, 349, 35°, 35^, 352, 435, 575, 576, 581, 586, 587, 588, 589, 
590, 591, 592, 593, 594, 596, 597, 598, 599, 600, 601, 602, 603, 605, 606, 607. 

George Hewston, 433, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 549, 550, 551, 552, 554, 555, 556, 
557, 558, 608, 609. 

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SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP X. 



REPORTS 

OF 

JUDGES ON APPEALS. 



JUDGES. 



John Fritz, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Edward Conley, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Charles Staples, Jr., Portland, Me. 
Benj. F. Britton, New York City. 
H. H. Smith, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Coleman Sellers, Philadelphia, Pa. 
James L. Claghorn, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Henry K. Oliver, Salem, Mass. 
M. WiLKiNS, Harrisburg, Oregon. 
S. F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 



I. Lewis Fishblatt, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 
FUR robe. 
Report, — Commended for a robe, of yarious colors and excellent workmanship, repre- 
senting the arms of the United States. 



2. Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport, Conn., U. S. 

SEWING machine NEEDLE WORK. 

Report, — Commended for a superb display of needle work executed upon the Wheeler 
& Wilson sewing machine, exquisite in design and finish, frofn the lightest gauze to the 
heaviest leather. 

3. James Fallows ft Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PAPER and tin toys. 

Report, — Commended for economy in cost, adaptation to purpose intended, and durability. 



4. F. Sachse ft Son, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 
dress shirts. 
A'/^i^rf.— Conwncnded for excellence in cut and style, and meritorious in workmanship. 



5. Olivia P. Flynt, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

improvement in knit underwear for women and children. 

Report, — An important and unique improvement, well adapted to the purpose intended. 

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96 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

6. Coon ft Van Volkenburgh, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

LINEN COLLARS AND CUFFS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in style, and meritorious in construction and woric- 
manship. 

7. Littleton Saranac Buck Glove Co., Littleton, N. H., U. S. 

BUCK CLOVES. 

Report. — Commended for originality in preparation of the skins, good workmanship, 
and Htness for purpose intended. 

8. Mrs. J. S. Bloodgood, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

AFGHANS AND CARRIAGE ROBES. 

Report, — Commended for tasteful design and skillful workmanship. 



9. Louis Jeannisson ft Son, Johnstown, N. Y., U. S. 

GLOVES. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in material, shape, and workmanship. 

\ 

10. Adolf Bowsky, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

DRESSED FURS. 

Report, — Commended for general excellence of preparation of skins of animals for 
furriers' use. 



II. Mrs. Jacquemin, St. Louis, Mo., U. S. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 

Report, — A good exhibit. Representations skillfully constructed and truthful to nature. 



12. M. Louise Glover, Au£ni8ta, Me., U. S. 

WORSTED WORK, COMPRISING BASKET OF FRUIT, SOFA PILLOW, AND ANTEMACASSAR. 

Report, — Conunended for originality in design and high order of workmanship. 



13. A. Bedford, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

BEDF0RD*S EUREKA AIR-PISTOL. 

Report, — Commended for simplicity in construction, accuracy, safety, and fitness for 
purpose intended. 

14. Maixe ft Schwartz, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

MILITARY CLOTHING. 

Report, — Commended for good workmanship, fitness for purpose intended, together with 
economy in cost 

15. Wm. WUkens ft Co., Baltimore, Md., U. S. 

CURLED HAIR AND BRISTLES. 
Report, — Commended for a creditable exhibit of American bristles displaying great can* 
and skill in preparing for use. Curled hair, black and bleached, well prepared, and fitness 
for purpose intended. 

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GROUP X. 97 

i6. Samuel C. Jackson, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

JEWELRY CASES. 

Report, — Commended for excellent designs and superior workmanship. 



17. Mrs. L. Noot, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

LADIES* AXD CHILDREN'S DRESSES AND CAPS. 

Report, — Commended for exquisite taste in design and style, together with high grade 
of workmanship. 

18. Charles Rumpp, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

FANCY LEATHER GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for excellent material used, combined with good workmanship. 



19. Charles Dubois, Portland, Oregon, U. S. 

FURS. 

Report, — Commended for a good exhibit in Alaska sable and mink, and Shetland seal, 
displaying creditable workmanship. 



20. Joseph W. Barrett, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

EMBROIDERY AND BRAIDING. 

Report, — Commended as original and tasteful in designs and excellent in workmanship. 



21. Mrs. Thomas Weaver, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PYRAMID OF ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 

Report, — Commended for a superb exhibit, tastefully arranged, displaying skill and inge- 
nuity in construction. 

22. Miss Harriet Randolph Parkhill, Jacksonville, Fla., U. S. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS MADE OF FISH SCALES. 
Report, — Commended for a superb exhibit, consisting of brooch, ear-drops, bouquet de 
corsage, and cross ; displaying ingenuity, skill, and artistic taste. 



23. Carl Stehr, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

MEERSCHAUM AND AMBER PIPES. 

Report, — Commended for excellent quality, tasteful designs, and skill in workmanship. 



24. Mrs. Elizabeth G. Harley, Haddonfield, N. J., U. S. 

COMPLETE DARNER. 

^^^/.^-Commended for utility and convenience. 



25. Hirsh & Brother, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

PARASOLS AND UMBRELLAS. 

Report, — Commended for superb ornamentation and excellent workmanship. 

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98 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

26. C. E. Matthias, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

UMBRELLAS. 

Report, — Commended for a display of well-made gingham and alpaca omhrellas. 



27. Mrs. C. Wimpf heimer, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HAIR RIBBON. 

Report, — A close resemblance to human hair. Commended for fitness for purpose 
intended. 

28. Turner, Andrews, ft Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

POCKET BOOKS, AND FANCY LEATHER GOODS. 

Report. — ^An excellent display of wallets and fancy leather goods of good style and 
workmanship. 

29. Foy ft Harmon, New Haven, Conn., U. S. 

COMBINED CORSET AND SKIRT SUPPORTER. 

Report, — Commended for great excellence in material, workmanship, and form, originaUty 
in construction, imparting greater ease and comfort to the wearer. 



30. M. Sand, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS. 
Report. — A fine exhibit, showing good taste and skillful work. 



31. American Mechanical Toy Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

MECHANICAL. TOYS. 
Report. — A good exhibit of dancing and revolving figures of pleasing and entertaining 
designs. 

32. P. W. Lambert ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

WALLETS, POCKET BOOKS, AND LADIES' BELTS. 
Report, — ^A good exhibit, displaying good taste and workmanship. 



33. Mrs. K. Schmitt, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HAIR JEWELRY. 

Report. — A superb exhibit of hair work, displaying unusual skill in execution, together 
with tasteful designs. 

34. Antomo Castell de Pons, Barcelona, Spain. 

TAPESTRY. 
Report. — Commended for a rich collection of hand-made tapestry, carpets, portidres. 
rugs, etc., of Moorish patterns, excellent in quality of material and workmanship. 



35. Lamary, Paris, France. 

SILK WATCH GUARDS AND RIBBONS. 

Report. — Commended for good style and quality, together with economy in cost. 

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GROUP X. 99 

36. I. Bidencope, Hobart Town, Tasmania. 

HATS AND CAPS OF SILK AND FELT, WITH MATERIAL FOR MANUFACTURE. 

Report. — Felt hats of good quality and finish. 



37. Dolores Fernandez de Silo, Madrid, Spain. 

EMBROIDERY AND LACE. 

Report. — Commended for exquisite workmanship. 



38. Theodora de Ibarzabal, Guipuzcoa, San Sebastian, Spain. 

DAMASCENE WORKS. 

Report. — Rich inlaid work of gold and silver in iron. Commended for good design and 
workmanship. 

39. Miss Margarita Matute, Guadalajara, Mexico. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Report. — Commended for a portrait executed with fine silk upon a handkerchief, dis- 
playing skill and perfection in needle work. 



40. School of Art, Mayor de la Seda, Barcelona, Spain. 

PORTRAIT OF KING ALFONSO, WOVEN IN SILK. 
Report, — Commended for skillful work and truthful representation. 



41. J086 Pi y Solanas, Barcelona, Spain. 

BLOND LACES. 
Report. — Commended for a very fine display of blond laces, mantillas, veils, basques, 
etc. Beautiful in design and workmanship. 



42. D. Strauss & Co., St. Gallen, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERED CURTAINS. 
Report. — A good exhibit, tasteful in design. 



43. Miss Josefina Mata y Campo, City of Mexico, Mexico. 

NEEDLE WORK. 

Report, — Commended as tasteful in design and skillful in execution. 



44. Debban Brulard, Damascus, Turkey. 

SILK GOODS. 
Report. — Silk goods, — scarfs, and robes woven with ornamental figures in gold and silver 
thread. Silk goods of " Damascus stufi*." Commended for richness in design and good 
quality of workmanship. 

45. Jacob Isler & Co., Wohlen, Switzerland. 

BRAIDS FOR LADIES* HATS MADE FROM STRAW AND HAIR. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in quality and style. 

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ICX) REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

46. Mechanical Embroidery Establishment, near Winterthur, Zurich, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERY FOR UPHOLSTERY AND LADIES* GARMENTS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence in design, economy in cost, and fitness for purpose 
intetiiJed. 

47. Ulrich St A. Tobler, Rheineck and Thai, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERY. 

Rfp&rt. — Commended for good taste in design and excellent workmanshipw 



48. C. G. Elrick, Aberdeen, Scotland. 

HORN COMBS. 

^tpoH. — Commended for excellence in designs, workmanship, and general finish. 



49. Geo. John Smith, Upper Norwood, Surrey, England. 

IRISH LACES — POINT AND LIMERICK. 

Rfppri. — Commended for tasteful designs and excellent execution. 



50. R. Sutter-Dorig, Appenzell, Switzerland. 

EMBROIDERED HANDKERCHIEFS. 

Report, — Commended for exquisite taste in design and skill in execution. 



51. Hamlet Nicholson, Rochdale, England. 

PATENT COMPOUND CRICKET BALLS. 
^ipaH, — Commended for fidelity in spherical shape, and for smooth and even surface. 



52. S. Shl-i-no Shobeye, Yokohama, Japan. 

EMBROIDERY. 

J^tpori. — Commended for skillful workmanship. 



53. Swainson, Birley, & Co., London, England. 

COTTON SHIRTINGS OR LONG CLOTH. 

^fpari. — ^A good fabric, well bleached and finished. 



54. Thomassa Lillo, Tucuman, Argentine Republic. 

EMBROIDERED VESTMENT FOR PRIEST. 

Rfpart — ^Commended for excellence in design, and fitness for purpose intended. 



55. Carlos Ortells, Havana, Cuba. 

EMBROIDERY,— PICTURES EXECUTED IN HUMAN HAIE. 

Mtp&rL — Commended for artistic taste and skillful execution. 



56. Carlotta Mathilde Teizeira, Funchal, Island of Madeira. 

EMBROIDERY, COMPRISING SKIRTS, WAISTS, AND EDGINGS. 

Rtp&rt. — Commended for good taste in design, together with excellent workmanship. 

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GROUP X. lOl 

57. Benjamin Zorilla, Salta, Argentine Republic. 

PONXHO. 

Report, — Commended for excellent fabric, and fitness for purpose intended. 



58. Mrs. Josefa G. de Cossio, Corrientes, Argentine Republic. 

EMBROIDERED TOWEL. 

Report. — Commended for skill in design and execution. 



59. Mrs. E. Q. de Gallaraga, Corrientes, Argentine Republic. 

EMBROIDERED HANDKERCHIEF. 

Report, — Commended for good taste in design, and skill in workmanship. 



60. Theodor MtUler, Berlin, Germany. 

HATS. 
Report, — ^A good exhibit, displaying excellence in material and finish. 



61. S. Kobayashi, Tokio, Japan. 

LEATHER WORK OR FANCY LEATHER. 

Report, — Fine dressed skins, printed in beautiful colors and designs, well adapted loi 
furniture coverings, etc. 

62. Frederick Fourasti6, Caracas, Venezuela. 

COAT CHART. 

Report, — Commended for a novel and ingenious system for taking measures. 



63. George Adler, Buchholz, Germany. 

FANCY BOXES AND BASKETS FOR JEWELRY, BONBONS, ETC. 

Report, — Commended for tasteful designs and excellent construction. 



64. Sophie Hesselbein, Berlin, Germany. 

SILK E31IBR0IDERY. 

Report. — Commended for excellent taste and skillful workmanship. 



65. Heinrich Kuehn, Berlin, Germany. 

EMBROIDERY AND EMBROIDERY PATTERNS. 

Report, — ^A good exhibit, displaying excellent taste in designs for needle work. 



66. G. P. Festa, London, England. 

CORSETS. 

Report, — Commended for novelty in construction and excellence in general finish. 



67. W. S. Thomson & Sons, London, England. 

CORSETS. 

Report, — Commended for high degree of excellence in shape and general workman^ij>. 

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102 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

68. Natanson & Hurwiu, Berlin, Germany. 

FELT SHOES. 
Report. — Commended for economy in cost and fitness for purpose intended. 



69. Anselmo Incerti, Modena, Italy. 

CAPS. 

Report. — Commended for economy in cost and fitness for purpose intended. 



70. Pietro Vaiani, Milan, Italy. 

PERSIAN AWNINGS. 

Report, — Commended for quality and economy in cost. 



71. G. U. Huerlin & Co., Stockholm, Sweden. 

MILITARY CLOTHING. 

Report. — Clothing on figure of officer. Commended for good workmanship and fit. 



72. ** La Paz" School of Embroideries, City of Mexico, Mexico. 

EMBROIDERIES. 

Report. — A large and superb exhibit, displaying a high grade of excellence in workman- 
ship. 

73. Teresa di Lenna, Udine, Italy. 

NEEDLE WORK. 

Report. — Commended for artistic merit and skillful handiwork. 



74. Gaetano Fagioli, Piacenza, Italy. 

FANCY BOXES FOR JEWELR / AND BONBONS. 

Report. — Commended for tasteful designs and good workmanship. 



75. Firmin & Sons, London, England. 

BUTTONS AND MILITARY ORNAMENTS. 
Report. — A large and superb display of metallic buttons for army, navy, and civic uses. 
Commended for excellent design and finish. 



76. Heymann & Alexander, Nottingham, England. 

LACES, BOBBINETS, QUILLINGS, AND CURTAINS. 

Report. — A good exhibit, displaying excellence in general finish, especially of curtains 



77. Comellini & Buratti, Bologna, Italy. 

CORSETS. 

Report. — Commended for economy in cost and fitness for purpose intended. 



78. John English ft Co., Feckenham, near Redditch, England. 

NEEDLES AND SOLID HEAD STEEL PINS. 

Report. — A large and complete exhibit, showing needles of superior strength and finish ; 
solid head steel pins of excellent work and finish. 

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GROUP X. 103 

79. Sangster ft Co., London, England. 

PA&ASOLS AND UMBRELLAS. 

Report, — A large and varied collection of umbrellas, shades, and parasols, superb in 
design and excellent in construction. 



to. Miss Adele Gerosa, Milan, Italy. 

EMBROIDERY — PICTURE OF LARENTI. 

Report, — Commended for artistic taste and skillful work. 



81. G. A. Beckh, Nuremberg, Germany. 

SILVER AND GILT THREAD, AND FINE WIRE SPANGLES. 

Report, — A handsome exhibit of fine workmanship. 



82. August Straub, Prague, Austria. 

GLOVES. 

Report, — Commended for excellence in material, form, and workmanship. 



83. Candido Angeli, Luxzsu-a. Italv. 

CHIP HATS. 

Report, — Commended for economy and fitness for purpose intended. 



84. Ponti Rovera & Co., Piacenza, Italy. 

BUTTONS OF VEGETABLE IVORY. 

Report, — A good exhibit, displaying excellence in patterns and general finish. 



85. The King of Spain, Madrid, Spain. 

TAPESTRY. 

Report, — Commended for excellence of design and superior workmanship. 



86. Locher Brothers, Speicher, Switzerland. 

MACHINE EMBROIDERY. 

Report, — A fine product combined with economy in cost. 



87. Mrs. Angiola Romani, Cremona, Italy. 

EMBROIDERY ON WHITE SILK. 
Report, — Picture, " The Muse Euterpe," black silk embroidery on white silk ground, 
expressive and well drawn. 

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104 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

SIGNING JUDGES OF SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP X. 



't he figui^ annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written by them 
respectively* 

B. F, Britton, X, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, x6, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 
23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 
5^1 53. 54. r:^* 5^, 57, 58, 59» 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 
77. 7S. 79. ^Or 82, 83, 84, 86. 

Coleman Sellers, 34, 37, 38, 41, 44, 71, 87. 

H. H.Smith, 81. 

Edward Conley, 85. 



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GROUP XL 



JEWHLRY. WATCH-CASES, SILVER-WARE, 
BRONZES, ETC. 



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GROUP XI. 



JUDGES, 



AMERICAN. 
3f ARTIN P. Kennard, Boston, Mass. 
Pfter Gottesleben, Denver, Col. 



FOREIGN. 
G. H. Heap, Tunis. 
ROULLEAUX DUGAGE, France. 



The following named Judge was temporarily assigned from Group XV. to assist in the 
-lamination of the classes attached to his name. 

Juuus DiEFENBACH, Germany. — ^Jewelry, silver and plated ware, fancy goods, gems, 
niid enamel painting. 



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GROUP XL 



JEWELRY, WATCHES, SILVER-WARE, BRONZES, Ere. 
{See also Group XXVIL, Art.) 

Class 253. — ^Jewelry, and ornaments worn upon the pprson. 

Diamonds, and other precious gems, mounted singly or in groups, — ^head-dresses, 
"tiara," necklaces, rings, pins, etc. 

Pearls, pearl and coral sets and ornaments. 

Gold ornaments, — rings, pins, necklaces, chains, bracelets, buttons, etc. 

Cut and engraved stones. 

Gilt goods, metal and other ornaments, and imitations generally. 

Watches, — their mounting and decoration, — regarded chiefly from the ornamental 
and commercial i>oint of view. (For " movements" and chronometric qualities, see also 
Group XXV.) 

Class 218. — Silver- ware and silver-plate, — ^hollow-ware, plain, embossed, engraved, 
or otherwise ornamented. 

Silver and silver-plated knives, forks, spoons, etc. 
Ornamental silvered bronze and metal work generally. Bronzes and ** mante! 
ornaments," decorative clocks, etc. Enamels, etc. (See Group XXVII.) 



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GENERAL REPORT 



OF THE 



JUDGES OF GROUP XI. 



InternationalExhibition, 

Philadelphia, 1876. 

Prof. F. A. Walker, Chief of Bureau of Awards : 

Sir, — Herewith I forward to you the general report of the Judges 
of Group XI. 

Very respectfully yours, 

M. P. KENNARD, Chairman, 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION^ 1876. 



GROUP XL 

JEWELRY, WATCH-CASES, SILVER-WARE, 
BRONZES, ETC. 

BY M. P. KENNARD. 

The Judges of Group XL were assigned a somewhat wide range 
of industries, their classifications leading them through varied pro- 
ductions of utility up to the Fine Arts. In gems, in gold and silver 
work, in artistic bronze, and in the enameler's and the lapidary's arts, 
the exercise of their judgment .was called into a more diversified and 
difficult path than if they had been given any single and special 
manufacture, however extensive its relations. 

They entered upon their labors at as early a day as possible, their 
number being at first incomplete, owing to the non-arrival of expected 
foreign members. Their work was attractive, however, and their 
action always harmonious. They had their surprises and disappoint- 
ments, — the former at the delightful and varied affluence of such 
exhibits as those of Russia and Japan, the latter at the scantiness of 
the French section in comparison with French ability, and the absence 
from the United States department of many of those workers in the 
precious metals who, in their supply of the American trade, have 
distanced the world. It was fitting that more of these prominent 
manufacturers of gold and silver goods should have shown, through 
the courts of this Exhibition, the evidences of their genius and 
industries. 

Jewelry. 

In their absence the Exhibition failed to represent, particularly in 
the department of jewelry, the existing abilities of the country, and 
it is to be regretted that their places were filled by inferior represent- 
atives, many of whom, because located adjacent to the Exhibition, 
were enabled to occupy their positions at small expense. When we 
seek for the reasons for such absence, we suspect a disinclination to 
publicly display patterns, where so little respect is paid to another's 
property in any novelty of design, and where the recording and pro- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XL j 

tection of trade-marks seem not yet to have been set up as established 
rules of the trade. 

It may also be said that the more important manufacturers have 
often their own peculiar trade; and the markets for their goods, and 
in some cases their patterns, are controlled by their various customers, 
the merchants, to whom they confine themselves, for mutual advan- 
tage. To these drawbacks may perhaps be added the depressing 
influences of two disastrous years, unexampled for their detriment to 
this trade, and in consequence a large and general reduction of force, 
and falling off in the production of novelties. It is proper to say 
here, however, that the better examples — though few — of American 
jewelry equaled those of any other nation as to display of taste, 
mechanical execution, or quality of material. They are better adapted 
to American demands, and the evidence of this is in the small quan- 
tity now imported. American gold chains and necklaces, also collarets 
and band bracelets in the Roman and Etruscan manner, — styles now 
in vogue, — are specially notable as of admirable character, and none 
exceed them for beauty of design or workmanship. The same may 
be said of lockets, and has been said of our gold and silver watch- 
cases for years past. 

Without entering into dry statistics, it may be interesting to men- 
tion that, according to the data of 187 1, the last year of the war tax, 
the jewelry manufacture at Newark, New Jersey, alone, upon which 
that tax was paid, amounted to eight millions of dollars, and in the 
city of New York, the same year, it was between six and seven 
millions. The number of working jewelers in the United. States is 
estimated at twenty-five to thirty thousand ; of these Massachusetts 
has about fifteen hundred ; Rhode Island, chiefly in the city of Provi- 
dence, twenty-five hundred ; Newark, New Jersey, about sixty estab- 
lishments, and nearly twenty-five hundred workmen ; and the city of 
New York about six thousand workmen. In some of the jewelry 
manufactories are employed, in ordinary times, from three hundred to 
four hundred men. There are also in the United States about twelve 
thousand watch and jewelry stores of importance. Connected with 
these is always a force of watch-repairers and working jewelers 
adequate to the business of each individual establishment. In the 
present stagnation of a trade which is especially sensitive to times 
of depression, there has followed, of course, a marked reduction in the 
volume of business ; to what extent it is now very difficult to reach 
conclusions with any degree of accuracy, nor is it essential here. 

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4 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Silver-ware. 

In the precious metals, however, it was manifest that our chief 
strength was in silver- ware, for which America has made large 
demands in late years ; indeed, the displays of American silver-ware 
excelled all others, and were among the distinguished attractions of the 
Main Building. It is evident that the great production of this metal, 
and the unprecedented demand for silver utensils in the United States, 
have stimulated manufactures in this branch of mechanical art, and 
that a growing aesthetical taste insists upon the highest possibilities. 
Without aspiring to the exhibition of marvelous essays of human 
ingenuity and artistic skill, which, when completed, are only monu- 
ments of the patient and inexhaustible labor of some gifted and 
exceptional artist, and void of real utility, — if we except a few prize- 
and race-cups, and one or two more ambitious testimonials and sym- 
bolical centre-pieces, or vases, — the American silver exhibits were 
generally more practical in character, artistic in detail, of higher 
elegance, and of superior grade of work. We should note also, 
from several important establishments of the United States, distin- 
guished examples of the "hard," or silver-soldered and electro-silver- 
plated upon nickel or German silver ware, for table and general 
don^estic use, especially praiseworthy for enduring quality, finish, and 
good taste; indeed, no better goods of this class were on exhibition 
than some of these specimens. 

In the soft metal, or tin-soldered ware, known as plated upon Brit- 
annia-metal goods, for like domestic purposes, there was a liberal 
representation of a large and extending industry. Since the develop- 
ment of the electro-plating process, this peculiar metal trade has 
obtained more prominence in the United States than even in the 
English markets. From its facility and cheapness we have more 
manufacturers and consumers of this ware than any other nation, 
and our products in this branch of metal-work are finding a con- 
siderable demand from abroad. There is need, however, of a higher 
standard of design. With but few exceptions, our goods of this 
character lack simplicity and soberness of decoration, and more 
attention to outlines and beauty of form is desirable. 

It may be answered that this is cheap ware; but with metal so 
facile it need not lack grace in shape, or be inartistic or vulgar. Too 
many of the examples were marked by a garish taste, a prominence 
of ornamentation void of significance, and a profusion and confusion 
of ungainly bodies, handles, legs, and spouts, a jumble of materials 
often incongruous, without unity, elegance, or originality. There was 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XL 5 

also too much suggestion of traditional styles, and a kind of mill- 
work that is monotonous. If the uncultured of our Western frontier 
trade demand the meretricious, it does not follow that the taste of 
these people need be further perverted by coarse designing. As in 
many other manufactures, it is time we had an art and a series of 
patterns more distinctly our own, and that our productions in this 
metal should not always s\iggest to those at all conversant with the 
trade the debris of the Sheffield and Birmingham work-shops of 
former days. The character and quality of these goods may be 
deemed honest for the price, and our technical processes are well 
advanced; but an improvement in styles must be sought if it is 
desirable to augment foreign demand, or reap that harvest in the 
markets of the world to which metal-ware of such popular utility is 
entitled. 

In the line of electro-plated flat table-ware, known as rolled goods, 
viz., knives, forks, spoons, and numberless pieces of a kindred nature, 
there is an immense production in the United States. These forks, 
and in some cases the knives, have superseded ivory-handled goods, 
so liable to crack in our dry climate and with our indifferent domestic 
service. A set of steel dies or rolls for making a suite of these goods 
of each pattern involves no inconsiderable outlay, and but a few years 
since only a few patterns were in use. Then the London market 
could only furnish the " king's pattern,'* the " shell pattern," the 
** thread pattern," and perhaps one or two others, and these were 
made mostly in solid silver. Now there are many American manu- 
facturers who furnish a greater variety of their own designs than 
were then extant, and absolutely compute their production in tons 
rather than by the gross. 

It may be germane in this connection to allude to the difficulty 
experts or others experience in determining the quality of electro- 
plated articles. It was at this point that the Judges were sometimes 
compelled to hesitate in characterizing quality. The amount of silver 
deposited is often one of the trade mysteries. The only conclusive 
test would have been to "strip" or assay in their presence such 
doubtful articles, and thus to determine the exact amount of silver, as 
also the quality of the nickel-silver basis upon which the silver is 
deposited, which is not feasible in such an Exhibition. At the 
manufactory such are weighed, in and out of the plating process, and 
if there be six or sixteen ounces upon the work it is manifest in the 
scales, and there only ; so that much has to be taken for granted, 
and it is easy for unscrupulous manufacturers to foist poor goods 
upon the market. 

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6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, rSyd. 

Nickel-Plating. 

Nickel-plating by the electro process is slowly making its way to 
meet the requirements of our domestic life. Being somewhat grayer 
in color, it perhaps may not be so popular with the housekeeper as 
the acceptable whiteness of true silver-plating, yet it has some advan- 
tages unknown to its more aristocratic rival. With a relative cost 
of about one-fifth less thaft silver-plating, it presents a harder sur- 
face, less liable to be defaced, does not oxidize under the action of 
impure air, and therefore requires less care. For hotels, hospitals, 
and ship and steamboat use the exhibits of this ware impressed the 
Judges for their economy and service. In the earlier stages of electro- 
plating the electro-deposition of nickel was found to be more difficult 
than the other metals. It did not uniformly adhere, and was treach- 
erous and uncertain in its action. To obviate this, in some cases it was 
found needful that the article to be plated be first given a slight coat- 
ing of copper, as for this metal the nickel has a more ready affinity. 
The whole difficulty, however, was at last overcome by the discovery 
of the process patented by Dr. Isaac Adams, Jr , in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, in 1869. It has augmented the use of this metal for plating pur- 
poses, and, as the method was not known previously, it is practically 
an American art-industry. The ordinary nickel-plated hollow-ware 
is upon a basis of planished tin, or of britannia metal, and also upon 
** nickel-silver" ; but this coating with nickel enters into other and 
manifold purposes, and renders it an important factor in the utiliza- 
tion and improvement of metal-work for household use, and in a 
broad field of other service. 

Bronze of Art. 

In the production of true bronze, known as the bronze of art, saving a 
colossal marine group for the Lincoln monument at Springfield, Illinois, 
from the Ames Foundry at Chicopee, Massachusetts, and a few orna- 
mental pieces and decorative mountings for marble mantel-clocks want- 
ing in originality, the American sections gave but little evidence of 
vitality. Our art-life in America has been short, our hi.storic figures few. 
and our art museums as yet meagre in examples for study or for repeti- 
tion. In this branch we depend upon European copies and reductions 
from the classic models of Greek and Roman art. The time is coming 
when our native birds and animals will be thus modeled and pre- 
served ; and there are many incidents in our civil, our military, and 
our Indian history which furnish admirable examples for illustration 
in enduring bronze, and may thus be perpetuated in objects of house- 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XL 7 

hold art. We need the educational influences of such depositories as 
the Kensington Museum in London, or the Louvre in Paris, to stim- 
ulate the imagination and inspire the taste and action of our artisans 
in such metal-work as well as in other branches. 

Imitation Bronze. 

There were also a few examples of zinc imitations of art-bronze 
objects, the models chiefly copied from the French makers. These 
are cast whole as a ** cone," and painted and colored superficially, or 
covered with an electro-deposit of copper, and then artificially bronzed 
to simulate the genuine at comparatively little cost. It may be said 
here that the public do not always discriminate between this work and 
true bronze. Such are advertised, and ofl:en sold as bronze, and some- 
times as "French bronzes," — perhaps not always with deceitful 
intent, — whereas they are but brittle spelter or zinc, and bear no 
more relation to the real than a coarse chromo does to an original 
oil-painting. This is, however, a new and growing branch of metal- 
work, and, with enterprise and good taste, will find ample compensa- 
tion and a large field. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

The labors devolved upon this group by exhibitors from Great 
Britain were not arduous. There were representations from London, 
Birmingham, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Belfast, and Dublin, the most 
important of which was the distinguished and comprehensive exhibit 
of solid silver and electro-plated metal-work by Messrs Elkington 
& Co., of Birmingham. This establishment maintained here its dis- 
tinction for the high character of its artistic work in metals. Their 
examples ran through the whole gamut of the trade, from articles for 
simple domestic purposes up to their most ambitious productions, 
some of these being veritable art-pictures, and apparently the culmi- 
nation of human ability in metal-work, the excellence of which has 
been acknowledged in former Exhibitions. Among the branches of 
this industry more recently developed by this house is that of damas- 
cening and inlaying of various metals, the specimens of which were 
admirable novelties; also, a simulation of the better examples of 
Japanese work in incrustations, both ingenious and complete ; with, 
also, the processes both of cloisonne and champ-leve enameling, only 
recently introduced into Europe from the Eastern nations. Their 
essays in this decorative and artistic work were unrivaled for freedom 
of design and quality of color and finish. The horological portion 
of the English section was liberally represented by the best of the 

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8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

English trade, there being many familiar names of great repute among 
the watch exhibitors, both from London and Liverpool. For the 
treatment of this department, as to chronometric qualities, reference 
is made to the report of Group XXV. The other British exhibitors 
displayed chiefly miscellaneous contributions, but were notable also 
as representing such specialties as manufactures of Scotch pebbles 
set in silver as jewelry, bog-oak carvings and ornaments, Whitby jet 
goods, and the like, in their peculiar provincial individuality. They 
showed also admirable examples of jewelers'-work in gold and gems, 
but generally of that conventional and massive-appearing character 
which does not now find a responsive taste or a market in the 
United States. 

RUSSIA. 

Russia presented to the attention of the Judges an admirable and 
profu.se display of fascinating examples of her manufactures in gold 
and silver, in fine bronze, and in articles made of Russian ornamental 
stones. There were many novelties in her court that were a revelation 
to an American. The remarkable silver-ware so amply displayed by 
Sazikoff and others, both from St. Petersburg and Moscow, with 
specimens of repousse and chiseled eflects, and the peculiar repre- 
sentations of linen and damask in this metal, with the radiant beauty 
of the gem-like enameling upon gold and silver and gilded silver 
utensils in Greek, Byzantine, and Russian taste, were such marvelous 
illustrations of the capabilities and truly artistic fancy of Russian 
artisans as would have awakened the enthusiasm of a Benvenuto 
Cellini and that of the historical Palissy, the famed enameler of 
Limoges. There was much of ingenious and pleasing caprice in the 
novelties in silver and in the gold jewelry and niello-work that were 
suggestive to the American workers in the precious metals. The 
jewelry by Adler, of Moscow, being of gold mosaic or damascene- 
work, with the 'metal of varied alloys and colors so combined and 
welded as to produce delicate effects with different grades of shading, 
was an original and decided novelty. The bronzes from Felix Chopin, 
from St. Petersburg, by the artist Lancere, though few in number 
were refreshingly original, of native subjects, so well modeled and 
of such artistic delicacy and expression as to add lustre to this inviting 
section, and always find appreciative observers. An attractive specialty 
of Russian art is the working by veneering or inlaying of such of 
their ornamental stones as malachite, lapis lazuli, labradorite, etc., 
into articles for personal ornament, and also for luxurious furniture, 
as mantels, tables, vases, and smaller objects of household decoration. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XT. g 

There were many of these that were strange and attractive, showing 
skillful work, and, in their peculiarity, unexampled in the Exhibition. 

CHINA. 

The Chinese department was conspicuous for a large and interest- 
ing collection of decorated enamel utensils, vases, and ornamental 
articles in the cloisonne manner, both of ancient and modern Chinese 
work, for which the Commission were indebted to the consideration 
and generous public spirit of Hu Kwang Yung, a high official and 
banker of Hangchow. This section contained also various and 
curious bronzes, mostly of ancient and grotesque character, with 
some specimens of silver-work and gold ornaments by native artisans 
that were characteristic, though without especial claim to novelty. 

JAPAN. 

Japan gave us an imposing display of great excellence, and a grati- 
fying surprise, in the remarkable bronze productions which were so 
attractive for their diversity and elaborate richness. In form, compo- 
sition of metal, inlay-work, casting, chiseling, and ornamentation the 
Japanese have in general not only a distinct art and character, but 
each of their artisans, as illustrated by this Exhibition, seems to 
maintain an individuality, taste, process of composition, and, indeed, 
a peculiarity of metal distinctly his own, evidencing an extraordinary 
versatility, and a distinctive independence which our own metal- 
workers would do well to emulate. Their exhibits which came under 
the attention of the Judges of Group XI. were principally ornamental 
or decorative objects in bronze, as vases, censers, garden- or temple- 
lanterns, and jardinieres, including also some delicate tea- and other 
table-ware suggestive, in some respects, to our own manufacturers and 
worthy of attention. The Japanese are adepts in alloys and in applied 
decorative combinations of gold, silver, and copper in incrustations, 
and in ingenious management of party-colors. In these metals they 
illustrate a luxurious prodigality of fanciful invention, which is in 
marked contrast with our own poverty in this branch of artistic 
metal-work. But however rich in fancy these examples of Japanese 
industrial art may have been, they were not uniformly so good in the 
mechanical qualities. They were often lacking in symmetry and 
mechanical perfection. Their pairs of vases, for example, were not 
always uniform in shape, being imperfectly matched as to measure- 
ments and relative proportion, a quality which with us is produced by 
turning-lathes and other engines of our own unerring mechanism, 

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lO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

evidently not at present availed of by the Japanese artisans. In the 
vitreous enameled metal-ware, known as the cloisonne, they showed 
but comparatively few examples, and these, however elaborate and 
painstaking, were often deficient in the treatment and in the purity of 
their enamel, and weaker in the quality of color than the best English 
specimens of this art. The Commission are especially indebted to 
M. Marunaka, of Kanazawa, province of Kaga, for many valued con- 
tributions to the Exhibition, which, however, being of a collective 
character, the regulations do not permit this group to further recog- 
nize with an award. 

FRANCE. 

France, as compared with other nations, sent us a goodly num- 
ber of representatives ; but when we recall her fertile artisans and 
the ramifications of her many industries, when we remember that she 
leads the world in artistic and purely ornamental metal-work, in deco- 
rative furnishings, and in all articles of luxurious fancy, we are con- 
strained to believe that her resources w^re not adequately represented 
in our Exhibition. One recognized at intervals some of her best 
productions, and yet found they but insufficiently suggested the 
manifold attractions of Paris. There was a dearth of those attractive 
Parisian specialties for which the United States have been such ready 
customers; and in those faithful mechanical reductions in bronze of 
the many historical subjects and classical remains of antique art 
which would have been of great interest, the paucity of the display 
was much to be regretted. In point of fact, many establishments 
prominent for their productions in bronze were unrepresented. In 
ware electro-plated with silver, and galvano-plastic articles for 
domestic use, there was also a palpable dearth ; yet the French de- 
partment was an extended and attractive one, of such great variety 
that it should not be under-estimated. Their gold-workers presented 
some notable examples, Boucheron and others, of Paris, displaying 
superb productions of rich jewelry with rare gems and brilliant 
enamels. These contributions illustrated many periods, and, whether 
in obedience to the exacting extravagance of modern demand or in 
the faithful rendering of the best of the Roman or the Egyptian age, 
were of the very highest artistic and material merit. This section was 
also diversified with attractive exhiJDits of bronze, brass, and gilt art- 
work, champ-leve enameling, portable and mantel time-pieces, and 
mantel and other rich furniture. Marchand exhibited a remarkable 
chimney-piece of Greek style, with a central figure of Minerva in 
bronze, which was a masterpiece in its way. This section was also 
rich with palatial furnishings, by Cornu & Co., of Algerian onyxes 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XL u 

and variegated marbles tastefully mounted in bronze. There were 
also collective reproductions of small antique objects in bronze of 
Pompeian character, and numerous other branches of Parisian fan- 
tasy, many of which, being imitations and of a finical character, were 
not inspiring acquisitions. 

GERMANY. 

From Germany there were many representations of those industries 
whose classification brought them to the attention of the Judges of 
Group XI. These included several with productions in silver for 
household service, of original and attractive character, and unlike any 
other examples in the Exhibition. There were also galvano-plastic 
or electrotype copies of those remarkable silver utensils and patera 
of ancient Rome known as the "Treasures of Hildesheim," in solid 
silver and in baser metal, interesting not only as exact repetitions of 
high art work, but as valuable illustrations of the advantages of this 
process of depositing by galvanic action, and thus precisely repro- 
ducing the most elaborate work. The German manufacturers made 
a good display of electro-plated wares, and their oxidized silvered 
goods gave evidence of more attention to productions of this specific 
character than appeared in other sections. Some two or three manu- 
facturers exhibited copiously of galvano-plastic and zinc composition, 
models of monuments and public characters in German history, in 
the manner of real bronze, the casting followed with a superficial 
covering of copper, and then bronzed or colored, which were rather 
inartistic in character and devoid of sharp and expressive outlines. 
■ but of moderate cost. Perhaps the most noticeable feature of the 
German department of the Main Building was the jewelry and gold- 
work. There were several interesting collective exhibits which in- 
cluded the productions of many combined manufacturers. These were 
chiefly from Hanau, Pforzheim, and Swabian Gmiind, for many years 
the homes of much of this industry. All the grades were here, from the 
better examples of European work (but mostly of the fourteen-karat 
quality) to the lightest and the cheapest adaptations to the require- 
ments of their specific markets. It may be inevitable from familiarity, 
but one who is in any degree conversant with these goods is inclined 
to wish for more frequent departures from long- won ted styles. A 
stray scholar from some school of design should be acceptable to 
some of these manufacturers ; fresher ideas and new dies would be less 
suggestive of automatic work, and perhaps bring needed flexibility 
and a livelier trade. France and Germany have of late years drawn 
away from Italy much of the business of cameo-cutting. In this art 

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12 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

there was a collective representation, with some excellent specimens 
from Idar-Oberstein, the present location of much lapidary and glyptic 
industry. 

ITALY. 

The Italian department was somewhat barren of the best samples 
of Italian ability. With the exception of praiseworthy examples of 
fine jewelry and gold-work by Bellezza, some fascinating reproduc- 
tions of the Greco-Etruscan period by Castellani, 'silver filigree-work 
from Genoa, a little really fine coral from Naples, and a few artistic 
bronzes of classic mould, — statuette reductions from the antiques by 
Boschetti, of Rome, — it gave us little of striking importance, and but 
the average of the sales-rooms and the shops of Florence, Rome, 
Naples, and Genoa. This section bore rather the character of a 
bazaar than of an Exhibition, and it seemed evident the exhibitors 
had thus calculated. There are many attractive specialties of Italian 
art that are inviting to the stranger which were looked for in vain. 
In a word, they gave us copiously of their merchandise, but not 
much of their most esteemed art. 

AUSTRIA. 

Austria sent us specimens of her fine jewelry and some admirable 
gold-chainwork, with imitation jewelry and false stones of many 
sorts ; also, many examples of small gilt and bronze metal articles of 
varied fancy and purpose. These chiefly came from Vienna. There 
was also a liberal display of the Bohemian garnet jewelry, a peculiar 
manufacture of that province. These stones are set in a red com- 
position of copper and gold, and when thus mounted are of moderate 
cost. At times these ornaments have been an important element of 
trade, and now, for almost an indefinite period, have come to us 
without material change of patterns. If those interested in this 
manufacture desire the business to survive in the American market, 
it would be advisable to stimulate it with some new ideas and designs. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Switzerland displayed some superb jewelry and gold-work, and 
also exquisite enamel paintings set as jeweled ornaments and pen- 
dants, especially noticeable; and her ingenious artisans here main- 
tained their renown for fine watches of many styles, with skillful 
engraving and tasteful ornamentation in decorating and casing them. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XL 13 

NORWAY, DENMARK, AND SWEDEN. 

These countries each presented interesting contributions, but mostly 
manufactures of silver. The silver filigree-work from Norway was 
of distinguished excellence. 

PORTUGAL. 

Portugal also gave us several exhibits of silver-work, chiefly of 
filigree ornaments of mediocre character. 

EGYPT. 

To the Egyptian National Museum we were indebted for speci- 
mens of Egyptian industry in gold and silver filigree. 

BELGIUM. 

Belgium illustrated the value and quality of her black marble, in 
examples of decorated mantel-clocks, with movements of French 
manufacture. 

SPAIN. 

From Spain the only exhibitor who claimed the attention of the 
Judges of this group was P. Zuloaga, of Madrid, whose specialty is 
the incrustation of metals, and who displayed caskets, vases, salvers, 
and many other articles of ornamental work in iron, enriched with 
gold and silver inlay and damascene-work, rendering them quaintly 
ornamental and quite exceptional in character. This collection had 
the flavor of the mediaeval age, and suggested an epoch when time 
was not money. 

TUNIS. 

To his Highness the Bey of Tunis we were indebted for examples 
of Tunisian ornaments of various descriptions for personal wear, and 
of interest for their novelty. 

INDIA. 

From India we had the intere.sting contributions of Messrs. Watson 
& Co., of Bombay, comprising rich gold and silver ornaments, skill- 
fully made of filigree, and fine gold repousse native work of remark- 
able character, with a utilization of tigers' claws neatly mounted in 
gold for feminine adornment; also, silver cups and other utensils 
exquisitely wrought. 

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14 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

TURKEY. 

Turkey, through her representatives from Albania, Trebizond, 
Aleppo, and other centres, exhibited many characteristic articles of 
rich fantasy, such as rich enameled coffee-cups, caskets, jewel-cases, 
and other articles of silver filigree-work, Albanian niello enamel 
specimens, damascene-work in iron, with cutlery of Damascus steel, 
and various articles for personal ornament, Oriental in taste and of 
curious interest. 

BRAZIL. 

Brazil sent us a few examples of jewelry and manufactures of gold, 
with an elaborate display of her peculiarly brilliant insects, variously 
mounted as jewelry and decorative ornaments for personal wear. 

It is to be regretted that some prominent exhibitors of rich jewelry 
and silver-ware were, by the needful regulations of the Centennial 
Commission, debarred from such distinctive awards as would have 
been commensurate with the admirable and meritorious character of 
their varied displays. Of those exhibitors, Messrs. Bailey & Co. and 
Caldwell & Co., of Philadelphia, and Messrs. Starr & Marcus, of New 
York, are conspicuous. Being merchant jewelers, their exhibits were 
of a collective character, including other than their own manufactures, 
and as such necessarily non-competitive, but their attractive sections 
cannot have failed in public appreciation. 

• WATCHES. 

Watches were referred to Group XI. to be regarded chiefly from 
the ornamental and commercial point of view, their movements and 
chronometric qualities being left to the consideration of the Judges 
of Group XXV. 

The treatment of this subject leads one at once to the exterior 
attractions of this useful pocket mechanism. It is proverbially an 
ungracious privilege to be the recipient of the shells, while another 
regales himself with the luxurious bivalve; but, as sometimes the 
pearl of the shell is of more value than the meat, so it may be with — 
in this age — that very important companion of mankind, a watch : the 
case can be of more value than the movement. Dropping the meta- 
phor, watch-case-making in the United States has for nearly half a 
century been an important and increasing branch of gold and silver 
work. For the specific American trade American-made watch-cases 
were preferable to foreign ones, because they could be better and more 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XL 15 

readily adapted to the exacting fancy and varied and independent 
tastes of Americans ; and from the earliest introduction of this manu- 
facture they have not suffered by comparison with foreign work. 
There was, besides, economy in avoiding an exorbitant tariff by im- 
porting only the watch-movements and casing them here. With 
increased demands great improvements have been made i« the tech- 
nical processes of this work, the aid of novel machinery evoked, and 
the cost of production materially reduced, placing them at prices 
beyond all foreign competition. 

Many watch-case-making establishments now find employment for a 
large force, the most important of which are those connected with the 
several watch-manufactories at present in operation ; one of these, the 
Waltham (Massachusetts) Company, for example, having an average 
monthly product of 5CXX) silver cases, and upwards of 1500 gold ones. 
Nor are the results of this branch of manufacture produced wholly 
by the aid of machinery. It gives employment to numerous skillful 
artisans, as engravers, enamelers, and their like. The American 
watch-cases so copiously displayed in the Exhibition, for mechanical 
qualities, finish, decorative engraving, and varied ornamentation, were 
generally of the highest excellence, and also remarkable for their 
diversity of patterns. 

In no department of the business during the present generation has 
there been a more radical change than in that of the watch trade, 
whether we consider the locality of the sources of supply, the char- 
acter and the styles of the goods, or the mechanism and principles 
employed in the construction of the movements. In earlier times 
English watches well-nigh held the markets of the world. Within 
the last three or four decades Coventry supplied the cheap grades, 
Liverpool and Prescott furnished a better class of more trustworthy 
and substantial work, and the London makers produced chiefly the 
highest quality and most accurately adjusted mechanism. A London 
watch was then the synonym for a satisfactory time-keeper. Subse- 
quently all these in a great degree yielded to the lighter styles, more 
attractive, equally trustworthy, and more economical productions of 
the Swiss makers. 

The lower grades of English work at first disappeared, their verge- 
escapements following the sun-dial and the clepsydra into desuetude, 
the Swiss watches supplanting them both in the United States and, to 
a great degree, in their own home markets. While the inferior Eng- 
lish watch-work thus suffered, the Swiss makers were advancing with 
their improved escapements and tasteful and more inviting and diversi- 
fied patterns of the very highest grades of complicated movements and 

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1 6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

adjusted work, which rivaled, and in some markets long since super- 
seded, many of the best London names ; so that, with the exception 
of a very limited number of well-reputed and exceptional makers, the 
demand for English watches has now ceased in the United States. 
Switzerland enjoyed for many years, without much interruption, the 
advantages of this large and profitable field, particularly as regarded 
the trade with America, but the present tendency is to an absolute 
reversal of former conditions. 

In the march of events, and under the cheap production, mathe- 
matical precision, and interchangeability of parts of the watches now 
made by American machinery, the Swiss makers are sensibly feeling 
a diminution of American orders, and are preparing for the inevitable 
revolution foreshadowed by the acknowledged importance and per- 
fection of the American system, so amply illustrated in the Philadel- 
phia Exhibition. In point of fact, the United States, while ceasing to 
be customers, are becoming rivals, and are largely exporting watches 
in lieu of importing them. 

It was the saying of an eminent London maker of former days, — 
whose various workmen of the many subsidiary trades needful in 
producing a watch under the old system lived away from him, and 
weekly brought to his establishment the varied detail of minute and 
delicate parts that went to make up the complete mechanism, — the 
jewelers, the escapement-makers, the pinion-makers, the springers, 
and the other numerous auxiliaries, — that " no watch would ever be 
properly and perfectly made until they could be wholly produced 
under one roof!" This point is now reached. From Nuremberg to 
Waltham it has taken four hundred years ! Of the half-dozen watch- 
manufactories at present operating in the United States upon this 
system, there were but two displays at Philadelphia, those of the 
Waltham (Massachusetts) Company and the company at Elgin, Illi- 
nois, the latter not being in competition. 

In the earlier stages of American watch production the larger sizes 
were furnished, as being of the most popular character, and it was 
sometimes held against the machinery system that it did not permit 
such flexibility as to range of sizes as with the hand-made watches, 
where only six or twelve of any optional calibre were cai^ried along 
together in the process of manufacture. This is now obviated; for 
the Waltham Company exhibited many sizes, ranging from the small- 
est useful sizes suited to ladies' wear to the maximum sizes for the 
use of gentlemen. As has been intimated, the popular American fancy 
has hitherto been for larger sizes than were used abroad. There is 
a perceptible change in this taste, and also in the demand for what 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XL ly 

are known as hunting-cases. The latter was greatly stimulated by 
the requirements during the decade succeeding the California exodus, 
so as almost to set a fashion, but they now seem likely to be replaced 
by the lighter and more convenient open-face finish. One of the most 
advantageous improvements of late years, for the convenience of the 
wearer and the durability of the watch, is the invention of winding 
in the stem. Faulty at first, this admirable mechanism has been so 
perfected as to soon render all key- winders obsolete. 

The advent of steam in traveling has generated a more rigid neces- 
sity for promptness than in former days, and has created a demand 
for the higher and more expensive grades of movements, and ren- 
dered nearly useless all cheap pocket time-keepers. But it is evident 
that the markets of watch-demanding countries are not to be quietly 
possessed by these American manufacturers. Already organizations 
are on foot abroad both as to the production of watch-cases and 
watch-movements, upon the American idea and under American 
superintendence, so that competition — that inspiring force in human 
activities — is still to be an important factor in this interesting depart- 
ment of mechanical industry. 

As a matter of information, it may be opportune to remark here, 
that gold articles of jewelers' work, both of ornament and utility, and 
many other productions of varied character related in soipe way to 
such mechanical artisanship, manufactured in the United States, have 
long found European and other foreign orders, and to these may, of 
late, be added silver and silver-plated wares, and gold and silver 
watches in constantly-increasing volume. 

It is manifest that under the stimulating wealth of suggestion and 
educational influences of the International Exhibition at Philadelphia, 
new ideas and fresh enterprises are springing into the industries of 
the United States. The workshops and products of their artisans in 
various directions are already foreshadowing this, and it is desired 
that these advantages may in some measure be reciprocally enjoyed 
by the enterprising visitors of other lands who honored the Exhibition 
with their presence. 

American agencies in European cities for the introduction of Amer- 
ican manufactures are being established, which, but for the intelligence 
and experience elicited by the Centennial Exhibition, might have 
waited years longer for such demonstration. 



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REPORTS ON AWARDS. 



GROUP XI. 

I. M.I. Valentin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

ORNAMENTS FOR PERSONAL WEAR. 

Report, — He exhibits personal ornaments made chiefly of brilliantly colored Brazilian 
beetles and other insects, well mounted ; also a gold snuff-box of tasteful design. 



2. Collective Exhibition arranged by M. Piel, Paris, France. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — A collective exhibition of imitation jewelry, arranged by M. Piel, containing 
the goods of MM. Piel, Topart, Levy, Jacquemin, H^mery, Mascurand, and Regad. 
Commended for good style, variety, and moderate prices. 



3. Petit-Pierre ft Bryson, Geneva, Switzerland* 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — Rich jewelry and fine enamel paintings, excellent in quality, style, and work- 
manship. 

4. Jean Gay, Geneva, Switzerland. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for his collection of watch chains and enamel lockets of good 
style and execution. 

5. Fritz Becker, Pforzheim, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report, — Bracelets of good design and execution. 



6. Geissell ft Hartung, Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report, — Gold jewelry, medallions, and bracelets in Roman style; also diamond work 
and other gems of excellent execution. 



7. Heinrich Witzemann, Pforzheim, Germany. 

GOLD CHAINS. 

Report. — Gold chains, necklaces, and lockets of good execution. 

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3to REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

8. Wild ft Co., Pforxheim, Gennany. 

MOURNING JEWELRY. 

Report. — Mourning jewelry, gold jewelry, with pearls and turquoise, of good manufacture^ 
at moderate prices. 

9. Bixer Brothers, Pforsheim, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report. — A variety of gold rings of good execution. 



10. August Gerwig, Pforxheim, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report. — Commended for great variety in lockets and designs. 



II. Gschwindt ft Co., Pforzheim, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

JP^I^tfff.^Mounted stone cameos of excellent execution. 



12. Wilhelm Heidegger ft Co., Pforsheim, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

RepcrL — Goods of fair quality at moderate prices. 



13. Eduard Lay, Pforzheim, Germany. 

LOCKETS. 

H^^rA^Medallions and lockets of good execution and at moderate prices. 



14. Ernest Sch5nfeld, Jr., Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report. — Reperc6 jewelry set with gems, of good quality and execution. 



15. H. Keller, Pforzheim, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 
Reports — Gold rings of very good execution. 



16. A. Voltz-Bier, Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

^^«y.— Etruscan jewelry of good finish. 



17. G. P. Backes ft Co., Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

JTij^tff/.^Commended for their exhibit of fine jewelry of excellent taste and superioi 
execution . 



18. Dingeldein Brothers, Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report. — Commended for their interesting collection of gold jewelry of superior 
ezecadon. 

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GROUP XL 21 



19. Hugo Zeuner, Hsmau and Berlin, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report. — Reperc6 jewelry of very good taste and execution. 



20. C. W. Schehl, Hanau, Germany. 

ETRUSCAN JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for his exhibition of fine jewelry in Etruscan style. 



21. C. Hertel ft Son, Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report, — Gold jewelry of various designs at moderate prices. 



22. C. Bi8singer*8 Sons, Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD jkwELRY. 

Report, — Genuine jewelry of superior class and excellent manufacture. 



23. C. M. Weishaupt's Sons, Hanau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for jewelry of old Celtic style, originality of pattern, and neatness 
of execution. 



24. Steinheuer ft Co., Hsuiau, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report, — Reperc^ jewelry of high originality. 



25. Pleuer ft Co., Stuttgart, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for variety of good jewelry at moderate prices. 



26. GusUv Hauber, S. Gmlind, Germany. 

SILVER JEWELRY. 

Report, — Silver chains and chains with niello work. 



27. Ottmar Zieher, S. GmttQd, Germany. 

GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for his collection of Etruscan-style jewelry. 



28. M. H. Neustadtl, Prague, Bohemia, Austria. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — ^Bohemian garnet jewelry of fine finish and moderate price. 



29. M. Kersch, Prague, Bohemia, Austria. 

GARNET JEWELRY. 

Report. — Garnet jewelry in great variety and of good workmanship. 

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22 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

30. Markowitsch ft Scheid, Vienna, Austria. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — Ornaments and articles in niello and enamel, of good taste and execution. 



31. Michael Goldschmidt ft Son, Prague, Bohemia, Austria. 

GARNET JEWELRY. 

Report, — Bohemian garnet jewelry and ornaments, of a variety of designs and excellent 
workmanship. 

32. Giacinto Melillo, Naples, Italy. 

ETRUSCAN AND GREEK-ETRUSCAN JEWELRY AND CORALS. 

Report, — Commended for excellence of workmanship and truth. He exhibits corals and 
Etruscan and Greek- Etruscan jewelry. A pink coral necklace is especially deserving. 



33. Giovanni Boncinelli ft Son, Florence, Italy. 

JEWELRY AND MOSAICS. 

Report, — Commended for creditable and tasteful workmanship. Their Florentine mosaics, 
medaUions, caskets, and portfolios are commendable as of good character. 



34. Niccolo A. Bellexxa, Rome, Italy. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for high style of jewelry, excellence of taste, and superiority of 
workmanship. He exhibits a square necklace set with rubies, sapphires, and emeralds — 
a new design ; a necklace of the Louis Quinze pattern, with cameos ; a very fine brilliant, 
surrounded with rose diamonds ; and an Egyptian necklace. 



35. Giovanni Ascione ft Son, Torre del Greco, Italy. 

CORAL JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for good and artistic workmanship. Exhibit coral jewelry mounted 
in gold, coral pipes, cameos, and various articles in coral of good quality and artistic designs. 



36. Giojuxxa Gibertini ft Co., Naples, luly.. 

CORALS. 

Report, — Commended for beautiful display. They make a meritorious exhibition of pink, 
pale, and red corals. 

37. Otto Krumbuegel, Moscow, Russia. 

JEWELRY. 

Report. — Novelties in style and novelty in fabric ; pierced <^n work in gold with enamel- 
ing especially fine in character. 

38. John Tchitchelef, Moscow, Russia. 

JEWELRY. 

Report. — Gems, jewelry, necklace, and lockets, in Russian styles and of special excellence. 

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GROUP XL 23 

39. V. A. Adler, Moscow, Russia. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — Superior jewelry of many styles, with finely-set gems in good taste ; also golden 
mosaic jewelry. The gold being of varied colors and alloys ingeniously combined in the 
style of damascene work is entirely novel in character, effective in style, and of marked 
excellence and beauty. 

40. William Gibson, Belfast, Ireland. 

JEWELRY, GEMS, AND BOG-OAK ARTICLES. 

Report, — An exhibition of fine jewelry and gems of high character, admirably set in 
special styles and with good taste ; also a large variety of bog-oak articles of superior ex- 
cellence. 

41. James Aitchison, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

SCOTCH PEBBLE JEWELRY. 

Report, — ^An attractive display of Scotch pebble jewelry and ornaments of marked excel- 
lence, especially in Scotch taste. 

42. Jeremiah Goggin, Dublin, Ireland. 

BOG-OAK JEWELRY, WALKING-CANES, AND ORNAMENTS. 

Report, — Manufactures of bog-oak, including jewelry and ornaments of this material, of 
varied designs and superior character. 



43. Bmile Philippe, Paris, France. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — ^Artistic jewelry of very remarkable style and finish, especially necklaces, 
bracelets, earrings, and pins, in Egyptian taste, with ancient Egyptian scarabei. 



44. Brhard ft Sons, S. Gmiind, Germany. 

GALVANOPLASTIC WORK. 

Report, — Oxidized galvanoplastic jewel caskets and art castings of great variety and 
beauty of design and excellent execution. 



45. F. Boucheron, Paris, France. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for his most attractive exhibition of strictly fine jewelry and 
jeweled objects of art of the highest excellence ; his rare gems, fine enamel work in bril- 
liant colors, and exqubite articles of luxury. 



46. GujfOt ft Migneauz, Paris, France. 

JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for an exhibition of small ornaments made with insects and 
* feathers, — an ingenious specialty. 

47. Ernest Fouchard, Paris, France. 

JEWELRY. 

Report. — Commended for the exhibition of ecclesiastical and theatrical ornaments, 
regalia, and imitations of weapons. 

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24 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

48. Widow Audy, Paris, France. 

JEWELRY AND PEARLS. 

Report. — Commended for the exhibition of imitation pearls of great perfection. 



49. Murat, Paris, Prance. 

GOLD-PLATED JEWELRY. 

Report, — Gold-plated necklaces, bracelets, medallions, acnd brooches of excellent design 
ond superior work. 

50. John C. Meyer, New Orleans, La., U. S. 

JEWELRY — GOLD WORK. 

Report, — Gold and silver badges, medals, and jeweled prize decorations for societies, 
clubs, etc.; work of fine character, of original patterns, and in good variety. 



51. A. Fomet, Bourg, Ain, France. 

JEWELRY. 

Report. — Commended for specialty of jewelry and enamel work in Bressan style. 



52. Hamilton ft Hunt, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

ROLLED PLATED CHAINS. 

Report. — Gold-plated chains, necklaces, and bracelets of rolled plate of excellent quality 
and finish. 

S3. Tiffany ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

JEWELRY AND JEWELED WATCHES. 

Report. — Commended for their specimens of jewelry, diamond work, and other set gems 
of dazzling richness and high quality of workmanship; also for watches of attractive 
styles with jeweled, engraved, and enameled decorations of excellence. 



54. Alessandro Castellani, Naples, luly. 

REPRODUCTIONS OF ANTIQUE JEWELRY. 

Report. — A small but choice and very excellent display. He exhibits reproductions of 
antique gold jewelry set with genuine antique intaglios ; also imitations of antique gems. 



55. Bolxani ft Flissl, Vienna, Austria. 

JEWELRY OF GOLD. 

Report. — Gold chain work of good finish and great variety of patterns. 



56. Derby Silver Co., Derby, Conn., U. S. 

PLATED GERMAN-SILVER TABLE WARE. 

Report. — A large variety of patterns of knives, forks, spoons, and other table utensils, 
good in design, and of excellent finish and quality. 



57. H. F. BarrovjTS ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

GOLD-PLATED GOODS. 

Report. — Gold-plated articles of ornament, chains, necklaces, and lockets, of good 
general character in style and of excellent finish. 

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GROUP XI. 25 

58. Holmes, Booth, & Haydens, Watcrbury, Conn., U. S. 

SILVER-PLATED GOODS. 

Report. — ^A good display of electro-plated on nickel silver knives, forks, spoons, and 
other flat table ware, of varied patterns and general excellence. 



59. Meriden Silver Plate Co., Meriden, Conn., U. S. 

PI-ATED ON BRITANNIA METAL GOODS. 

Report. — Specimens of hollow ware with combinations of cut glass, of good quality and 
general excellence. 

60. Meriden Britannia Co., West Meriden, Conn., U. S. 

SILVER-PLATED GOODS. 

Report. — Commended for a large variety of silver-plated white metal hollow ware of 
excellent quality and finish and of tasteful designs ; particularly articles made under Prof. 
Silliman's patented process for hardening. Their silver-plated forks, spoons, and knives 
are of superior quality and well finished. Their XII. plating or extra plating on exposed 
parts deserves commendation. Their nickel-plated hollow ware is of very fine finish. 



61. A. Ritter & Co., Esslingen, Germany. 

SILVER-PLATED WARE. 

Report. — Commended for their collection of electro-plated silver and German-silver ware 
of fair quality. 

62. Manning, Bowman, & Co., West Meriden, Conn., U. S. 

NICKEL- PLATED WARE. 

Report. — Nickel-plating for general table ware. They exhibit hollow ware of both soft 
and hard metal plated ^%'ith nickel, well adapted for ship, hotel, and family use. The nickel 
surface is harder than silver plating, of lower cost, and not so liable to tarnish. 



63. Adams & Shaw Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

SILVER PLATE. 

Report. — Very superior silver-soldered silver-plated dining and tea-table ware, of genuine 
excellence and fine finish. 

64. Reed & Barton, Taunton, Mass., U. S. 

SILVER-PLATED WARE. 

Report. — Commended for their silver-plated tea and dinner sets, and table ware of 
superior finish and quality. An ornamental centre-piece, " Progress,'* deserves commen- 
dation. Their knives, forks, and spoons, plated on hard white metal, are of an honest and 
durable character ; the variety of patterns large ; their die work well defined, and their 
designs tasteful. 

65. Nicola Rolaksi, Trebizond, Turkey. 

SNUFF-BOX AND BELT OF GOLD. 

Report. — Commended for general excellence of workmanship. He exhibits a snuff-box, 
and a belt of gold, woven very delicately with filigree clasps. 

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26 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

66. Noury Edin Ousta, Monastir, Turkey. 

INCRUSTATION WORK. 

Report. — Commended for excellence of work. He exhibits articles of steel incrusted 
and damascened with gold. The work is ingenious. 



67. Francisco Aug. Vaz Cerquinho, Oporto, Portugal. 

SILVER AND GOLD FILIGREE WORK. 

Report. — Commended for variety of patterns, particularly in his silver filigree sets, brace- 
lets, and hair ornaments. 

68. LobSo & Ferreira, Oporto, Portugal. 

SILVER AND GOLD FILIGREE WORK. 

Report. — Commended for silver filigree card baskets and cases, jewel caskets, and bouquet 
holders of tasteful designs and neat execution. 



69. P. A. Lie, Christiania, Norway. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report. — Commended for excellence of workmanship. He exhibits a tankard and 
drinking-horn in silver and gold of fine and skillful workmanship ; also patera and articles 
of personal wear in silver filigree, Norwegian style. 



70. J. Tostrup, Christiania, Norway. 

SILVER WORK. 

Report. — Conmiended for excellence of taste, design, and workmanship. He exhibits 
work of great neatness and precision ; also a centre-piece and patera of exquisite workman- 
ship and taste ; candlesticks, and a variety of personal ornaments in filigree. 



71. P. Zuloaga, Madrid, Spain. 

INLAID WORK AND INCRUSTATIONS. 

Report. — Commended for skillful workmanship and great beauty of design and finish. 
He exhibits articles in iron and steel, chiseled and inlaid with gold and silver; a specialty 
of rich incrustations of metals, portfolios, vases, shields, plateaux, and sword-hilts. 



72. Gold Working Company, Oporto, Portugal. 

SILVER TEA SERVICES. 

Report. — Commended for fine execution of designs, good chasing and engraving. 



73. Lui2 Pinto Moutinho, Lisbon, Portugal. 

SILVER CANDELABRAS AND INKSTANDS. 

Report. — Commended for good workmanship generally. 



74. Emilio Forte, Genoa, Italy. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report, — Commended for tasteful workmanship. He exhibits fans, baskets, plateaux, 
bracelets, and other articles in silver filigree, which are creditable. 

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GROUP XL 27 

75. C. Salvo & Sons, Genoa, luly. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report. — Commended for good workmanship at moderate prices. They exhibit silver 
and gold filigree ornaments. 

76. Elking^on & Co., Birmingham, England. 

ARTISTIC METAL WORK. 

Report, — Commended for their remarkable exhibit of artistic productions and effects with 
metals combined in incrustations and damascene work, a renewal of the higher qualities 
of an art of the Middle Ages, with gold and silver decorations upon the darker background 
of iron and steel; and for repouss6 work, the famous Helicon Vase being a noble example 
of these combinations, and an unmatched and beautiful illustration of human genius and 
painstaking art work. 

77. Elkington & Co., Birmingham, England. 

ENAMELED WORK. 

Report, — Commended for their admirable specimens of enameled objects of art, techni- 
cally known as cloisonni and champ levi work. They show vases, plates, and other articles 
in this decorative style, which, for superiority of color and finish, graceful detail of orna- 
mentation, and distinctiveness of outline, place these productions among the really artistic 
treasures of this Exhibition. 

78. Elkington & Co., Birmingham, England. 

ELECTRO-PLATED WARE. 

Report, — Commended for rare conceptions and designs m examples of decorative table 
plate, dinner and dessert services complete, and many other objects for domestic use, in 
electro-silver and electro-gold and oxidized silver ornamentation, with also electrotype repro- 
ductions of masterpieces shown at former Exhibitions. Commended for great mechanical 
excellence, original and ingenious devices, fine modeling and artistic work in the precious 
metals, of the most distinguished character. 



79. Valentine Sazikof, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report, — ^An exhibition of much novelty and fascination. Commended for chased silver 
tea ware, tankards, and vases wrought in repouss6, various ornamental pieces, niello 
work, combinations of brilliant colored enamel and gilt work, and representations of silk 
and other fabrics in gold an<i silver designs of genuine artistic character. 



80. John Khlebnikof, Moscow, Russia. 

SILVER WARE. , 

Report. — ^The silver articles and enameled ware in this collection are interesting speci- 
mens of the silversmith's art. 



81. P. Ovtchinnikof, Moscow, Russia. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report. — Richly chased silver work and decorated silver utensils of novel character and 
excellence, chiseled and engraved work that is highly meritorious, fine enameling on silver 
in Byzantine character, and silver-gilt goods in Russian style, a resemblance of damask 
napkins in white silver with colored enameled borders, resting upon gold and silver baskets; 
very ingenious conceits. The productions of this exhibitor are worthy of distinguished 
mention. 

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28 REPORTS ON AWARDS. 

82. Andrew Postnikof, Moscow, Russia. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report. — Silver ware, ingenious representation of damask, varied and fine metal work, 
and metal-mounted albums in old Russian style. 



83. N. Ivanof, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

SILVER WARE AND GILDED UTENSILS. 

Report. — Silver ware, tankards, and gilded utensils, well-modeled groups of marked ex- 
cellence, with true feeling and expression. 



84. A. Semenof, Moscow, Russia. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report. — He exhibits tea and other utensils of silver with niello work and rich gildings, 
illustrating patient industry and ingenious labor. 



85. Henry Steiner, Adelaide, South Australia. 

SILVER PRODUCTS. 

Report. — An exhibition of native silver work, vases, and inkstands, ingeniously combined 
in mounting the eggs of the emu. 

86. J. M. Wendt, Adelaide, South Australia. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report. — Commended for fancifully combining the egg of the emu in ornamental silver 
work as an inkstand. 

87. Simons, Opdyke, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GOLD AND SILVER WORK. 

Report. — Gold mounted walking-canes and batons; also gold, gold-enameled, and 
silver thimbles. An excellent exhibition of varied designs and superior work. 



88. Joseph Zasche, Vienna, Austria. 

PORCELAIN AND ENAMEL PAINTING. 

Report. — Porcelain and enamel painting and personal ornaments of truly artistic character 
and superior execution. 

89. Tiffany & Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

SILVER WORK. 

Report. — Q)mmended for their display of silver table and tea services and general house- 
hold silver ware in great completeness. Their exhibit comprises also vases, notably the 
Bryant vase, yacht prizes, race cups, including that of the American Jockey Club, and many 
ornamental and presentation pieces, with other varied artistic productions in the predoos 
metals, of distinguished character. They also exhibit a number of jewel-hilted and richly 
decorated presentation swords, made to order, and of such merit that the judges are at a 
loss to class them as among the productions of the silver worker or of the jewelers* art. 
Conmiended for the genuine excellence of this extensive exhibit, variety of treatment, with 
novel niello work and inlaid decorations, chased designs, and repouss6 execution, originality, 
taste, and artistic expression. 

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GROUP XL 



29 



90. P. L. Krider, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

SOLID SILVER TABLE AND HOLLOW WARE. 

Report. — Solid silver table and hollow ware of good general character, with engraved 
ornamentation of excellence. 



91. Qorham Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report, — They exhibit sterling silver dinner services, tea ware, epergnes, race cups, prize 
and presentation pieces, knives, forks, spoons, and articles for domestic use, almost infinite 
in variety and purpose ; also silver-soldered electro-plated on German-silver hollow ware 
and flat-rolled table goods. A very complete display of the same general character, and 
of practical quality and artistic excellence. Commended for great diversity of patterns and 
originality of designs ; for repoussi, chased, and decorative work, with superior mechanical 
execution and marked excellence of material, both in solid silver and in plated ware. The 
** Century Vase" in solid silver, the grand central object of their exhibit, is a large and 
attractive group in sterling silver, illustrating the United States in this centennial year. 
It is a meritorious and admirable achievement, original in composition, skillful and elabo- 
rate in character, and of artistic excellence. 



92. V. Christesen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

SILVER WARE AND REPOUSS6. 

Report, — Commended for creditable work and tasteful designs. She exhibits solid silver 
ware repouss^ of excellent design and workmanship; also chased work. The centre* 
piece and tea set of solid silver are meritorious. 



93. Th. OUen, Bergen, Norway. 

A COLLECTION OF SILVER ORNAMENTS. 

Report, — Commended for meritorious excellence of workmanship. 



94. National Museum, Cairo, Egypt. 

GOLD AND SILVER FILIGREE. 

Report. — Commended for tasteful designs and fine workmanship. The National Museum 
of Cairo exhibits an interesting collection of gold and silver filigree, which is stated to be 
the work of the negroes of Nubia. They certainly evince a considerable degree of ad- 
vance in native taste and skill, and deserve encouragement. 



95. Watson & Co., Bombay, India. 

GOLD AND SILVER JEWELRY. 

Report. — A novel exhibition of native jewelry and ornaments in gold and silver filigree 
work; also native repoussi work in gold ornaments and in silver utensils, of marked 
excellence. 



96. Z. Tsuzawa, Kanazawa, Kaga, Japan. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report. — A chased silver box, an exact reproduction of an artistic French model ; inge- 
nious and careful work. 

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30 



REPORTS ON AWARDS, 



97. Lee Ching, Canton, China. 

GOLD FILIGREE WORK. 

Report, — Commended for attractive gold filigree ornaments, combined with carvings of 
the beaks of the cassowary, and ^or ivory work. 



98. Ho-A-Ching, Canton, China. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report, — Commended for his exhibit of chased silver tea ware, tankards, cups, goblets, 
and vases, illustrating ingenious and patient industry. 



99. Wilhelm Binder, S. Gmfind, Germany 

SILVER WARE. 

Report, — Conmiended for creditable execution of cheap silver goods. 



100. Humbert & Heylandt, Berlin, Germany. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report, — Conmiended for faithful copies in silver (galvanoplastic) of the celebrated 
treasures of Hildesheim. 

loi. Koch & Bergfeld, Bremen, Germany. 

SILVER WARE. 

Report, — Commended for excellence of manufacture of silver ware in renaissance. 



102. Soergel & StoUmeyer, S. Gmiind, Germany. 

SILVER THIMBLES. 

Report, — Silver thimbles of moderate price and numerous styles. 



103. Gabler Brothers, Schomdorf, Germany. 

SILVER THIMBLES. 

Report, — Silver thimbles of moderate price and varied patterns. 



104. Hu Kwang Yung, Hang Chow, China. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — Commended for his remarkably conspicuous and interesting collective exhibit 
of cloisonne enameled vases, and many other utensils, and old bronzes, attractive as rare 
specimens of both ancient and modem Chinese art. 



105. Ho Kan Chen, Shanghai, China. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — Commended for his interesting collective exhibition of Chinese antique art 
bronzes of varied age, character, and purpose. 



X06. Yazayemon Yokoyama, Takaoka, Echiu, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Commended for a bronze censer with birds and quaint figures; chiseled work- 
manship of the best character in simple and artistic style. 

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GROUP XI. 31 

107. R. Muroya, Takaoka, Echiu, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Commended for bronze censers ; also candlesticks composed of representations 
of birds, fabulous or otherw^, such as the ibis or stork, stai^ding upon a turtle. It is notice- 
able that these same combinations are also to be foimd among the antique bronzes of Pompeii. 



108. A. U. Shinoyama, Kiyoto, Japan. 

BRONZE ORNAMENTS, INIAID. 

Report, — Commended for sweetmeat boxes and small bronze articles of use, inlaid, and 
fnth different metals in relief; delicate and tasteful work. 



109. Zenbeye Shirasaki, Takaoka, Bchiu, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — ^A bronze censer and candlesticks, very elaborate and exquisite in design, and 
of distinguished excellence. 

1 10. Kanaya Gorosaburo, Kiyoto, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Interesting specimens of tinted bronze tea ware, vases, goblets, and boxes of 
superior excellence. 

111. Yasobye Kawamura, Kiyoto, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — ^Bronze and silver tea and coffee utensik, novel in color from especial alloys, 
and of good workmanship. 

112. Kawara-bayashi Hidekuni, Kiyoto, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Bronze tea ware, fine in shape and tasteful in decoration. 



113. Yeske Shomi, Kiyoto, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Bronze vases, boxes, and trays, with figures in high relief; dexterous and truly 
artistic work. 



1 14. Honma Takusai, Sado Island, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Finely cast bronze statuettes and articles of utility in ingenious and varied 
colors. 



115. Koji Yamakawa, Kanazawa, Kaga, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Interesting specimens of bronze utensils and vases richly inlaid and highly 
decorated in varied colors, some of which are graceful in shape. 

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REPORTS ON AWARDS, 
1 1 6. Chinso Hiraoka, Tokio, Japan. 

BRONZES. 



Report, — Very superior bronze vases chiseled in relief, with gold and silver decorations 
in varied colors. 

117. Soyemon Momose, Tokio, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — A pair of fine bronze vases with well-modeled human figures ; excellent work. 



118. Soshichi Kanamori, Takaoka, Echiu, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Dark bronze vases and jardinieres richly inlaid with silver; elaborate and 
painstaking work, of superb character, and admirable in form. 



119. Saito Zenbeye, Tokio, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — A remarkable bronze vase of varied colors, with figures in relief, and incrssta- 
tions of gold and silver, illustrating native story. 



120. Mizuno Genroku, Kanazawa, Kaga, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Bronze vases, caskets, and utensils of ingenious workmanship and pleasing 
character. 

121. Chiokito Suzuki, Tokio, Japan. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — Bronze censers and vases of unrivaled character. One large vase especially 
remarkable, the decorations of which, illustrating the weak the prey of the strong, with 
the handles composed of groups of birds, half a score or more in number, ingemously 
suspended in divers positions, is admirably modeled, and cast in one piece. 



122. Count Stolberg-Wemigerode's Works, Ilsenburg, Germany. 

REPRODUCTIONS. 

Report. — Excellent iron cast reproductions of ancient repouss^ work* 



123. Conrad Felsing, Berlin, Germany. 

REPRODUCTIONS. 

Report, — Zinc or imitation bronzes of patriotic monuments and persons, at moderate 
prices. 

124. B. Boschetti, Rome, Italy. 

ART BRONZES. 

Report, — A collection of Corinthian bronze statuettes, reproduction of the antiques. 

Commended for manifest artistic excellence and faithful rendering of the spirit of the 

original. 

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GROUP XL 33 

125. Nicholas Stange, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

BRONZE WORK. 

Report. — Commended for his exhibit of nickel-silvered bronze chandelier, candelabra, 
and lamps, of elaborate designs in strictly Russian style, with finely chiseled work, of 
interesting character. 

126. Felix Chopin, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — His bronzes, modeled by Lanc^ri, representing groups of animal life, soldiers, 
peasants, and the like, are of the highest artistic quality. The designs are native and 
original, modeled admirably, and full of character and lifelike expression. 



127. Susse Brothers, Paris, France. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — ^Artistic bronzes, cast upon models of well-known artists, excellent in finish ; 
ornamental clocks of good style ; small tables in onyx and bronze ; lamp-bearers of very 
fine chasing. Upon the whole, a remarkable collection. 



128. Louis Marchand, Paris, France. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — ^A very fine collection of artistic bronzes, containing especially two important 
pieces : a chimney-piece of marble and oxidized bronze, of a pure style and remarkable 
finish, and a round sofa with a jardiniere in the centre, in marble and silvered bronze. 
The design and chasing of the bronze ornaments are remarkable. 



129. Joh. Martin Krug, Hanau, Germany. 

ENAMEL PAINTING AND GOLD JEWELRY. 

Report. — Commended for enamel paintings of superior execution, and for lockets, crosses, 
and pendants of gold. 

130. Sauvage & RUck, Paris, France. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — Real bronzes, copies of old Roman designs and of antique vases. 



131. Henry Perrot, Paris, France. 

BRONZES. 

Report, — ^A collection of small artistic bronzes, very remarkable in design and chasing. 



132. Louis Martin, Paris, France. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — ^Artistic castings of good finish. 



133. Ames Manufacturing Co., Chicopee, Mass., U. S. 

BRONZES. 

Report. — They exhibit a colossal bronze naval group of three figures in action, with a 
mortar; modeled by Larkin G. Mead, cast by this company, and destined for the Lincoln 
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34 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

Monument at Springfield, Illinois. Commended for the high character of this important 
work, true color of the Government standard of bronze metal, and admirable and lifelike 
embodiment of the artist's conceptions. 



134. MitcheU, Vance, ft Co., New York, N. Y., U. S. 

BRONZE AND MARBLE CLOCKS, BRONZE, AND ZINC IMITATIONS OF BRONZE. 

Report. — Marble mantel clocks with mountings of real bronze, and zinc imitations of 
bronze, with figures, vases, and statuettes of the same, the marble work and the metal work 
of which are of general excellence. 



X35. Auguste Lintelo, Brussels, Belgium. 

BLACK MARBLE CLOCKS. 

Report. — Black marble clocks and companion pieces of fine polish, well-engraved orna- 
mentation, and good general style, at moderate cost. 



136. A. H. Rodanet, Paris, France. 

DECORATIVE CLOCKS. 

Report. — Portable clocks of rich and artistic models of various designs. 



137. Bouchet-Qravet, Paris, France. 

ORNAMENTAL CLOCKS. 

Report. — Ornamental clocks and light-bearers, in gilded bronze, of very good execution. 



138. A. Morel, Paris, France. 

DECORATIVE CLOCKS. 

Report. — Commended for good style and finish. 



139. J. B. Qondy ft Co., Pontarlicr, Doubs, France. 

WATCH CASES. 

Report. — Watch cases with portraits of historical characters, of very good execution. 



140. Breguet ft Co., Paris, France. 

WATCHES AND CLOCKS. 

Report. — Watches and clocks with enamel ornaments of excellent design and execution. 



141. C. ft A. Pequignot, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GOLD WATCH CASES. 
Report. — Gold watch cases of superior mechanical execution and artistic ornamentation. 



142. Robbins ft Applcton, New York, N. Y., U. S, 

GOLD AND SILVER WATCH CASES. 

Report. — They exhibit three hundred and fifty gold watch cases, and fifteen hundred 
silver ditto, of all varieties essential to the trade, the weekly product of their establishment 
combined with the Waltham Watch Company. 

Commended for excellence of mechanical work, quality of engraved and enameled deco- 
rations, great variety of patterns and special designs. 

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GROUP XL 35 

X43. Fortenbach & Sons, CarlsUdt, N. J., U. S. 

SILVER WATCH CASES. 

Report, — An exhibit of silver watcb cases of varied styles, made by machinery and die- 
work ; the bizzek without soldering, showing excellent and durable work, with tasteful 
ornamentation. 

144. Edward Favre-du-Bois, Locle, Switzerland. 

ENGRAVING OF WATCH CASES. 

Report, — Well-executed and faithful portraitures of Washington and Lincoln, with other 
decorative work. 

145. Ernest Humbert-Pourtal&s, Locle, Switzerland. 

WATCH CASES. 

Report, — Watch cases of novel design and superior workmanship 



146. J. S. Adams & Co., Providence, R. I., U. S. 

TORTOISE-SHELL GOODS — ^JEWELRY. 

Report, — Commended for great variety of tasteful patterns and excellent finish generally. 



147. William K. Potter, Providence, R. I., U. S. 

TORTOISE-SHELL JEWELRY AND ORNAMENTS. 

Report, — Commended for variety and taste in display, w ith skillful and excellent work. 



148. MUo Hildreth & Co., Northboro', Mass., U. S. 

TORTOISE-SHELL GOODS. 

Report, — Commended for a large variety of patterns and general excellence. 



149. Mariano Labriola, Naples, Italy. 

TORTOISE-SHELL ORNAMENTS. 

Report. — Commended for excellence of workmanship. He exhibits various ornaments 
in tortoise-shell, highly creditable for their taste and delicate execution. 



150. Charles Neher, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

HAIR ORNAMENTS. 

Report. — Hair ornaments and fancy designs of hair-work, of good taste and creditable 
excellence. 

151. C. Cottier & Sons, New York, N. Y., U. S. 

LAPIDARY WORK. 

Report. — An exhibition of lapidary work, or imitations of gems, of fine color, well cut 
and well polished. 

152. Louis A. Ooldschmidt, Dubnik, Hungary, Austria. 

OPALS. 

Report. — ^A collection of fine Hungarian opals, set in the most advantageous and work- 
manlike manner. 

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36 REPORTS ON AWARDS, 

153. Ettore Geraldini, Rome, luly. 

MOSAICS, STONES, AND CAMEOS. 

Report, — Commended for good display of pleasing designs, Byzantine mosaics, stones, 
cameos, gold Etruscan ornaments, and jewelry. 



154. Hoessrich & Woerfel, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

ORNAMENTAL STONEWORK, MALACHITE, AND LAPIS-LAZUU. 

Report. — Commended for their remarkable collection of objects in malachite, lapis- 
lazuli, labradorite, rhodonite, jasper, and other Siberian stones, consisting of decorative 
clocks and vases, small objects of adornment, tables, and lamps. Two very conspicuous 
pieces, a chimney mantel in malachite, and a large table in the same stone. The whole 
exhibition of a very high character. 



155. Kraul & Bier, Hanau and Oberstein, Germany. 

STONES AND CAMEOS. 

Report, — Commended for choice cameos of artistic cutting. 



156. Franz Bergmann, Gabions, Bohemia, Austria. 

IMITATION GEMS. 

Report, — Commended for imitation gems closely approaching genuine stones in color and 
brilliancy. 

157. His Highness the Bey of Tunis, Tunis. 

PERSONAL ORNAMENTS. 

Report, — Commended for an interesting exhibition of native personal ornaments in silver 
and gold. 

158. Collective Exhibition of Parisian Manufacturers, represented by M. Lutton, 

of Paris, France. 

ZINC CASTINGS. 

Report. — A collective exhibition of artistic castings in zinc (imitation bronze) of excep- 
tional merit. 



159. T. Murakami, Kiyoto, Japan. 

LACQUERED WARE, JARS, AND VASES. 

Report. — Commended for novelty in black lacquered ware, as jars, vases, and tea- 
caddies, on a basis of tin, gilded inside, and with bright white deoorations of ingenious 
character upon the black ground. 

160. Shippo Kuwaisha, Nagoya, Owari, Japan. 

ENAMELED METAL. 

Report. — Commended for garden or temple lanterns. Important specimens of cloisonne 
work of a very remarkable character, superb in execution, and good in color. 



161. £. G. Zimmermann, Hanau, Germany. 

GALVANOPLASTIC IMITATION BRONZES AND ART CASTINGS. 

Report. — Commended for artistic metal castings and electro-plated utensils, imitation of 
bronze, oxidized goods, and statuettes. 

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SIGNING JUDGES OF GROUP XI. 



The numbers annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written foy then 
respectively. 

Martin P. Kennard, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 50, 52, 53, 57, 58, 63, 76, 77, 78, 79, 
80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 95, 96, 97, 98, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
no, III, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 124, 125, 126, 133, 134, 13s, 
141, 142, 143, 144, 150, 151, 159, 160. 

Peter Gottesleben, 62, 67, 68, 72, 73, 146, 147. 

G. H. Heap, i, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 54, 65, 66, 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 92, 93, 94, 149, 153. 

roulxeaux dugage, 1 54. 

Julius Diepenbach, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 64, 88, 
99, 100, loi, 102, 103, 122, 123, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 
145, 148, 152, 155, 156, 157, 158, 161. 



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SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP XL 



REPORTS 

OF 

JUDGES ON APPEALS. 



JUDGES. 



John Fritz, Bethlehem, Pa. 
Edward Conley, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Charles Staples, Jr., Portland, Me. 
Ben J. F. Britton, New York City. 
H. H. Smith, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Coleman Sellers, Philadelphia, P^ 
James L. Claghorn, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Henry K. Ouver, Salem, Mass. 
M. WiLKiNS, Hanisburg, Oregon. 
S. F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 



I. Prosper Schryvers, Brussels, Belgium. 
a panel for a door in forged wrought-iron work. 
Report. — Commended for the surpassing skill exhibited by the artisan, and tasteful de- 
sign. This is a grape-vine with its leaves, branches, and fruit fabricated in wrought iron, 
with the hammer, by an exceedingly skillful workman, displaying so much ability that it 
might be classed in the art department. 



2. John Neal, London, England. 
gold jewelry. 
Report, — Commended for the solid, substantial character of the articles exhibited, in the 
originality and chaste elegance of their designs, in the skillful workmanship exhibited in 
the mounting and setting of the gems, general fine finish, and ingenuity in fabrication, 
necklaces being so made that they can be changed into a pair of bracelets and a brooch, 
and vice versa. 

3. Charles Williams, St. Louis, Mo., U. S. 

TENNESSEE, ITAIXAN, AND MISSOURI MARBLE WORK; JEWEL BOX. 

Report, — ^Well-made examples of fine marble work of tasty designs. 



4. Edward Miller & Co., Meriden, Conn., U. S. 

BRONZED ORNAMENTS. 

Report, — Commended for good designs and execution in cheap imitation, bronzed orna- 
ments. 

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GROUP XL 39 

5. H. Muhr's Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. 

GOLD FINGER RINGS, SOLID AND FILLED. 

Report, — Commended for the excellence and low prices of the goods and the taste dis* 
played in their design and finish. This is an exhibit of some four hundred varieties of 
plain gold and other finger rings in amethyst, topaz, garnet, and other stones, cameos and 
intaglios; very commendable. 

6. J. W. Klintbcrg & Co., Wisby, Sweden. 

JEWELRY MADE OF PETRIFACTIONS. 

Report, — Commended for the novel idea of utilizing a material of little value intrinsically, 
but of great beauty when properly prepared, and thus producing cheap jewelry of good 
quality. In this exhibit fossils, such as corals, are ground and polished and mounted in 
gold, or in some cases in silver gilt. 



SIGNING JUDGES OF SUPPLEMENT TO GROUP XI. 



The figures annexed to the names of the Judges indicate the reports written by them 
respectively, 

Charles Staples, Jr., i, 2, 5. 
CoLEBCAN Sellers, 3, 4, 6. 



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GROUP XII. 



LEATHER AND MANUFACTURES OF LEATHER. 



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GROUP XIL 



JUDGES. 

r, H. PiERPOiNT, Fairmount, Marion County, W. Va. 
John Cummings, Boston, Mass. 
Thomas Miles, Philadelphia, Pa. 
J» Parks Postles, Wilmington, Del. 

M. GciCT wa£ temporarily assigned from Group XVII to assist in the examination of 

Icfither. 



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GROUP XII. 



LEATHER AND MANUFACTURES OF LEATHER, INCLUDING 
BOOTS, SHOES, TRUNKS, Etc. 

{For Harness and SaddUry, in part, see Group XVIL) 

Hides and skins, salted or dried. 

Leather of all kinds. f 

Parchment, vellum, etc. 

Boots and shoes. 

Trunks, and traveling equipments, in part ; mail-bags. 

Belting, cords, straps, etc. 

Harness and saddlery. (See Group XVII.) 

Class 532. — Machines for preparing and working leather. 

Class 533. — ^Machines for making boots and shoes. 



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GENERAL REPORT 



OF THE 



JUDGES OF GROUP XII. 



International Exhibition, 1876. 
Prof. F. A. Walker, Chief of Bureau of Awards : 

Sir, — We furnish herewith the general report of the Judges upon 
J^eather and Leather Manufacture. • 

Respectfully yours, 

JOHN CUMMINGS, 
THOMAS MILES, 
J. PARKE POSTLES. 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSrd. 



GROUP XII. 
LEATHER AND MANUFACTURES OF LEATHER 



BY THOMAS MILES. 

The Judges of Group XII., after completing their examination, can 
but express their pleasure at the extensive and varied exhibition, 
embracing every variety from an infant's shoe to a man's cavalry boot. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND COLONIES. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes in the English department was 
small, but of a very superior quality, consisting of hand-stitched 
men's and women's work, of all the finer styles of boots, gaiters, and 
high and low shoes. The boot-legs and uppers were very superior ; 
the stitching was elaborate ; the work sewed by the American Mc- 
Kay sole-sewing machine was of a very heavy and substantial char- 
acter; and the workmanship and finish were excellent They also 
exhibited a lock-stitch wax-thread sole-sewing machine (we should 
say an improvement on the McKay, using its horn) displaying con- 
siderable skill. It is a very heavy and well-built machine, and the 
work sewed on it was of a strong, heavy, and durable quality. 

CANADA. 

An extensive exhibit of men's, women's, misses', and children's 
boots, gaiters, high and low shoes, hand-stitched, McKay machine- 
sewed, heavy-pegged work, etc. Some of the hand-stitched work 
was very fine, of superior finish, and compared favorably with the best 
work exhibited. 

The McKay machine-sewed and heavy-peg work was of a strong, 
substantial character, full in width, and suitable for home trade, but 
in finish and workmanship it does not compare with that of some other 
countries. The only piece of shoe-machinery on exhibition was a 
peg-break. As it was not put in operation we could not judge of its 

merits. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XII, 3 

VICTORIA. 
An exhibit of men's and women's fine hand-stitched boots, gaiters, 
and shoes, very excellent in material and workmanship. For style, 
finish, and proportions they compared favorably with any exhibited. 

FRANCE. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes was quite extensive, principally of 
the finer grades of work for men. All the styles and patterns of fine 
hand-stitched and pump work were represented. 

Of women's goods there was a very elaborate display of silk, satin, 

embroidered and painted, with lace and a variety of trimmings, intended 

for stage and party purposes, etc. ; also some kid and plain work. It 

was a handsome display. 

GERMANY. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes was very small. From Mayence 
came a very superior exhibit of hand-stitched men's gaiters, high 
and low shoes, and McKay (American) machine-sewed shoes, which 
were of good material and firm, solid work; but the finish was not 
fine. Some military and hunting boots were exhibited as novelties. 

AUSTRIA. 

There were only three exhibits of boots and shoes, — a very small 
representation of that branch of industry. From Vienna was an ex- 
hibit of hand-sewed men's and women's toilet slippers, tastefully and 
neatly trimmed; a fair article. 

RUSSIA. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes was small, comprising men's hand- 
sewed riding, hunting, and dress boots and shoes, with fine peg-work ; 
also fishermen's heavy boots, galoches, etc. ; also women's satin, silk, 
and kid gaiters, slippers, etc. ; stage and fancy shoes in a variety of 
styles, displaying taste and excellence of workmanship ; with some 
cheap grades of work. There was a very extensive exhibit of calf- 
skins fair (unblacked), boot and gaiter fronts, crimped and uncrimped ; 
also horse-hide uncut skins. The calf-skins were of very superior 
tannage, very fine texture, and beautiful grain. Horse-hide leather 
was shown very fine, soft, and mellow; also colt-skins, finished and 
dyed for gloves, which were very fine. 

ITALY. 

An extensive exhibit of men's and women's boots and shoes, etc. 
Hand-stitched work in a large variety for men's riding, hunting, and 



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4 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

plain boots, gaiters, high and low shoes, etc. Women's silk, satin, 
and kid button and lace gaiters of generally good material and work- 
manship. Also an exhibit of lasts and forms for shoemakers, boot- 
and shoe-trees, stretchers, etc., the designs and proportions of which 
were very good. 

SPAIN. 

A large exhibit, consisting of men's hand-stitched work, in a 
variety of patterns and styles ; women's pump or thin-sole work, of 
satin, silk, and kid ; and goiters, slippers, etc., with styles to suit the 
Andalusian ladies, the workmanship and material of which were 
generally excellent There was also an extensive exhibit of list and 
woven uppers and hemp-sole shoes, intended for army and peasant 
use, at extremely low prices. 

The women's riding bridles and saddles from Madrid constituted a 
very superior exhibition of taste, skill, and substantial workmanship. 
The Andalusian bridles and saddlery from Malaga were a very 
superior exhibit of this class of work, with elaborate ornamentation 
in embroidering, etc., to suit the taste of Andalusia. 

PORTUGAL. 

An extensive exhibit of men's, women's, and children's boots, shoes, 
and gaiters, hand-stitched and pump boots, shoes, and gaiters, of a 
variety of patterns and styles ; and satin, silk, and kid button and 
lace gaiters, got up for party and dress occasions, of very fine mate- 
rial and excellent workmanship. There was, moreover, a large ex- 
hibit of wood-sole shoes with patent-leather uppers, very handsomely 
stitched ; also some plain goods with beaded list, and carpet shoes at 
low prices. 

LUXEMBURG. 

A small but good exhibit of boots and shoes ; men's hand-stitched 
and screwed, high shoes, army brogans, screwed ; and heavy mining 
shoes, hob-nailed, of prime material and very substantial ; also fine 
hand-made gaiters, etc., for men and women. 

NORWAY. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes was small, but generally of very 
excellent quality, including men's and women's hand-sewed boots, 
gaiters, shoes, etc., of superior workmanship and material, with some 
peg and cheaper grades of work. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XIL 5 

SWEDEN. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes was very excellent, consisting prin- 
cipally of hand-stitched men's boots, gaiters, etc. ; riding, walking, 
cork-soled, patent-leather, tongue boots, of superior workmanship 
and material ; also some superior peg-work, and a small exhibit of 
women's satin, French kid gaiters, etc. 

BELGIUM. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes was extensive, and embraced some 
very superior hand-sewed work for men and women ; also screw and 
cheap grades of work. 

CHINA. 

An illustrated exhibit of the Imperial Government, consisting of 
the shoes peculiar to the country, deposited by the Imperial Maritime 
Customs of Shanghai, Amoy, Canton, Chefoe, Minchang, and Chin- 
king. These were instructive and interesting, as illustrating the tastes 
and customs of the people in this respect in the different parts of the 
Empire. 

BRAZIL. 

A very extensive exhibit of shoes ; McKay machine-sewed, French 
screw-machine, and hand-sewed shoes, from the House of Correction, 
etc., of excellent material, and good, fair, substantial workmanship, 
with lasts or forms for men's, women's, and children's goods; also a 
collective exhibit from Rio de Janeiro and different provinces of the 
Empire, consisting of hides, skins, leather, saddles, etc. ; an instruct- 
ive exhibit, illustrating the different animals of Brazil, and the condi- 
tion of the leather industry, etc., in the different parts of the Empire. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

The exhibit of boots and shoes was quite extensive, comprising 
hand-stitched riding boots and gaiters of good workmanship, with 
excellent taste, style, and material ; together with cheaper grades of 
work, made very substantially ; also a large collective exhibit, made by 
the Government, representing the different provinces of the Republic, 
consisting of boots, leather, dry-salted, and dry-flint hides, goat- and 
sheep-skins, and skins of different animals of the country. 

The exhibit was intended to illustrate the resources of the country 
in hides and skins for export or home consumption, and the progress 
of the leather and shoe industry of the country. 
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6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

CHILI. 

A fair exhibit of fine hand-sewed men's enameled leather riding 
boots, fancy congress gaiters, women's satin gaiters, etc., of excellent 
workmanship and good material, taste, and style. 

VENEZUELA. 

A very handsome exhibit of men's, boys', and women's fine hand- 
sewed and fine copper-nail, bevel-edge boots and gaiters, cloth- 
embroidered slippers, and women's and misses' gaiters and slippers, 
of very superior workmanship and material, and excellent taste and 
style. 

UNITED STATES. 

A very extensive exhibit of men's, women's, boys', youths', misses', 
children's, and infants' kid, goat, serge, silk, satin, etc., of finest hand- 
made and machine-sewed work, in every conceivable design, with 
heavy kip, grain, and wax upper leather boots, brogans, etc., made 
pegged, sewed, screwed, and nailed, suitable for the farmer, miner, 
and laboring classes, with a great variety of lower grades, at very 
reasonable prices, to supply the masses. The shoe-machinery and 
wax-sewing machines were deserving of especial mention, as a very 
extensive exhibit adapted to the manufacture of the shoe. There 
were dies and press for uppers and soles ; wax-thread-sewing machines 
for fitting leather uppers ; the silk- and thread-sewing machines for 
fine-class work, with elaborate, fancy, and embroidered stitching, not 
surpassed by any country in the world; the McKay sole-sewing 
machine, used in most foreign countries, as well as all through the 
United States, and the Goodyear welt- and turn-sewing machine, 
also the Cutlan turn-sewing machine and others, with a variety of 
screw-, nail-, and pegging-machines ; the McKay lasting-machine, for 
placing the upper over last, with tacker to fasten the upper to the 
insole, after adding outsoles ready for sewing; sole-moulding ma- 
chine, for moulding the sole to the bottom of the lasts ; edge-turner, 
edge-setter, heeling-machines, heel-burnishers, sand-paper machines, 
sole-stripping machines, rollers, skiving- and splitting-machines, and 
revolving and beam sole-die machines, with a variety of other ma- 
chines we have not space to enumerate. These machines are mostly 
adapted to both foot- and steam-power ; they displayed considerable 
skill and ingenuity in construction, and the work was done in a 
very efficient, rapid, and masterly manner. While we are not willing 
to accord to all the machines the great economy claimed by exhibitors 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XII, 7 

over hand-labor, we are satisfied that use of many of the machines 
will save labor and that they will do their work in an efficient and work- 
manlike manner. There was also an extensive exhibit of shoe-rasps, 
files, knives, and tools of great variety for the fitter and sole-finisher, 
very skillfully made; also eyelet-setters, button-fasteners, patterns 
of zinc and paper for the uppers and soles of shoes, artistically de- 
signed and correctly graded; shoe-rivets and machines for setting 
the same ; lasts or forms, boot- and shoe-trees, stretchers, in large 
variety and designs; boot- and shoe-crimping machines, doing the 
work very rapidly and efficiently, and a variety of machines and tools 
for the manufacturer not enumerated. 

When we take into consideration the extensive exhibits displayed 
in the Shoe and Leather Building, where not over ten per cent, of 
the tanners and manufacturers were represented, we congratulate the 
Commission on the increase and development of that branch of 
our industry. 

REPORT ON LEATHER, AND MACHINERY USED IN 
ITS MANUFACTURE. 

Nearly every nation in the world was represented in the leather 
department, and the exhibits were most interesting and instructive. 
The various kinds and qualities of leather adapted to the wants of 
peoples separated from each other by climate and race, influenced in 
their designs and tastes by the most widely-different customs and 
habits, were nearly all brought under one roof, and could be easily 
compared. 

A notable feature of this exhibition of the leather products of the 
world was the rare opportunity it afforded to measure the improve- 
ment which modern science has effected in the art of tanning, and 
this improvement was to be remarked in the manufactures of some 
of the new colonies, as well as in those of the older countries. This 
exhibition of the leather of the world will stand alone among Exhi- 
bitions for its completeness, variety, and excellence, and as a point 
from which to mark and note the improvements in inventions of the 
future. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

This exhibit of leather was lamentably small. There was but one 
exhibit of sole leather; and, while this showed a good degree of skill 
in the preparation of the hide, it also showed an imperfect tannage. 
Morocco, in fancy colors, for bookbinding, satchels, pocket-books, 
upholstery, and fancy leather-work, also Russia leather, and sheep-^ 

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8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

skins and skivers, in a great variety of colors and finish, evinced the 
highest skill, especially in the coloring and finishing, and took rank 
with the best goods of this class in the Exhibition. 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

This exhibit, while not as large and varied as those of some of the 
older nations, was very creditable to so new a country. The sole 
leather gave evidence that this department of industry was in the 
hands of men of skill and enterprise. A notable part of the ex- 
hibit was leather made from kangaroo-skins, and the patent and 
enameled leather made from these skins was remarkable for fineness 
and toughness of grain. 

The large production of hides and skins of this country, together 
with its great supply of tanning materials, promises to make this one 
of its most important industries. 

AUSTRALIA. 

A small variety of leather was exhibited. It was very noticeable 
for high skill and workmanship and in the perfection of the manufac- 
ture. It is apparent from this limited exhibit that this country has 
the means of producing leather of a high standard, and that its people 
are able to make this industry most valuable. 

CANADA. 

The exhibit of leather, entirely of hemlock tannage, was not very 
extensive. It showed skill and good workmanship. It comprised 
upper, sole, and harness leather. 

FRANCE. 

A large and varied assortment of leather of all kinds was exhib- 
ited. The sole leather, tanned with oak-bark, showed high skill in 
the preparation of the hide, causing a minimum loss of hide material 
in the process ; it was of superior quality, and indicated the highest 
integrity in the manufacture. The calf-skins were none of them fully 
up to the high standard of French skins. The morocco, comprising 
black and fancy colors, black glace and fancy-colored kid, fully sus- 
tained the high reputation which it has long maintained. It was notice- 
able for its elasticity, pliability, and toughness, and for the delicacy 
of shades, depth, bloom, and permanence of color. 

The glace kid is worthy of special mention for its mellowness, 
toughness, and its exceedingly beautiful and permanent gloss. The 
skins are usually tanned open, with Sicilian sumac. 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XII, 9 

GERMANY. 

A small amount of sole leather, finished and unfinished, which did 
not indicate any noticeable degree of skill in its manufacture, was 
exhibited. The morocco, kid, etc., of black and fancy colors for 
shoes, colors for bookbinding and fancy leather-work, glace kid, and 
white and colored kid-skins for gloves, etc., evinced high skill and 
integrity and the most careful and intelligent attention to the details 
and processes of manufacture, especially in the preparatory processes 
and tanning, and the coloring and finishing of fancy colors for book- 
binding and fancy leather-work. The exhibit of kid-skins for gloves 
was remarkable for fineness of texture, elasticity, etc. 

AUSTRIA. 

This exhibit was quite extensive in variety of production, and 
evinced a good degree of skill and workmanship. Many kinds of 
upper leather were highly creditable to the producers. 

The black and fancy-colored moroccos and white kid-skins, for 
shoes and fancy leather-work, showed high skill in the manufacture. 
The fancy colors were noticeable for the beauty and delicacy of color- 
ing and excellence of finish which have long made Vienna's fancy 
leather goods famous. The sole leather, while it was well prepared, 
was faulty in not being thoroughly tanned. 

SWEDEN. 

A small amount of various kinds of leather was exhibited. The 
upper leather was not equal to the standard of modern workmanship, 
and the sole leather showed only fair skill in the preparation of the 
hides, and was deficient in tannage. 

NORWAY. 

Sole, upper, and harness leather, of oak tannage, was exhibited. 
The sole leather showed good skill and workmanship in its produc- 
tion, while the upper leather, though fairly made, indicated the use of 
inferior materials in the finish. 

ITALY. 
A limited variety of leather was exhibited. There was sole leather, 
notable for its evidence of high skill and workmanship in the manu- 
facture throughout, but most of the exhibit showed that the modern 
means and improvements had not been used in this industry. 

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lO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

BRAZIL. 

This exhibit of leather made from the skins of a great variety of 
animals was notably lacking in the application of modern skill and 
workmanship. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

An extensive variety of upper, sole, and harness leather was ex- 
hibited, of which but a small part had been manufactured by the 
later methods now in use in other countries ; and it was evident that 
the leather would be greatly benefited by the introduction of modern 
skill and workmanship. 

The manner in which the leather was exhibited was such as to 
place it at a further disadvantage. 

SPAIN. 

This exhibit comprised quite an extensive variety of leather, but, 
with few exceptions, it did not show any high degree of skill in its 
production. 

PORTUGAL. 

A variety of calf, kip, and sole leather was exhibited. A portion 
of the calf-skins were of very fine quality, while the rest were lacking 
in modern skill and workmanship. Some of the sole leather was 
notable for high skill in the preparation of the hide and its manufac- 
ture; the rest lacked complete tannage and was deficient in skill in 
the production. 

TURKEY. 

A variety of leather of various kinds and styles was shown. The 
entire exhibit, owing to its exposed condition, had been very much 
injured in appearance, and consequently was placed at a great disad- 
vantage. The morocco and sheep leather appeared to be thoroughly 
tanned, and some of the colors, especially the reds, blues, and yel- 
lows, were very clean, strong, and beautiful. The leather showed, 
however, that this country did not use the modern processes and 
appliances in its manufacture, but .still adhered to its old traditions 
and the processes of former times. 

RUSSIA. 

This exhibit comprised an extensive variety of all kinds of leather, 
in a great variety of styles, for which this country has for a long time 
been noted. The sole leather showed good skill in the preparation 
of the hide, but it generally was deficient in tannage. The principal 

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF GROUP XII. n 

tanning materials used are willow-bark and kermes. The upper 
leather, made from calf-, kip-, and cow-hides, was shown in various 
methods of preparation, and generally evinced high skill and work- 
manship. The carriage leather was also quite superior in its manu- 
facture. The exhibit of light leather consisted of grain-calf for shoes, 
finished in imitation of morocco, and notable for its solidity and 
toughness of grain; and of the famous Russia leather in black and 
fancy colors, — heavy for boots, trunks, portmanteaus, etc., and light 
for fine fancy-work ; and colt-skin glove leather, which was remarkable 
for fineness of grain, texture, elasticity, and toughness, as well as for 
beauty and evenness of colors. The whole exhibit was marked by 
very high skill in its manufacture. 

VENEZUELA. 

A very limited exhibit, showing only a fair amount of skill. The 
sole leather was not completely tanned. 

UNITED STATES. 

This country exhibited all kinds and varieties of leather. The larger 
part of these exhibits was from the States of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania. Maryland, Ohio, and Kentucky were only fairly represented 
in the sole-leather department. The New England States were not 
so well represented as the magnitude of this industry would have 
warranted. Of hemlock sole leather the quality of the production of 
this country was well represented, and it was plainly to be seen that a 
high degree of intelligence had been employed in the manufacture of 
these exhibits. 

The improved methods of preparing the hides make it evident 
that under the modern processes there is much less loss of hide- 
material, much less time consumed, and much less waste of gelatin 
and gluten than under the old methods, thereby producing a more 
compact and durable leather. The exhibits of oak and hemlock sole 
leather showed that the tanners are no longer following the old prac- 
tices of the past, but are bringing to their aid the improvements which 
modern science has demonstrated to be good and useful. Much of 
the oak-tanned sole leather was notable for high skill and work- 
manship. The leather from Ohio and Kentucky was of a high order 
of excellence, thorough tannage being a marked feature in this 
department. 

With the exception of calf-skins the exhibit of upper leather was 
not so full as was desirable or might have been expected ; and, with 
a few exceptions, this leather did not indicate any high degree of 

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12 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876, 

skill or workmanship, and was not a fair standard of the quality of 
the product of the country. There was a large exhibit of calf-skins, 
and several of them showed a thorough knowledge of the art of man- 
ufacture, and were fully equal to any on exhibition. The extensive 
exhibit of harness leather, mostly of oak tannage, was marked by a 
good degree of skill and excellence, and was very creditable to the 
manufacturers. It is apparent that, however much difference of 
opinion may exist as to the comparative merits of oak- or hemlock- 
tanned sole and upper leather, there can be no doubt that the oak 
tannage must claim and secure the preference for superior harness 
leather. 

The exhibit of morocco and light leather was not large, but was 
measurably complete in its representations of the different varieties 
manufactured in this country. The growth of this branch of the 
leather industry has been very marked during the last twenty years, 
both in the amount produced and the skill and excellence of manu- 
facture, which is most apparent in the production of fancy-colored 
morocco and sheep leather for shoes, bookbinding, satchels, fancy 
leather-work, etc. This was illustrated by several complete and very 
beautiful exhibits of this class of goods, of delicate shades and colors, 
of all the different styles of finish, that rival and compete with even 
those countries which have long held pre-eminence in these depart- 
ments of industry. These remarks hold equally true of different 
varieties of black morocco, kid, etc., of which there wer6 sf)ecimens 
of very superior merit. 

The most noticeable point of merit shown in American morocco, 
etc., is the great care taken in the finishing processes, and the excel- 
lence attained in this respect. There is evidently more care bestowed 
upon the final or finishing processes than upon the earlier processes 
of preparing and tanning the skins; from* which fact American mo- 
rocco is noticeable for fineness and solidity of grain, depth and full- 
ness of color, and clearness of gloss. It is mostly tanned with 
American and Sicilian sumac separately, or a mixture of both, and 
usually by sewing the skin in the shape of a bag and filling it with 
the tan liquor, which is pressed rapidly through the pores of the 
skin, thereby effecting the tanning much quicker than when the skins 
are suspended in the liquor, allowing the tannin, the fibrin, and the 
gelatin to combine by natural operation or affinity. Machines for 
sewing these skins are now in almost universal use in this country. 

There was exhibited but little machinery adapted to the manufac- 
ture of leat